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Transition metal complexes: colour. Transition metal complexes Objectives: Describe common shapes of transition metal complexes Explain why transition.

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Presentation on theme: "Transition metal complexes: colour. Transition metal complexes Objectives: Describe common shapes of transition metal complexes Explain why transition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transition metal complexes: colour

2 Transition metal complexes Objectives: Describe common shapes of transition metal complexes Explain why transition metal complexes are coloured Outcomes: Revise understanding of the terms complex and ligand Describe the shape of some specific transition metal complexes Explain why solutions appear coloured Use a visible spectrum to deduce the colour of a complex ion in solution

3 CO-ORDINATION NUMBER & SHAPE the shape of a complex is governed by the number of ligands around the central ion the co-ordination number gives the number of ligands around the central ion a change of ligand can affect the co-ordination number Co-ordination No.ShapeExample(s) 6Octahedral[Cu(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ 4Tetrahedral [CuCl 4 ] 2- Square planarPt(NH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 2Linear[Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] +

4 Predict the shape of the following complexes –[Co(NH 3 ) 5 Cl] 2+ –[Cr(H 2 O) 4 Cl 2 ] + –[FeCl 4 ] -

5 Check your understanding For each of the following complexes, give the charge on the central metal ion and its coordination number and its name –[Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+ –[Cu(NH 3 ) 4 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2+ –CuCl 4 2- –[Fe(CN) 6 ] 4- –K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] –Na 2 CoCl 4 –[Co(NH 3 ) 6 ]Cl 3 –[Cu(CN) 2 ] - What shape is each of the complex ions likely to be? Define each of the following terms, using the complex [Ni(CN) 4 ] 2- to illustrate your answer: –Ligand –Coordination number –Shape

6 Complexes and colour Complex formation is often accompanied by a change in colour. Example: Adding ammonia to aqueous copper (II) sulphate: Light blue to deep blue colour change Q: How does colour arise?

7 Colour A solution appears coloured because certain wavelengths of visible light are absorbed by the solution Absorbed colour λ (nm)Observed colour λ (nm) Red650Green500 Orange600Blue450 Yellow550Dark blue430 Green500Red650 Blue450Yellow600 Violet400Green-yellow560 white light blue and green not absorbed a solution of copper(II)sulphate is blue because red and yellow wavelengths are absorbed

8 COLOURED IONS a solution of copper(II)sulphate is blue because red and yellow wavelengths are absorbed

9 COLOURED IONS a solution of copper(II)sulphate is blue because red and yellow wavelengths are absorbed

10 COLOURED IONS a solution of nickel(II)sulphate is green because violet, blue and red wavelengths are absorbed

11 Visible spectroscopy (Absorption spectroscopy) A spectrophotometer measures the absorption of light at different wavelengths Blank Analyser MSample PM Recorder PM Quartz mirror splits light beam in two Light source M = monochromator: selects wavelength PM = photomultiplier: converts light into electric current Analyser: Compares two electric currents. Any difference is dependent on the absorption of light by the sample Recorder: pen traces absorption spectrum

12 What happens when light is absorbed? Electrons are excited to a higher energy level

13 What happens when light is absorbed? 4s 3 3p 3d 4 4p 4d 4f In an isolated atom or ion, the isolated d orbitals have the same energy IRON 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6 INCREASING ENERGY / DISTANCE FROM NUCLEUS

14 What happens when light is absorbed? 3d ORBITALS There are 5 different orbitals of the d variety z2z2 x 2 -y 2 xyxzyz

15 SPLITTING OF 3d ORBITALS Placing ligands around a central ion causes the energies of the d orbitals to change Some of the d orbitals gain energy and some lose energy In an octahedral complex, two (z 2 and x 2 -y 2 ) go higher and three go lower In a tetrahedral complex, three (xy, xz and yz) go higher and two go lower Degree of splitting depends on theCENTRAL ION and the LIGAND The energy difference between the d orbitals corresponds to the frequency of visible light. The energy difference between the levels affects how much energy is absorbed when an electron is promoted. The amount of energy governs the colour of light absorbed. 3d OCTAHEDRALTETRAHEDRAL

16 Theory ions with a d 10 (full) or d 0 (empty) configuration are colourless (there needs to be at least 1 electron which can be excited AND there needs to be an empty d orbital which can be occupied when the electron is excited) ions with partially filled d-orbitals tend to be coloured it is caused by the ease of transition of electrons between energy levels energy is absorbed when an electron is promoted to a higher level the frequency of light is proportional to the energy difference ions with d 10 (full) Cu +,Ag + Zn 2+ or d 0 (empty) Sc 3+ configuration are colourless e.g. titanium(IV) oxide TiO 2 is white colour depends on... transition element oxidation state ligand coordination number What happens when light is absorbed?

17 Plenary Describe two common shapes of transition metal complexes Explain why solutions are coloured in terms electrons What does the colour of a transition metal complex depend upon?


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