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1 Language Typology Anna Siewierska & Dik Bakker Lancaster University Variation in Structure: Form and Meaning.

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1 1 Language Typology Anna Siewierska & Dik Bakker Lancaster University Variation in Structure: Form and Meaning

2 2 Language Typology Typology: what is it? What is language typology about?

3 3 Language Typology Typology: what is it? What is language typology about? 1. Looks at 'all' the languages of the world

4 4 Language Typology Typology: what is it? What is language typology about? 1. Looks at 'all' the languages of the world 2. Describes differences and correspondences between them

5 5 Language Typology Typology: what is it? What is language typology about? 1. Looks at 'all' the languages of the world 2. Describes differences and correspondences between them 3. Systematizes these observations

6 6 Language Typology Typology: what is it? What is language typology about? 1. Looks at 'all' the languages of the world 2. Describes differences and correspondences between them 3. Systematizes these observations 4. Tries to explain them (optional)

7 7 Language Typology Typology: goal What should be the overall impression?

8 8 Language Typology Typology: goal What should be the overall impression? - Languages are (very) different on the outside

9 9 Language Typology Typology: goal What should be the overall impression? - Languages are (very) different on the outside - When you look a bit better, they have a lot in common

10 10 Language Typology Typology: goal What should be the overall impression? - Languages are (very) different on the outside - When you look a bit better, they have a lot in common - They make choices from restricted options for largely the same categories

11 11 Language Typology Typology: goal What should be the overall impression? - Languages are (very) different on the outside - When you look a bit better, they have a lot in common - They make choices from restricted options for largely the same categories → They serve the same purpose: human communication

12 12 Language Typology Typology: goal What should be the overall impression? - Languages are (very) different on the outside - When you look a bit better, they have a lot in common - They make choices from restricted options for largely the same categories → They serve the same purpose: human communication → They should be learned in first 5-7 years

13 13 Language Typology Typology: how? How to proceed?

14 14 Language Typology Typology: how? How to proceed? - Start out from what they already know about language:

15 15 Language Typology Typology: how? How to proceed? - Start out from what they already know about language: - English: spoken vs written; formal vs informal; etc

16 16 Language Typology Typology: how? How to proceed? - Start out from what they already know about language: - English: spoken vs written; formal vs informal; etc - English dialects (local!)

17 17 Language Typology Typology: how? How to proceed? - Start out from what they already know about language: - English: spoken vs written; formal vs informal; etc - English dialects (local!) - Other languages known to the particular group: Welsh, Gaelic, Romany, Urdu, Pashto, French, …

18 18 Language Typology Typology: how? How to proceed? - Start out from what they already know about language: - English: spoken vs written; formal vs informal; etc - English dialects (local!) - Other languages known to the particular group: Welsh, Gaelic, Romany, Urdu, Pashto, French, … - European languages

19 19 Language Typology Typology: how? How to proceed? - Start out from what they already know about language: - English: spoken vs written; formal vs informal; etc - English dialects (local!) - Other languages known to the particular group: Welsh, Gaelic, Romany, Urdu, Pashto, French, … - European languages - Rest of the world

20 20 Language Typology Typology: how? Further requirements:

21 21 Language Typology Typology: how? Further requirements: - No jargon but terms they know

22 22 Language Typology Typology: how? Further requirements: - No jargon but terms they know - Interactive: involve them

23 23 Language Typology Typology: how? Further requirements: - No jargon but terms they know - Interactive: involve them - Clear, simple examples from 'exotic' languages

24 24 Language Typology Typology: how? Further requirements: - No jargon but terms they know - Interactive: involve them - Clear, simple examples from 'exotic' languages - Sound and Pictures

25 25 Language Typology Typology: how? Two forms of implementation of the course:

26 26 Language Typology Typology: how? Two forms of implementation of the course: 1. Comprehensive: series of 1 hour lessons - General introduction - 2 lessons per topic (max = 6): L1: introduction to the topic L2: exercises and discussion - Closing lesson

27 27 Language Typology Typology: how? Two forms of implementation of the course: 1. Comprehensive: series of 1 hour lessons - General introduction - 2 lessons per topic (max = 6): L1: introduction to the topic L2: exercises and discussion - Closing lesson 2. Compact: 2 or 3 x 1 hour

28 28 Language Typology Versions Version 1: Comprehensive

29 29 Language Typology Comprehensive Maximum 15x 1 hour lesson:

30 30 Language Typology Comprehensive Maximum 15x 1 hour lesson: I. What is Typology?

