Presentation on theme: "METROPOLITAN TOURISM EXPERIENTIAL DIFFERENTIATION AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION Boualem Kadri Département d’études urbaines et touristiques, École des sciences."— Presentation transcript:
METROPOLITAN TOURISM EXPERIENTIAL DIFFERENTIATION AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION Boualem Kadri Département d’études urbaines et touristiques, École des sciences de la gestion, Université du Québec à Montréal. Montreal and Toronto Tourism Research Partnership “Collaborate to Compete” April 30 – May 1, 2010
- The transformation of cities as part of successive urban revolutions (Ascher, 2001) The first modern period( XV e -XVIII e ) produced the classical city ; the second modern period (XIX e -XX e ) saw the emergence of industrial cities ; the third modern period corresponds to the metropolis (importance of services, individual autonomy, diverse lifestyles, mass consumpton, development of networks ) - The post-modern city: a variety of territories of consumers, of pretenses, and of experiences, A new form of urbanism supported by the contribution of the « theme park » model A potential for social integration, with prominent places of symbolic value (ex : les Halles de Paris), as well as other locations(bar, bistro), that facilitate communication and interaction (Mafessoli, 2005 : 34). From industrial city to metropolis as a tourist destination
The concept of urban and metropolitan tourism 1- A conceptual vagueness (Cazes et Potier, 1996; Page et Hall, 2003): What is urban tourism ? Who is the urban tourist ? 2- A complex reality (Law, 1996): The complexity of urban tourism cannot be reproduced to a definition which falls within the traditional meaning of international tourism (the international tourist, the long stay) 3- A form of tourism defined by the value proposition (positioning of territory, inclusion of non-traditional clients) 4- Difficulty in classifying the elements of metropolitan tourism (conferences, exhibitions, urban attractions, culture, sport and special events, hotels...): The classifcations which have been observed are not capable of taking urban complexity into account, nor can they take into account the dynamic of the communication that takes place between different groups and activities within the context of a postmodern metropolis composed of interconected urban zones
5- The need for a systematic approach: synergy among the different elements that constitute the value proposition associated with urban and metropolitan tourism, along three dimensions : functionality, attractiveness, and recreational value. « The urban or metropolitan tourism product can be viewed as being the product of a system of communication among different elements groups around three principal dimensions: functionality, attractiveness, and recreational value. These dimensions are interdependent and focused on a common objective: to create a global attraction which is a city that is a vibrant organism, and that offers diverse recreational experieinces.» (Pilette et Kadri, 2005: 91) 6- The organization of metropolitan tourism: The evolution of metropolitan tourism shows that the process of developing the tourism industry must take place within the context of a decentralized and dynamic model of governance which encourages communication among the principal social and institutional actors. 7- An « out of the ordinary» experience: The experience of metropolitan tourism is characterized by a diversity of activities, but also by experiential differentiation and by social integration. It is lived in «ordinary» daily time-spaces of a North American metropolis for instance.
The evolution of metropolitan tourism - Th evolution of the concept of metropolitan tourism has taken place around certain changes and practices in tourism, such as : - Augmentation of short stays; - The demarcation of traditional nature-culture models; - The importance of elements of ritual and risk that frame the tourism experience.
Defining metropolitan tourism through the relationship of three elements: The role of ritual and risk as elements of post-modern society, and therefore, of the metropolitan tourism experience; The importance of proximity (geographic and cultural proximity of markets to tourism clientele) The importance of «métropolité » (metropolitan culture): Characterized notably by multiculturalism and ethno-cultural diversity; these are structural components of tourism attractiveness. The experience of metropolitan tourism can be situated within the framework of a model of three levels of tourism (using a spatial scale) : - Tourism at the «extremes » (globally diversified scale) ; - Tourism in «proximity « (continental scale); - Tourism and « récréotourisme» in a metropolitan environment (metropolitan scale).
The Model of Three Levels of Tourism Tourism of extremes Tourism of proximity Tourism of «metropolity»
Metropolitan Tourism and its Experiential Characteristics (B.Kadri, 2009) Tourism of extremes Tourism of proximity Tourism and recreotourism of «metropolity» Space, territorial boundaries «Non ordinary» Technology and High Technology Highly elevated risks Limited mobility Sustained effort Unique experience Innovation and experimentation Multiple territories Metropolitan areas, cities, districts «Non ordinary» of proximity « Ordinary » of metropolis Technology Virtual technology Risks, Unpredictability Risks and unpredictability Moderate mobility Significant mobility and exploration Relaxation, sightseeing Participation and more intense activity Diversification of activity Virtual and socio-cultural reality Traditional practices Innovation and ritualization Social Distinction, Spatial distinction Ritualization of activity and Experiential diversity and cultural resourcing social integration
Conclusion - The problems cities face in connection with tourism pose a challenge to researchers in the field which will oblige them to re-evaluate their conceptual tools. How should we define tourism and the urban tourist ? What problems are associated with «touristification» of the city? What are the key success factors associated with urban tourism, and what are the models that will define individual cities’ performance? - A research project which could help to answer these questions: - «Tourism in cities and urban environments: Semantic and conceptual analysis and modelling of key success factors». - Objectives of the Study : 1)Undertake a semantic analysis of conceptual definitions in the field of urban tourism, 2) Conduct the study as part of a larger international inquiry; 3) Develop a framework for modelling the factors relating to «touristification» of the city.
Bibliographie Ascher, François (2001), Les nouveaux principes de l’urbanisme : la fin des villes n’est pas à l’ordre du jour, La Tour d’Aigues, L’Aube. Cazes, Georges et Françoise Potier (1996), Le tourisme urbain, Paris, Presses universitaires de France, coll. « Que Sais-je ? ». Kadri, Boualem. (2009). «Le tourisme métropolitain : différenciation expérientielle et intégration sociale». Actes du colloque des Rendez-vous Champlain sur le tourisme, 29 mai, 1 er et 2 juin, Montréal et Québec, Téoros et Presses universitaires du Québec. Kadri, Boualem. (2009) «Le tourisme montréalais : un reflet de l’urbanité métropolitaine». In, Montréal aujourd'hui et demain : Politique, enjeux, tourisme, sous la coordination de Pierre Delorme, Montréal : Éditions Liber Page, J. Stephen et C. Michael Hall (2003), Managing Urban Tourism, Harlow (Angl.), Prentice Hall. Mafessoli, Michel (2005), « Pouvoir des hauts lieux », dans Pierre Delorme (dir.), La ville autrement, Québec, Presses de l’Université du Québec, p Law, Christoper Michael (1996), Tourism in Major Cities, London, Routledge.