3Measuring earthquakes The study of earthquake waves, or seismology dates back almost 2000 years.The first attempts to discover the direction of earthquakes were made by the Chinese.Seismic waves can be detected and recorded by using an instrument called a seismograph.Seismos = shake; graph = write.A seismograph consists of three separate sensing devices.One device records the vertical motion of the ground.The other two record horizontal motion in the east-west and north-south directions.
5Measuring earthquakes Modern seismographs amplify and electronically record ground motion, producing a trace, called a seismogram.Seismos = shake; gram = what is written.
6The trace that records an earthquake from seismic instruments is called a Seismograph.Seismogram.Richtergram.Magnitude.
7What instrument records earthquake waves? SeismogramSeismographRichter scaleBarometer
8Measuring earthquakes Scientists have determined that earthquakes generally produce three major types of seismic waves.Primary Waves (P-Waves).Secondary Waves (S-Waves).Surface Waves.Each type of waves travels at a different speed and causes different movements in the earth’s crust.
9Measuring earthquakes Primary Waves (P-Waves):Move the fastest and are therefore the first to be recorded by a seismograph.Travel 1.7 times faster than S-waves.P-waves moving through the earth can travel through solids and liquids.The more rigid the material, the faster the P-waves travel through it.P-waves are compression waves (push-pull waves), meaning that they cause rock particles to move together and apart along the direction of the waves.
10Measuring earthquakes Secondary Waves (S-Waves):Are the second waves to be detected on a seismograph.Unlike P-waves, S-waves can only travel through solid material.S-waves cannot be detected on the side of the earth that is opposite the earthquake’s epicenter.S-waves are shear waves, meaning that they cause rock particles to move at right angles to the direction in which the waves are traveling.
11Measuring earthquakes When P and S reach the earth’s surface, their energy can be converted into a third type of seismic wave.Surface Waves:Are the slowest-moving waves and therefore are the last to be recorded on the seismograph.Travel at about 90% of the speed of the S-waves.Surface waves, which cause the surface to rise and fall, are particularly destructive when traveling through loose earth.Most destructive wave.
13Measuring earthquakes Travel Time Graph -To determine how far an earthquake is from a given seismograph, scientists plot the difference between arrival times of the two waves. (P & S Waves)Then they consult a standard graph that translates the difference in arrival times into distance from the epicenter.For scientists to locate the epicenter, they need information from at least three seismograph stations at different locations.
15Which seismic waves travel most rapidly? P wavesS wavesSurface wavesTsunamis
16Which one of the following statements is true about P waves? They travel only through solids.They travel faster than S waves.They are the most destructive type of seismic wave.They cannot be recorded on a seismograph.
17Which seismic waves compress and expand in the direction the waves travel? P wavesS wavesSurface wavesTransverse waves
18A seismogram shows that P waves travel At the same speed as surface waves.More slowly than S waves.At the same speed as S waves.Faster than S waves.
19Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of S waves? They travel more slowly than P waves.They temporarily change the volume of material by compression and expansion.They shake particles at right angles to the direction the waves travel.They cannot be transmitted through water or air.
20Overall, which seismic waves are the most destructive? P wavesS wavesCompression wavesSurface waves
21What is the minimum number of seismic stations that is needed to determine the location of an earthquake’s epicenter?2143
22A travel-time graph can be used to find the Focus of an earthquake.Strength of an earthquake.Damage caused by an earthquake.Distance to the epicenter of an earthquake.
23The distance between a seismic station and the earthquake epicenter is determined from the Calculation of the earthquake magnitude.Intensity of the earthquake.Arrival times of P and S waves.Measurement of the amplitude of the surface wave.
24Measuring earthquakes About 95% of the major earthquakes occur in a few narrow zones.Circum-Pacific Belt, Mediterranean-Asian Belt, and the Mid-Ocean Ridges.Most of the earthquakes occur around the outer edge of the Pacific Ocean.
26Measuring earthquakes Historically, scientists have used two different types of measurements to describe the size of an earthquake – intensity and magnitude.Intensity is a measure of the amount of earthquake shaking at a given location based on the amount of damage.Magnitudes are a measure of the size of seismic waves or the amount of energy released at the source of the earthquake.Intensity is not a quantitative measurement because it is based on uncertain personal damage estimates.Magnitude is a quantitative measurement.
27An earthquake’s magnitude is a measure of the Size of seismic waves it produces.Amount of shaking it produces.Number of surface waves it produces.Damage it causes.
28The amount of shaking produced by an earthquake at a given location is called the Intensity.Magnitude.Epicenter.Richter magnitude.
29Measuring earthquakes Seismologists express magnitude using a magnitude scale, such as the Richter Scale or the Moment Magnitude Scale.The Richter Scale is based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave recorded on the seismogram.The Richter scale is a power of 10 scale.Example: The amount of ground shaking for a 5.0 earthquake is 10 times greater than the shaking produced by an earthquake of 4.0 on the Richter scale.The Richter Scale is only useful for small, shallow earthquakes within about 500-kilometers of the epicenter.Most of the earthquake measurements you hear on news reports use the Richter Scale.
30Measuring earthquakes The Moment Magnitude is derived from the amount of displacement that occurs along a fault zone.It is calculated using several factors:Average amount of movement along the fault.The area of the surface break.The strength of the broken rock.Equation form:(surface area of fault) × (average displacement along fault) × (rigidity of rock)Moment magnitude is the most widely used measurement for earthquakes because it is the only magnitude scale that estimates the energy released by earthquakes.
33The scale most widely used by scientists for measuring earthquakes is the Seismic scale.Richter scale.Moment magnitude scale.Epicenter magnitude scale.
34How much of an increase in wave amplitude is seen from an earthquake measuring 5.4 on the Richter scale compared to one measuring 4.4?Two timesTen times20 times100 times
35The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the Duration of an earthquake.Intensity of an earthquake.Arrival times of P waves and S waves.Measurement of the amplitude of the largest seismic waves.