31 31 Language Typology Comprehensive Maximum 15x 1 hour lesson: I. What is Typology? T1. Articles (2 x Intro + exercise + Discussion)

32 32 Language Typology Comprehensive Maximum 15x 1 hour lesson: I. What is Typology? T1. Articles (2 x Intro + exercise + Discussion) T2. Word Order (I + e + D) T3. Negation (I + e + D) T4. Passive (I + e + D) T5. Pronominal subjects (I + e + D) T6. Subject versus Object (I + e + D)

33 33 Language Typology Comprehensive Maximum 15x 1 hour lesson: I. What is Typology? T1. Articles (2 x Intro + exercise + Discussion) T2. Word Order (I + e + D) T3. Negation (I + e + D) T4. Passive (I + e + D) T5. Pronominal subjects (I + e + D) T6. Subject versus Object (I + e + D) C. Concluding lesson

34 34 Language Typology Topics I. INTRODUCTION

35 35 Speaker of a language “Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH”

36 36 Speaker of a language “Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH” Some: English is their only language  mother tongue

37 37 Speaker of a language “Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH” Some: English is their only language  mother tongue ?

38 38 Speaker of a language “Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH” Some: English is their only language  mother tongue Some: English + other language(s):

39 39 Speaker of a language “Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH” Some: English is their only language  mother tongue Some: English + other language(s): > both are mother tongue  multilingual

40 40 Speaker of a language “Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH” Some: English is their only language  mother tongue Some: English + other language(s): > both are mother tongue  multilingual ?

41 41 Speaker of a language “Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH” Some: English is their only language  mother tongue Some: English + other language(s): > both are mother tongue  multilingual > second language

42 42 Speaker of a language “Everyone in ENGLAND speaks ENGLISH”  Either as a first or a second language The same English everywhere in England ?

43 43 English England ENGLISH

44 44 English EnglandLancashire ENGLISHLANCASHIRE DIALECT

45 45 English EnglandLancashireLancaster ENGLISHLANCASHIRELANCASTER DIALECT ACCENT

46 46 Dialects Dialects: English Lancashire:

47 47 Dialects Dialects: English Lancashire: ‘That were me brother what went to America’ ?

48 48 Dialects Dialects: English Lancashire: ‘That were me brother what went to America’ was my who

49 49 Dialects Dialects: English Lancashire: ‘That were me brother what went to America’ was my who ?

50 50 Dialects Dialects: English Lancashire: ‘That were me brother what went to America’ was my who  Standard English

51 51 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects

52 52 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbrian Geordie Tyke

53 53 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbrian Geordie Tyke MIDDLE:Scouse Brummie

54 54 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbrian Geordie Tyke MIDDLE:Scouse Brummie SOUTH:Cockney RP

55 55 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbrian Geordie Tyke MIDDLE:Scouse Brummie SOUTH:Cockney Received Pronunciation ('BBC English')

56 56 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbria Geordie Tyke MIDDLE:Scouse Brummie SOUTH:Cockney Received Pronunciation ('BBC English') STANDARD: Writing Education...

57 57 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbria Geordie Tyke MIDDLE:Scouse Brummie SOUTH:Cockney Received Pronunciation ('BBC English') STANDARD: Different, Not Better

58 58 Western Europe

59 59 English Spanish Portuguese French Dutch Danish Icelandic Italian German Western Europe

60 60 English Spanish Portuguese French Dutch Danish Icelandic Italian German Western Europe

61 61 Other languages In Europe:150 languages How many in the world? ?

62 62 Other languages In Europe:150 languages How many in the world? Currently spoken7000+ languages In Europe around 2% only

63 63

64 64

65 65 Languages Languages: Currently spoken:7,000 Extinct (known):500 ?

