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Comparing the North and the South Thoughts of War Military Strategy

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1 Comparing the North and the South Thoughts of War Military Strategy
The Rumblings of War Comparing the North and the South Thoughts of War Military Strategy

2 The Union The North Blue President Abraham Lincoln
Capital: Washington, DC Commanders: George McClellan; Ulysses S. Grant Goal: Preserve the Union

3 The North Strengths The North outnumbers the South with more men
The North has factories that can produce weapons, uniforms and supplies needed for war Lincoln is a skilled leader

4 The North Strengths The North has double the number of railroad tracks
The North has the largest navy and almost all the arsenals are in the North The North is wealthy, larger food supply

5 The Confederate States of America (The Confederacy)
The South Grey President: Jefferson Davis Capital: Richmond, Virginia Commander: Robert E. Lee Goal: Preserve states’ rights

6 The South Strengths Most military officers are well trained and well experienced at war Southerners are going to fight harder because they well be fighting on Southern soil

7 The South Strengths The South has cotton which supplies Northern factories Cotton is also sold to the England and France, the South believes that they will become allies and recognize the South as a nation

8 The North and the South Thoughts on War
Both believe in what they are fighting for is a noble cause Men from both sides rush to join the army to prove their manhood War is romanticized

9 The North and the South Both sides feel that they can win the war
Actually both sides felt that the war would be over in a couple months The north and south are split on cultural differences and out of loyalty to there regions Southerners have been raised in a culture of hunting and survival Northerners have limited experience in the outdoors in comparison to Southerners

10 The Industrial Revolution and Warfare
Firearms Revolvers have five shots or more Rifles can shoot farther and accurately

11 The Industrial Revolution and Warfare
Cannons Howitzers lob large shells over obstacles Rifled cannons fire great distances and are accurate

12 Ironclad gunboats Naval gunship made with iron sides created by the Confederates Armed with numerous cannons The Civil War was the first time that submarines were used as American weapons of war. The Union was the first to use a sub.

13 The Anaconda Plan The Union devised (General Winfield Scott) devised a three part plan to conquer the South: Blockade Southern ports so the South could not export or import; Control the Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in half; Capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia

14 Southern Strategy:Time and Defense
Southern forces needed to provide early and spectacular victories to show foreign allies south capable of winning Victories would sap northern ability to continue fight

15 Major Battles Ft. Sumter – considered the spark of the Civil War
First of Bull Run (July 21, 1861) – considered the 1st “official” battle of the Civil War Shiloh – proved the war would be a long war Antietam – bloodiest single-day of the war Gettysburg – the turning point of the war Vicksburg – cut the Confederacy in two Appomattox – site of the surrender of Lee to Grant

16 Fort Sumter The Confederacy fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC on April 12-13th, 1861. These were the 1st shots fired in the war It was considered a Southern victory Lincoln called for volunteers to fight the war

17 Battle of Bull Run The Battle of Bull Run was fought on July 21, 1861 in Virginia. Also known as First Manasses because of the town near which it was fought confederacy led by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (he stood firm against the Union like a “stone wall”) The South won. Major morale boost for the South

18 Shiloh Fought April 7, 1862 in Tennessee (considered a western battle)
Significance: It showed the importance of sending out scouts, digging, trenching, and building forts. The battle was considered a draw, but is considered a Confederation loss.

19 Antietam The Battle of Antietam was fought on September 17, 1862 in Antietam, Maryland. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. History. (More than 23,000 men) Northern victory Lincoln fired General George McClellan because he was too cautious.

20 Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1-3, 1863 in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Considered the key turning point of the war. After this defeat, the South never attempted another Northern invasion. The Gettysburg Address was given at a ceremony by President Lincoln dedicating a cemetery on the sight of the battlefield.

21 The Gettysburg Address
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure.

22 We are met here on a great battlefield of that war
We are met here on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense we can not dedicate - we can not consecrate - we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled, here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but can never forget what they did here.

23 It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they have, thus far, so nobly carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

24 Vicksburg The Battle of Vicksburg was fought on July 4, 1863 in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Union victory The Union cut the Confederacy in two as a result of this victory. By the time of the surrender, the residents were reduced to eating dogs, horses, mules, and even rats.

25 Appomattox Southern General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.

26 Political Issues of the war
Concerned that Maryland may be swayed by Confederate sympathizers to secede, President Lincoln declared martial law in Maryland and suspended the writ of habeas corpus (the guarantee that a person cannot be imprisoned without being brought before a judge) and strong supporters of the Confederacy were jailed. Lincoln established a draft in the North. Copperheads were Union Democrats who were notable opponents of and criticizers of Lincoln.

27 The Emancipation Proclamation
January 1, 1863 This proclamation was issued as a military decree freeing all slaves in rebelling territories. However, no slave was emancipated until two years later when Congress passed the 13th Amendment which abolished slavery throughout the United States. The proclamation encouraged free African Americans to serve in the Union army.

