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Land Use.

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Presentation on theme: "Land Use."— Presentation transcript:

1 Land Use

2 Uses of Land Agriculture Housing Recreation Industry Mining
Waste disposal

3 Negative Consequences of Land Use
Deforestation Extensive logging leads to mudslides Changes to landscape are biggest cause of species extinction (decrease in biodiversity) Overuse of farmland leads to soil degradation and water pollution Paving over land reroutes runoff

4 Why do we value land? Food Shelter Natural resources

5 How do we regulate private and public land use?
Laws Regulations

6 Tragedy of the Commons Tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self interest for short term gain

7 Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)
Maximum amount that can be harvested without compromising the future availability Maximum harvest that will be adequately replaced by population growth

8 How do we classify public lands?
International (UN 6 categories of protected public land) National Parks Managed Resource Protected Areas Habitat/Species Management Areas Strict Nature Preserves and Wilderness Areas Protected Landscapes and Seascapes National Monuments

9 In the United States Public land may be owned by federal, state or local governments 42% of the land in the US is publicly held Federal government owns 25% (240 million hectares, 600 million acres) Classifications of Public Lands Rangelands National Forests National Parks National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness Areas

10 How do we manage public lands? (Federal government)
BLM responsible for: 262 million acres of land (1/8 of US) 300 million acres of subsurface mineral resources 400 million acres of wildlife management and preservation most located in western US (including Alaska) common ecosystems: grasslands, forests, high mountains, arctic tundra and deserts resources they maintain: energy, minerals, timber, forage, wild horse, burro, fish, wildlife habitat, wilderness areas, archaeological, paleontological and historical sites

11 National Parks Solutions:
Reduce amount of private land using incentives to current owners Provide education programs to the public Set quotas for attendance (advanced reservations) Adopt a fee system Ban off-road vehicles Ban cars (provide shuttle buses) Provide tax incentives to property owners near national parks Conduct periodic inventories of wildlife and plant life Threatened by: High demand by large numbers of visitors Eroded trails Noise that disrupts wildlife Pollution from cars and visitors Off road vehicles Introduction of invasive species Commercial activities- logging, mining, livestock grazing, urban development

12 Wildlife Refuges 1st Refuge- Pelican Island, off coast of Florida (Teddy Roosevelt) Established to protect wildlife from overhunting (bison, birds- egret and waterfowl) System is made up of 547 refuges (93 million acres) and is managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service

13 Wetlands Areas covered by water and support plants that can grow in water saturated soil Biodiversity is rich because system is highly productive Countries with Wetlands: Canada, Russia, Siberia, Brazil US: 10% of land area has been reduced to 5% (mostly Florida and Louisiana)

14 How are we loosing wetlands?
Conversion of land to agriculture Urbanization Importance: Home to wide variety of species- 1/3 of all endangered species in the US spend part of their life in a wetland Serve as natural water purification system- removes sediments, nutrients and toxins Stabilize shorelines Reduce damage caused by storm surges Reduce risk of flooding Reduce saltwater intrusion

15 Land Use and Federal Agencies
Four agencies manage 95% of all federal lands: Bureau of Land Management (BLM) multiple use- grazing, mining timber harvesting and recreation United States Forest Service (USFS) multiple use- timber harvesting, grazing and recreation National Park Service (NPS) multiple use- recreation and conservation Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) wildlife conservation, hunting and recreation

16 Resource Conservation Ethic- states that people should maximize use based on the greatest good for everyone meaning that areas are preserved and managed for economic, scientific recreational, and aesthetic purposes Multiple-use lands- land that has been classified by the government to be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting and mineral extraction; others are designated as protected lands in order to maintain a watershed, preserve wildlife, fish populations and maintain sites of scenic, scientific and historical value

17 Specific Issues Involved with Management of Public Lands


19 Rangelands Characteristics
dry, open grasslands most common use is cattle grazing semi-arid ecosystems susceptible to fires

20 Purposes of Rangelands
Habitat for a wide array of game and nongame animal species Habitat for a diverse and wide array of native plant species Source of high-quality water, clean air and open spaces Setting for recreational hiking, camping, fishing, hunting and nature experiences Foundation for low-input, fully renewable food production systems for the cattle industry

21 Rangelands in US 40% of Landmass of the United States
Dominant type of land in arid and semiarid regions Western US 80% of land Eastern US % of land

22 Rangelands Environmental Issues
Overgrazing- Occurs when plants are exposed to grazing for too long without sufficient recovery Desertification- conversion of marginal rangeland or cropland to more desert-like land type Caused by: overgrazing, soil erosion, prolonged drought, or climate changes

23 Overgrazing Consequences
Pastures are less productive Soils have less organic matter- less fertile Decrease in soil porosity Infiltration and holding capacity drops Soil compaction increases Desirable plants become stressed Aquatic environments are negatively impacted (eutrophication increases) Predator-prey relationships are affected Increases incidences if disease in native plants Sustainability is threatened

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