66 66 Languages Languages: Currently spoken:7,000 Extinct (known):500 Latin, Etruscan, Hittite, Babylonian, Old Egyptian, …

67 67 Languages Languages: Currently spoken:7,000 Extinct (known):500 Latin, Etruscan, Hittite, Babylonian, Old Egyptian, … 1 more every 2 weeks

68 68 Language Typology Communalities Reasons for languages to have something in common:

69 69 Language Typology Communalities Reasons for languages to have something in common: - Inherited (language families):

70 70 Language Typology Communalities Reasons for languages to have something in common: - Inherited: Germanic: EnglishDutchGerman cowkoeKuh

71 71 Language Typology Communalities Reasons for languages to have something in common: - Inherited: Germanic: EnglishDutchGerman cowkoeKuh Romance:FrenchSpanishItalian vachevacavacca

72 72 Language Typology Communalities Reasons for languages to have something in common: - Inherited - Language contact:

73 73 Language Typology Communalities Reasons for languages to have something in common: - Inherited - Language contact: English:pigsheep porcmutton French:porcmouton

74 74 Language Typology Communalities Reasons for languages to have something in common: - Inherited - Language contact: English:pigsheepclimb porcmuttonascend French:porcmoutonascendre

75 75 Language Typology Communalities Reasons for languages to have something in common: - Inherited - Language contact: English:pigsheepclimb porcmuttonascend French:porcmoutonascendre ?

76 76 Language Typology Communalities Reasons for languages to have something in common: - Inherited - Language contact - Chance:

77 77 Language Typology Communalities Reasons for languages to have something in common: - Inherited - Language contact - Chance: 'Shut the door' ~ 'Je t'adore'

78 78 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different:

79 79 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem

80 80 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem Germanic: EnglishDutchGerman cowkoeKuh

81 81 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem Germanic: EnglishDutchGerman cowkoeKuh PluralcowskoeienKühe

82 82 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem English:We went into an antique-shop

83 83 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem English:We went into an antique-shop Turkish:Bir antikaci-dan içeri girdik

84 84 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem English:We went into an antique-shop Turkish:Bir antikaci-dan içeri girdik An antique-shop into

85 85 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem English:We went into an antique-shop Turkish:Bir antikaci-dan içeri gir An antique-shop into went

86 86 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem English:We went into an antique-shop Turkish:Bir antikaci-dan içeri girdik An antique-shop into went-we

87 87 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem - Language change:

88 88 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem - Language change: Chaucer (1400): But now, sire, lat me se what shal I seyn

89 89 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem - Language change: Chaucer (1400): But now, sire, lat me se what shal I seyn 2000: But now, sir, let me see what I shall be

90 90 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem - Language change: Chaucer (1400): But now, sire, lat me se what shal I seyn 2000: But now, sir, let me see what I shall be

91 91 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem - Language change: Chaucer (1400): But now, sire, lat me se what shal I seyn 2000: But now, sir, let me see what I shall be

92 92 Language Typology Differences Reasons for languages to be different: - Other choice for solution common problem - Language change: Chaucer (1400): But now, sire, lat me se what shal I seyn (Dutch = syn) 2000: But now, sir, let me see what I shall be (Dutch = zyn)

93 93 Language Typology Topics from typology 6 Topics from Typology:

94 94 Language Typology Topics from typology 6 Topics from Typology: - From 'easy' to 'complex'

95 95 Language Typology Topics from typology 6 Topics from Typology: - From 'easy' to 'complex' - Related to each other: e.g. Word Order ~ Passive ~ Subject

96 96 Language Typology Topics from typology 6 Topics from Typology: - From 'easy' to 'complex' - Related to each other: e.g. Word Order ~ Passive ~ Subject - First 'What is this in the English language, and what does it?'

97 97 Language Typology Topics from typology 6 Topics from Typology: - From 'easy' to 'complex' - Related to each other: e.g. Word Order ~ Passive ~ Subject - First 'What is this and what does it?' - Branch out to dialects/languages-in-Britain

98 98 Language Typology Topics from typology 6 Topics from Typology: - From 'easy' to 'complex' - Related to each other: e.g. Word Order ~ Passive ~ Subject - First 'What is this and what does it?’ - Branch out to dialects/languages-in-Britain - Further into Europe

99 99 Language Typology Topics from typology 6 Topics from Typology: - From 'easy' to 'complex' - Related to each other: e.g. Word Order ~ Passive ~ Subject - First 'What is this and what does it?' - Branch out to dialects/languages-in-Britain - Further into Europe - Rest of the world

100 100 Language Typology Topics T1. ARTICLES

101 101 Language Typology Articles Article: what is it in English? 'We went to see the football match' vs 'We went to see a football match'

102 102 Language Typology Articles Article: what is it in English, and what does it? 'We went to see the football match' vs 'We went to see a football match' → Definite: Hearer supposed to know which one → Indefinite: Hearer NOT supposed to know which one

