Presentation on theme: "Comparing the North and the South Thoughts of War Military Strategy"— Presentation transcript:
1Comparing the North and the South Thoughts of War Military Strategy The Rumblings of WarComparing the North and the SouthThoughts of WarMilitary Strategy
2The Union The North Blue President Abraham Lincoln Capital: Washington, DCCommanders: George McClellan;Ulysses S. GrantGoal: Preserve the Union
3The North Strengths The North outnumbers the South with more men The North has factories that can produce weapons, uniforms and supplies needed for warLincoln is a skilled leader
4The North Strengths The North has double the number of railroad tracks The North has the largest navy and almost all the arsenals are in the NorthThe North is wealthy, larger food supply
5The Confederate States of America (The Confederacy) The SouthGreyPresident: Jefferson DavisCapital: Richmond, VirginiaCommander: Robert E. LeeGoal: Preserve states’ rights
6The South StrengthsMost military officers are well trained and well experienced at warSoutherners are going to fight harder because they well be fighting on Southern soil
7The South StrengthsThe South has cotton which supplies Northern factoriesCotton is also sold to the England and France, the South believes that they will become allies and recognize the South as a nation
8The North and the South Thoughts on War Both believe in what they are fighting for is a noble causeMen from both sides rush to join the army to prove their manhoodWar is romanticized
9The North and the South Both sides feel that they can win the war Actually both sides felt that the war would be over in a couple monthsThe north and south are split on cultural differences and out of loyalty to there regionsSoutherners have been raised in a culture of hunting and survivalNortherners have limited experience in the outdoors in comparison to Southerners
10The Industrial Revolution and Warfare FirearmsRevolvers have five shots or moreRifles can shoot farther and accurately
11The Industrial Revolution and Warfare CannonsHowitzers lob large shells over obstaclesRifled cannons fire great distances and are accurate
12Ironclad gunboatsNaval gunship made with iron sides created by the ConfederatesArmed with numerous cannonsThe Civil War was the first time that submarines were used as American weapons of war. The Union was the first to use a sub.
13The Anaconda Plan The Union devised (General Winfield Scott) devised a three part plan to conquer the South:Blockade Southern ports so the South could not export or import;Control the Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in half;Capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia
14Southern Strategy:Time and Defense Southern forces needed to provide early and spectacular victories to show foreign allies south capable of winningVictories would sap northern ability to continue fight
15Major Battles Ft. Sumter – considered the spark of the Civil War First of Bull Run (July 21, 1861) – considered the 1st “official” battle of the Civil WarShiloh – proved the war would be a long warAntietam – bloodiest single-day of the warGettysburg – the turning point of the warVicksburg – cut the Confederacy in twoAppomattox – site of the surrender of Lee to Grant
16Fort SumterThe Confederacy fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC on April 12-13th, 1861.These were the1st shots fired in thewarIt was considereda Southern victoryLincoln called forvolunteers to fightthe war
17Battle of Bull RunThe Battle of Bull Run was fought on July 21, 1861 in Virginia.Also known as First Manasses because of the town near which it was foughtconfederacy led by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (he stood firm against the Union like a “stone wall”)The South won.Major morale boost for the South
18Shiloh Fought April 7, 1862 in Tennessee (considered a western battle) Significance: It showed the importance of sending out scouts, digging, trenching, and building forts.The battle was considered a draw, but is considered a Confederation loss.
19AntietamThe Battle of Antietam was fought on September 17, 1862 in Antietam, Maryland.It was the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. History. (More than 23,000 men)Northern victoryLincoln fired General George McClellan because he was too cautious.
20GettysburgThe Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1-3, 1863 in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.Considered the key turning point of the war. After this defeat, the South never attempted another Northern invasion.The Gettysburg Address was given at a ceremony by President Lincoln dedicating a cemetery on the sight of the battlefield.
21The Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure.
22We are met here on a great battlefield of that war We are met here on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.But in a larger sense we can not dedicate - we can not consecrate - we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled, here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but can never forget what they did here.
23It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they have, thus far, so nobly carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
24VicksburgThe Battle of Vicksburg was fought on July 4, 1863 in Vicksburg, Mississippi.Union victoryThe Union cut the Confederacy in two as a result of this victory.By the time of the surrender, the residents were reduced to eating dogs, horses, mules, and even rats.
25AppomattoxSouthern General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.
26Political Issues of the war Concerned that Maryland may be swayed by Confederate sympathizers to secede, President Lincoln declared martial law in Maryland and suspended the writ of habeas corpus (the guarantee that a person cannot be imprisoned without being brought before a judge) and strong supporters of the Confederacy were jailed.Lincoln established a draft in the North.Copperheads were Union Democrats who were notable opponents of and criticizers of Lincoln.
27The Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863 This proclamation was issued as a military decree freeing all slaves in rebelling territories. However, no slave was emancipated until two years later when Congress passed the 13th Amendment which abolished slavery throughout the United States.The proclamation encouraged free African Americans to serve in the Union army.
