2 Adventure Travel AdAre you looking for a little adventure in your life? Travel with me to beautiful Colorado. I’m an experienced river rafting and rock climbing guide. I’ve been guiding adventure travelers in this area for 10 years. In fact, last year, I took 30 trips down the Colorado River. Oh, and don’t worry about safety. I’ve also taken a number of first aid and safety courses. No one has ever broken any bones on my trips!
3 Use ago to show when something started. Simple Past 1Use the simple past to talk about things that happened and were completed in the past.I rafted down the Nile River a year ago.I kayaked in the Grand Canyon for two months.raftedpastnowfuturekayakedUse ago to show when something started.He’s not kayaking now.
4 have guided have been rock climbing Perfect Tenses 1Use the present perfect and the present perfect progressive to talk about things that started in the past, but were not completed.I have guided travelers my entire career.I have been rock climbing for 10 years.pastnowfuturehave guided have been rock climbingThese things continue up to the present and may continue into the future.
5 Remember! I’ve been knowing how to rock climb since I was young. Non-action (stative) verbs are not usually used in the progressive.I’ve been knowing how to rock climb since I was young.I’ve known how to rock climb since I was young.
6 Perfect Tenses 2 I have trained for six years to take this trip. We often use the present perfect and the present perfect progressive with for and since. Use for to show how long something has been true and since to show when something started.I have trained for six years to take this trip.for six yearsHe has been guiding trips since 2000.since 2000.pastnowfuturefor six yearshave trainedhas been guidingsince 2000
7 Simple Past 2 We trekked through the Andes Mountains last year. Use the simple past with past time expressions.We trekked through the Andes Mountains last year.last year.He backpacked in Peru two months ago.ago.pastnowfuturetrekkedbackpacked
8 Be Careful!Don’t use specific time expressions with the present perfect except after since.She has taken skydiving lessons last year.last year.She took skydiving lessons last year.last year.She has taken skydiving lessons since 2004.since 2004.
9 have sat/have been sitting Fill in the blanks with the simple past, present perfect, or present perfect progressive forms of the verbs in parentheses.Practice 1Dear Mom and Dad,I (sit) here for hours looking at the beautiful birds in the rain forest. This vacation to Brazil (be) wonderful! I (see) so many amazing animals since I arrived here. Last week, I (hike) through the forest to see the tree monkeys. Our guide on that trip (tell) us some very interesting information. I (learned) so much on this trip!Love, Danielahave sat/have been sittinghas beenhave seenhikedtoldhave learned/ havebeen learning
10 Present Perfect 1 They have canoed down the Amazon River. past future Use the present perfect without time expressions to talk about things that happened at some indefinite time in the past.They have canoed down the Amazon River.time ????pastnowfutureWe don’t know when they canoed down the river, or the time is not important.
11 Present Perfect 2 He has visited Machu Picchu three times. The present perfect without for or since shows that an activity is finished. We often say how many or how many times with this use of the present perfect.He has visited Machu Picchu three times.three times.pastnowfuture
12 Present Perfect Progressive The present perfect progressive shows that an activity is unfinished. We often say how long with the present perfect progressive.They have been climbing for five hours.for five hours.pastnowfuturefor five hourshave been climbingThe activity is not finished. They’re still climbing.
13 Present Perfect & Simple Past Use the present perfect or the simple past with unfinished time periods such as today, this week, this month, and this year. Notice the difference in meaning.She’s traveled to Alaska twice this month.The month isn’t over. She might travel again.this month.The month isn’t over, but she probably won’t travel again this month.She traveled to Alaska twice this month.this month.
14 Practice 2 Example: I have visited Kenya three times this year. Look at the groups of sentences. Discuss the differences in meaning with a partner.Practice 2Example:I have visited Kenya three times this year.I visited Kenya three times this year.have visitedvisiteda. I have taken many first-aid courses.b. I have been taking many first-aid courses.2. a. She rafted down the Nile River last week.b. She has rafted down the Nile River.3. a. We lived in Nepal for two years.b. We have lived in Nepal for two years.c. We have been living in Nepal for two years.The year isn’t over. The use of the present perfect means that she might return again to Kenya.The year isn’t over, but the use of the simple past means that she probably won’t return to Kenya.