103 103 Language Typology Articles Article: what is it in English, and what does it? 'We went to see the football match' vs 'We went to see a football match' → Definite: Hearer supposed to know which one → Indefinite: Hearer NOT supposed to know which one Definite also in case there is only ONE: The capital of Lancashire is Preston

104 104 Language Typology Articles About the function: → Seems to be important that hearer knows what/which I am talking about, to avoid misunderstandings: 'This is a new player, add her to the story' vs 'I am talking about the one you know, so keep all information about her available'

105 105 Language Typology Articles About the function: → Seems to be important that hearer knows what/which I am talking about, to avoid misunderstandings: 'This is a new player, add her to the story' vs 'I am talking about the one you know, so keep all information about her available' Would all languages have this device? ?

106 106 Language Typology Articles About the form: Variation with a language the [δә] boythe [δI] other one a [ә] / [eī] boyan [әn] other one

107 107 Language Typology Articles Local English dialect: Variation across dialects The same, but possible differences in pronunciation and possibly also use: Cf. Lancashire dialect: Oh yes yes they were a primary school (.) Miss Riley she were er (.) er in the [ δ ] infants you see and then you went up into the [‘] big school

108 108 Language Typology Articles Scots Gaelic: am balach=the boy But: - balach= a boy

109 109 Language Typology Articles Conclusion : Languages have a definite article, form is different per language, and even per dialect. Indefinite article may but need not be present in a langage. Absence then means 'indefinite'.

110 110 Language Typology Articles Conclusion : Languages have a definite article, form is different per language, and even per dialect. Indefinite article may but need not be present in a langage. Absence then means 'indefinite'. But: based on only 2 languages...

111 111 Language Typology Articles English: the boy a boy

112 112 Language Typology Articles English:Dutch: the boyde jongen a boyeen jongen

113 113 Language Typology Articles English:Dutch:German: the boyde jongender Junge a boyeen jongenein Junge

114 114 Language Typology Articles English:Dutch:German: the boyde jongender Junge a boyeen jongenein Junge

115 115 Language Typology Articles English:Dutch:German: the boyde jongender Junge a boyeen jongenein Junge

116 116 Language Typology Articles English:Dutch:German: the boyde jongender Junge a boyeen jongenein Junge Different, but sound more or less the same

117 117 Language Typology Articles English:Dutch:German: the boyde jongender Junge a boyeen jongenein Junge Different, but sound more or less the same

118 118 Language Typology Articles Scots Gaelic: am balach=the boy balach= a boy

119 119 Language Typology Articles Scots Gaelic:Welsh: am balach=the boyy gwlad= the country balach= a boygwledydd = a country

120 120 Language Typology Articles Scots Gaelic:Welsh: am balach=the boyy gwlad= the country balach= a boygwledydd = a country

121 121 Language Typology Articles Scots Gaelic:Welsh: am balach=the boyy gwlad= the country balach= a boygwledydd = a country

122 122 Language Typology Articles Not learned much: coincidence??? NO → family relationship: English, Dutch, German, Danish, Swedish,...: Sisters:GERMANIC languages Welsh, Scots Gaelic, Irish, Breton,...: Sisters:CELTIC languages

123 123 English Welsh Dutch German Western Europe 2009 Gaelic English Danish Breton

124 124 Year 100 BC

125 125 Celtic Year 100 BC

126 126 Celtic Germanic Year 100 BC

127 127 Celtic Germanic Latin Year 100 BC

128 128 Celtic Germanic Latin Year 0

129 129 Celtic Germanic Latin Year 0

130 130 Celtic Germanic Latin Year 400 AD

131 131 Celtic Germanic Latin Year 400 AD

132 132 Celtic Germanic Latin Year 900 AD Scots Gaelic Irish Welsh

133 133 Celtic Germanic Latin Year 900 AD Scots Gaelic Irish Welsh German Dutch English

134 134 Celtic Germanic Romance Year 900 AD Scots Gaelic Irish Welsh German Dutch English Italian Spanish French

135 135 Language Typology Articles Conclusion : Languages have a definite article, form is different per language. Indefinite article may but need not be present in a langage. Absence then means 'indefinite'.

136 136 Language Typology Articles Conclusion : Languages have a definite article, form is different per language. Indefinite article may but need not be present in a langage. Absence then means 'indefinite'. Looking at languages from the same family does not reveal much more about definiteness since languages tend to inherit the same system from their ancestor language. This is still visible after many hundreds of years.