28 54th Massachusetts Regiment
An all-African American regiment that was formed in Massachusetts This regiment is famous for its attack on Fort Wagner during the war. The commander Robert Gould Shaw led his men into battle in Charleston harbor. Many were killed, however, the 54th earned respect for its discipline and courage in battle. This battle was the subject of the movie Glory.

29 Effects of the War Established the supremacy of federal authority over the states. Eventually, slavery was abolished, through legislation (13th Amendment). No state would ever try to secede from the Union again.

30 Civil War: Important Points
Causes of the Civil War (the expansion of slavery was a KEY issue) Uncle Tom’s Cabin significance Underground RR & Harriet Tubman Dred Scott case significance Significance of Kansas-Nebraska Act Southern reaction to Lincoln’s election Southern advantages/Northern advantages Robert’s E. Lee’s choice to lead the South Anaconda Plan Why McClellan was fired Significance of ALL the battles Goal of Lincoln in the Civil War Purpose of the Gettysburg Address Purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation General William T. Sherman Effects of the Civil War

31 Reconstruction of the South
Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction was to rebuild the South instead of punishing the South. April 14, 1865 five days after the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, President Lincoln is assassinated at Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth.

32 Andrew Johnson and the Radical Republicans
With Lincoln’s death, the Presidency went to Andrew Johnson Johnson was a Southerner and one time slave owner Johnson pursued his own presidential reconstruction which was very sympathetic to the South. Conflict arose between Johnson and Radical Republicans because Johnson’s plan seemed too lenient and it failed to offer African Americans full citizenship.

33 14th Amendment and the Civil Rights Act of 1866
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act in 1866 with the intent of giving citizenship rights to African Americans. Johnson vetoed the Act, but Congress was able to override the veto. Congress feared the courts might strike down the new law as unconstitutional so they passed a new amendment to the Constitution… The 14th Amendment which guaranteed that no person (regardless of race) would be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868.

34 Johnson’s Impeachment
Johnson tried to fire Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who had been appointed by Lincoln because of his close ties with the Radical Republicans. This was a violation of the Tenure in Office Act which limited the president’s power to hire and fire government officials. Led by Radical Republican Congressman, Thaddeus Stevens, Congress voted to impeach (charged with wrong doing in order to remove from office ) Johnson. On May 16, 1868, the Senate voted to spare Johnson’s presidency by one vote.

35 The Freedmen’s Bureau The Thirteenth Amendment freed the slaves.
In 1865, Congress created The Freedmen’s Bureau which was the 1st relief agency in the United States. It provided clothing, meals, medical attention, education, and even some land to freed blacks and poorer whites. Lacking support, it disbanded in 1869.

36 Sharecroppers and Tenant Farmers
African Americans were free but they had no land or money. Many turned to sharecropping in order to survive. Sharecropping was a practice where a family farmed a portion of a landowner’s land in return for housing and a share of the crop. If a sharecropper was fortunate to save enough money, he might try tenant farming Tenant farmers paid rent to farm the land and owned the crops they grew.

37 Black Codes and the Ku Klux Klan
After Johnson took office and before Congress could enact its own plan for Reconstruction, many Southern states adopted black codes. These were laws meant to keep African Americans subordinate to whites by restricting the rights of freed slaves. Ku Klux Klan- a secretive organization whose members dress in white hooded robes. The Klan used violence, murder, and threats to intimidate blacks and anyone who gave blacks equal rights.

38 Bitterness Grows in the South
Reconstruction dragged on and many southerners became bitter. Carpetbaggers were northerners who had come to the south to do business. Southerners despised them because they saw them as taking advantage of southern suffering for their own economic gain. Scalawags were southerners, often Republicans, who supported Reconstruction.

39 The Grant Administration
In 1868, Republican Ulysses S. Grant was elected President. Grant was a poor judge of character and surrounded himself with dishonest men. Whiskey Ring was a scheme by internal revenue collectors and whiskey distillers to cheat the government out of tax money. Grant’s own private secretary was indicted nder the Whiskey Ring.

40 The Fifteenth Amendment and Texas v. White
Fifteenth Amendment ratified in 1870 guaranteed that no citizen be denied the right to vote “by the United States or any state on the account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” The 15th Amendment greatly impacted the South by giving African Americans the right to vote. Texas v. White – the Supreme Court ruled that the federal government had the authority to oversee the reconstructing of southern state governments.

41 Election of 1876 and the End of Reconstruction
The election of the presidency was contested because officials disputed the results in some states. Congress appointed an electoral commission what resulted was the Compromise of 1877. Democrats agreed to Hayes being president and the Republicans agreed to end Reconstruction.

42 Election of 1876 and the End of Reconstruction cont….
With the end of Reconstruction, southern states began passing Jim Crow Laws that required blacks and whites to use separate public facilities. Many states tried to avoid the Fifteenth Amendment by requiring citizens to pass literacy tests or pay poll taxes in order to vote. So these laws would not hinder poor and illiterate whites, some states instituted the grandfather clauses which exempted citizens from restrictions on voting if they, or their ancestors, had voted in previous elections or served in the confederate military.

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