2854th Massachusetts Regiment An all-African American regiment that was formed in MassachusettsThis regiment is famous for its attack on Fort Wagner during the war. The commander Robert Gould Shaw led his men into battle in Charleston harbor.Many were killed, however, the 54th earned respect for its discipline and courage in battle.This battle was the subject of the movie Glory.
29Effects of the WarEstablished the supremacy of federal authority over the states.Eventually, slavery was abolished, through legislation (13th Amendment).No state would ever try to secede from the Union again.
30Civil War: Important Points Causes of the Civil War (the expansion of slavery was a KEY issue)Uncle Tom’s Cabin significanceUnderground RR & Harriet TubmanDred Scott case significanceSignificance of Kansas-Nebraska ActSouthern reaction to Lincoln’s electionSouthern advantages/Northern advantagesRobert’s E. Lee’s choice to lead the SouthAnaconda PlanWhy McClellan was firedSignificance of ALL the battlesGoal of Lincoln in the Civil WarPurpose of the Gettysburg AddressPurpose of the Emancipation ProclamationGeneral William T. ShermanEffects of the Civil War
31Reconstruction of the South Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction was to rebuild the South instead of punishing the South.April 14, 1865 five days after the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, President Lincoln is assassinated at Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth.
32Andrew Johnson and the Radical Republicans With Lincoln’s death, the Presidency went to Andrew JohnsonJohnson was a Southerner and one time slave ownerJohnson pursued his own presidential reconstruction which was very sympathetic to the South.Conflict arose between Johnson and Radical Republicans because Johnson’s plan seemed too lenient and it failed to offer African Americans full citizenship.
3314th Amendment and the Civil Rights Act of 1866 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act in 1866 with the intent of giving citizenship rights to African Americans.Johnson vetoed the Act, but Congress was able to override the veto.Congress feared the courts might strike down the new law as unconstitutional so they passed a new amendment to the Constitution… The 14th Amendment which guaranteed that no person (regardless of race) would be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868.
34Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson tried to fire Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who had been appointed by Lincoln because of his close ties with the Radical Republicans.This was a violation of the Tenure in Office Act which limited the president’s power to hire and fire government officials.Led by Radical Republican Congressman, Thaddeus Stevens, Congress voted to impeach (charged with wrong doing in order to remove from office ) Johnson.On May 16, 1868, the Senate voted to spare Johnson’s presidency by one vote.
35The Freedmen’s Bureau The Thirteenth Amendment freed the slaves. In 1865, Congress created The Freedmen’s Bureau which was the 1st relief agency in the United States.It provided clothing, meals, medical attention, education, and even some land to freed blacks and poorer whites.Lacking support, it disbanded in 1869.
36Sharecroppers and Tenant Farmers African Americans were free but they had no land or money. Many turned to sharecropping in order to survive.Sharecropping was a practice where a family farmed a portion of a landowner’s land in return for housing and a share of the crop.If a sharecropper was fortunate to save enough money, he might try tenant farmingTenant farmers paid rent to farm the land and owned the crops they grew.
37Black Codes and the Ku Klux Klan After Johnson took office and before Congress could enact its own plan for Reconstruction, many Southern states adopted black codes.These were laws meant to keep African Americans subordinate to whites by restricting the rights of freed slaves.Ku Klux Klan- a secretive organization whose members dress in white hooded robes. The Klan used violence, murder, and threats to intimidate blacks and anyone who gave blacks equal rights.
38Bitterness Grows in the South Reconstruction dragged on and many southerners became bitter.Carpetbaggers were northerners who had come to the south to do business. Southerners despised them because they saw them as taking advantage of southern suffering for their own economic gain.Scalawags were southerners, often Republicans, who supported Reconstruction.
39The Grant Administration In 1868, Republican Ulysses S. Grant was elected President.Grant was a poor judge of character and surrounded himself with dishonest men.Whiskey Ring was a scheme by internal revenue collectors and whiskey distillers to cheat the government out of tax money.Grant’s own private secretary was indicted nder the Whiskey Ring.
40The Fifteenth Amendment and Texas v. White Fifteenth Amendment ratified in 1870 guaranteed that no citizen be denied the right to vote “by the United States or any state on the account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”The 15th Amendment greatly impacted the South by giving African Americans the right to vote.Texas v. White – the Supreme Court ruled that the federal government had the authority to oversee the reconstructing of southern state governments.
41Election of 1876 and the End of Reconstruction The election of the presidency was contested because officials disputed the results in some states. Congress appointed an electoral commission what resulted was the Compromise of 1877.Democrats agreed to Hayes being president and the Republicans agreed to end Reconstruction.
42Election of 1876 and the End of Reconstruction cont…. With the end of Reconstruction, southern states began passing Jim Crow Laws that required blacks and whites to use separate public facilities.Many states tried to avoid the Fifteenth Amendment by requiring citizens to pass literacy tests or pay poll taxes in order to vote.So these laws would not hinder poor and illiterate whites, some states instituted the grandfather clauses which exempted citizens from restrictions on voting if they, or their ancestors, had voted in previous elections or served in the confederate military.