137 137 Language Typology Articles Conclusion : Languages have a definite article, form is different per language. Indefinite article may but need not be present in a langage. Absence then means 'indefinite'. Looking at languages from the same family does not reveal much more about definiteness since languages tend to inherit the same system from their ancestor language BUT: only two families out of many hundreds...

138 138 Language Typology Articles English (GERM):Spanish (ROM):Gaelic (CELT): the boyel jovenam balach a boyun jovenbalach

139 139 Language Typology Articles English (GERM):Spanish (ROM):Gaelic (CELT): the boyel jovenam balach a boyun jovenbalach

140 140 Language Typology Articles English (GERM):Spanish (ROM):Gaelic (CELT): the boyel jovenam balach a boyun jovenbalach

141 141 Language Typology Articles Conclusion : Languages have a definite article, form is different per language. Indefinite article may but need not be present in a langage. Absence then means 'indefinite'. Looking at languages from the same family does not reveal much more about definiteness since languages tend to inherit the same system from their ancestor language BUT: all these languages in close contact (Western Europe)

142 142

143 143 SLAVIC LANGUAGES: Russian Polish Czech Croat...

144 144 Language Typology Articles English:Polish: the boychłopiec a boychłopiec

145 145 Language Typology Articles English:Polish: the boychłopiec a boychłopiec

146 146 Language Typology Articles English:Polish: the boychłopiec a boychłopiec N.B. Polish speakers with English as a second language often 'forget' the article

147 147 Language Typology Articles Conclusion : Languages may or may not have a definite article. If they have a definite article, they may also have an indefinite article. The system seems to be inherited from the ancestor language, because sister languages tend to have the same system.

148 148 Language Typology Articles Language Types (OBSERVED): NO ARTICLES Polish (SLAV) ARTICLES ONLY DEFINITE Welsh (CELT) DEFINITE & INDEFINITE English (GERM) Spanish (ROM)

149 149 Language Typology Articles Language Types (OBSERVED): NO ARTICLESARTICLES ONLY DEFINITEDEFINITE & INDEFINITE Universal Rule (???): Only indefinite article when also definite

150 150 Language Typology Articles Language Types (LOGICAL): NO ARTICLESARTICLES ONLY DEFINITEDEFINITE & INDEFINITEONLY INDEFINITE

151 151 Language Typology Articles Universal Rule (???): Only indefinite article when also definite

152 152 Language Typology Articles Universal Rule (???): Only indefinite article when also definite TEST on more languages: GERM/CELT/ROM/SLAV: related → European Super Family

153 153 Language Typology Articles Universal Rule (???): Only indefinite article when also definite TEST on more languages: GERM/CELT/ROM/SLAV: related → European Super Family Ideally: all languages of the world (7000+): NOT AVAILABLE

154 154 Language Typology Articles Universal Rule (???): Only indefinite article when also definite TEST on more languages: GERM/CELT/ROM/SLAV: related → European Super Family Ideally: all languages of the world (7000+): NOT AVAILABLE Minimally: one language per family (250 – 400)

155 155 No articles (188)44% Definite and Indefinite article (133)30% Only Definite article (76)17% 56% Only Indefinite article (41) 9% WALS N = 438

156 156 Language Typology Articles English:Gaelic:TurkishPolish: the boyan balachoğlanchłopiec a boybalachbir oğlan chłopiec Counter example to (potential) rule

157 157 Language Typology Articles Conclusion : Slightly more than half of the languages have articles. More than half of these have both a definite and an indefinite article Of those that have only one type, twice as many have a definite article than an indefinite one

158 158 Language Typology Articles Language Types (LOGICAL = OBSERVED): NO ARTICLESARTICLES ONLY DEFINITEDEFINITE & INDEFINITEONLY INDEFINITE Right Sample

159 159 Language Typology Articles Polish:English:Gaelic:Turkish chłopiec the boyam balachoğlan chłopiec a boybalachbir oğlan 44%>30%>17%>9% Articles NOT necessary: often clear in context

160 160 Language Typology Articles Polish:English:Gaelic:Turkish chłopiec the boyam balachoğlan chłopiec a boybalachbir oğlan 44%>30%>17%>9% Articles NOT necessary: often clear in context Alternatives: Demonstrative (THIS, THAT) Numeral (ONE) Possessive (MY, HIS) Adjctive (NEW, OTHER, CLOSE, BIG)

161 161 Language Typology Articles Polish:English:Gaelic:Turkish chłopiec the boyam balachoğlan chłopiec a boybalachbir oğlan 44%>30%>17%>9% Articles NOT necessary: often clear in context Alternatives: Demonstrative (THIS, THAT) Numeral (ONE) Historical Source

162 162 Language Typology Articles Polish:English:Gaelic:Turkish chłopiec the boyam balachoğlan chłopiec a boybalachbir oğlan 44%>30%= 2x17%= 2x9% If present, why this distribution?

163 163 Language Typology Articles Polish:English:Gaelic:Turkish chłopiec the boyam balachoğlan chłopiec a boybalachbir oğlan 44%>30%= 2x17%= 2x9% If present, why this distribution? Two different forms clearer contrast than one vs none Most important: difference → one is enough → economical Definite article more often stressed than indefinite

164 164 Language Typology Articles Articles help to identify a referent (known to hearer or not)

165 165 Language Typology Articles Articles help to identify a referent (known to hearer or not) Two main types: languages with (I) and without articles (II) almost equally common ( = not a universal category)

166 166 Language Typology Articles Articles help to identify a referent (known to hearer or not) Two main types: languages with (I) and without articles (II) almost equally common ( = not a universal category) Three subtypes of (I): a. both finite and indefinite article present b. only definite article c. only indefinite article

167 167 Language Typology Topics T2. WORD ORDER

168 168 Language Typology Word Order Possibilities: 1. Alternative orders in the noun phrase, including constraints on combinations (DefN, IndefN, DemN, NumN, AN)

169 169 Language Typology Demonstrative – Noun Order

170 170 Language Typology Numeral – Noun Order

171 171 Language Typology Word Order Possibilities: 1. Alternative orders in the noun phrase, including constraints on combinations (DefN, IndefN, DemN, NumN, AN)

172 172 Language Typology Word Order Possibilities: 1. Alternative orders in the noun phrase, including constraints on combinations (DefN, IndefN, DemN, NumN, AN) 2. Main clause order (S / O / V): - simple definition of subject and object - variation in English & dialects - orders in other languages - basic order vs alternatives plus motivation

173 173 Language Typology Main Clause Order

174 174 Language Typology Topics T3. NEGATION

175 175 Language Typology Topics T4. PASSIVE

176 176 Language Typology Topics T5. PRONOMINAL SUBJECTS

177 177 Language Typology Topics T6. SUBJECTS VS OBJECTS

178 178 Language Typology Topics C. CONCLUDING LESSON

179 179 Language Typology Conclusion Resume over all topics, relating them to each other

180 180 Language Typology Conclusion Resume over all topics, relating them to each other On the basis of the original statements: - Languages are (very) different on the outside - When you look a bit better, they have a lot in common - They make choices from restricted options for largely the same categories

181 181 Language Typology Conclusion Resume over all topics, relating them to each other On the basis of the original statements: - Languages are (very) different on the outside - When you look a bit better, they have a lot in common - They make choices from restricted options for largely the same categories - What would be another interesting topic to look at? ?

182 182 Language Typology Topics Version 2: Compact

183 183 Language Typology Compact One 2 - 3 hour version, possibly 2 - 3 x 1 hour:

184 184 Language Typology Compact One 2 - 3 hour version 1. What is typology?

185 185 Language Typology Compact One 2 - 3 hour version 1. What is typology? 2. Languages of the world: areas and families

186 186 Language Typology Compact One 2 - 3 hour version 1. What is typology? 2. Languages of the world: areas and families 3. One or more (simple) phenomena (Article? Word Order?)

187 187 Language Typology Compact One 2 - 3 hour version 1. What is typology? 2. Languages of the world: areas and families 3. One or more (simple) phenomena (Article? Word Order?) 4. Relations between phenomena (only examples)

188 188 Language Typology Compact One 2 - 3 hour version 1. What is typology? 2. Languages of the world: areas and families 3. One or more (simple) phenomena (Article? Word Order?) 4. Relations between phenomena (only examples) 5. Conclusion

189 189 Language Typology Compact One 2 - 3 hour version 1. What is typology? 2. areas and families 3. One (simple) phenomenon 4. Relations 5. Conclusion Very Compact Version Probably better to make it into “General introduction to Languages of the World”

190 190 Language Typology ?


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