Presentation on theme: "Galatians. External Evidence Traditional view : Paul wrote Galatians 1.Early support by Polycarp, Marcion 2.Even 19th century German critics accept Pauline."— Presentation transcript:
External Evidence Traditional view : Paul wrote Galatians 1.Early support by Polycarp, Marcion 2.Even 19th century German critics accept Pauline authorship. Internal Evidence 1.Galatians explicitly notes Paul as its author (1:1; 5:2) 2.Paul probably departed from his usual practice of dictating his letters to a secretary by penning the epistle himself (6:11) 3.Chapters 1 and 2 are autobiographical with many Pauline themes (grace, law). Galatians: Galatians: Authorship Both the external and the internal evidence point to Paul's authorship
Pauls 1st & 2nd Missionary Journeys
Where were the Galatians? 142 North South
The North Galatian Theory (Later date) The South Galatian Theory (Earlier date) Galatians: Galatians: Date and Recipients The issue of date is closely related to the letters destination. Arguments for both dates and recipients are inconclusive, although the best evidence supports the South Galatian Theory and the earlier date of about fall AD 49. Gallic believers in the territory of Galatia (ethnic Galatia, including the cities of Ancyra, Pessinus, and Tavium) – 2nd missionary journey (Acts 16:6). Greek believers in the Roman province of Galatia (political Galatia, including the cities of Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe) – 1st missionary journey (Acts 13–14).
To the remotest part of the earth … (Acts 1:8) Acts Fall 49 The Council May 57- Aug 59 Trials Spring 68 Expansion of Church Apr 48- Sep 49 1 Galatia Apr 50- Sep 52 2 Aegean Spr 53- May 57 3 Asia Feb 60- Mar 62 1 Rome Aut 67- Spr 68 2 Rome May 57- Aug 59 Damascus Antioch Spr 62- Fall 67 4 Spain Galatians Antioch Fall 49 Paul & His Letters
Galatians T 1. T urning from true gospel H 2. H ypocrisy found in Peter E 3. E xample of Abrahams Faith L 4. L aw versus true liberty A 5. A ttitudes from Spirits leading W 6. W in back erring believers Barry Huddleston, The Acrostic Summarized Bible
SingaporeA Fine Country
The law requires people to take a bath once a year It is illegal to own a dog By law, people must know how to read in order to get married True or False? KentuckyKentucky Reykjavik, Iceland FinlandFinland Are these actual laws somewhere in the world?
The Problem in Galatia Freedom and unity in Christ are central themes of Pauls letter to the Galatians. His letter addresses Christians, whose preoccupation with keeping the Law was splitting their churches along racial lines, separating Jews from Gentiles. The false teachers were teaching that faith alone cannot save, but you also need works of the law.
Who are these false teachers? Paul actually never gives them a name. However, since they emphasize on returning to the Jewish law, they have been given the term Judaizers. Jews (unbelievers) Gentiles (unbelievers) Church (Jew & Gentile believers) Judaizers
The Galatians had an enthusiastic beginning in the gospel which ended due to opposition from Jewish false teachers (Judaizers). They proclaimed another gospel associated with the Jewish Torah and circumcision. Paul wrote the churches immediately to combat this false teaching with a defense of his apostleship (chs. 1–2) and the true gospel of justification by faith alone (chs. 3–4), which produces a unique lifestyle based upon freedom in Christ (chs. 5–6). Occasion 170
Paul versus the Judaizers Judaizers AttackPauls DefenseIssue Chs. 1–2 Paul teaches this doctrine by his own authority! God called me and the 12 apostles affirmed this Biographical Chs. 3–4 This is a new teaching contrary to the OT! Salvation has always been by faith, even in the OT Theological Chs. 5–6 Teaching faith alone will encourage a sinful lifestyle! No, justification by faith naturally leads to godly living Practical Justification by Faith
Key Word Justification (Gospel of Liberty) Key Verse Galatians 2:16 [We Jews] know that a man is not justified by observing the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ. So we, too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by observing the law, because by observing the law no one will be justified.
Summary Statement Paul defends his apostleship and justification by faith so that the Galatians would not seek salvation through adherence to the law. Application Do you add any other requirements for salvation except faith in Christbaptism, tongues, good works? Is your faith based on Christs work or your religiosity?
Issue #1: Legalism Definition: Legalism is attempting to win Gods favor by our own determined efforts of dedication and obedience. In Galatians: Try to win Gods approval by strict adherence to the law. Today: Try to live up to Gods and other peoples expectations of how Christians should beobedience, dedication, fulltime Christian service, academic study, and volunteer work. Lesson: We must obey and serve freely out of love and gratitude to Christ. The Holy Spirit must empower us. Our dedicated service cannot remove sin or obtain saving grace.
Issue #2: Labelism Definition: Labelism is pride of ownership for having the right religion. In Galatians: Take pride in observing the right religious activities (e.g. food laws, circumcision). Today: Take pride in having the right doctrine, being in the right church, practicing the right ministry strategies. Lesson: We are who we are by Gods grace, and not because of ourselves or what we have done.
Formation of Thessalonian Church Paul went to Thessalonica with Timothy and Silas but left after a riot (Acts 17:1-10) 3-Week Stay FOR: Paul preached for 3 Sabbaths in the synagogue (Acts 17:2). AGAINST: Lukes writing of Acts accurate and reliable but selected only some materials according to his focus. 3-Month Stay (Nov 50-Jan 51) FOR: Enough time for Paul to establish a church (1 Thess 1:1) with its own leaders (1 Thess 5:12). FOR: Possible to set up a church in such a short time but would lack sufficient teaching time that gave rise to tension with leaders (1 Thess 5:12). Length of Pauls Stay
Authorship The epistle claims to have been written by Paul (1:1) Attack 1: Lack of Pauline ideas and OT citations. Response: Church was mostly Gentile, so OT would not be cited so frequently. Attack 2: Reference to the fall of Jerusalem (2:16b) places the epistle after Pauls death. Response: The supposed reference to the fall of Jerusalem is not obvious. Attack 3: A large amount of non-Pauline vocabulary. Response: One of Pauls earliest letters, and not primarily a doctrinal treatise, hence does not reflect the same theological vocabulary as later letters. Nearly all scholars believe that Paul penned this epistle.
To the remotest part of the earth … (Acts 1:8) Acts Fall 49 The Council May 57- Aug 59 Trials Spring 68 Expansion of Church Thess Corinth Summer 51 Apr 48- Sep 49 1 Galatia Apr 50- Sep 52 2 Aegean Spr 53- May 57 3 Asia Feb 60- Mar 62 1 Rome Aut 67- Spr 68 2 Rome May 57- Aug 59 Damascus Antioch Spr 62- Fall 67 4 Spain Galatians Antioch Fall 49 Paul & His Letters
Occasion Paul went to Thessalonica with Timothy and Silas but left after a riot for Berea (Acts 17:1-10) Jews from Thessalonica followed them and incited the crowd against them. Paul left Silas and Timothy with the church and instructed them to meet him at Athens (Acts 17: 11-16) After they met in Athens, Paul sent Timothy back to Thessalonica (1 Thess 3:1-2) Later, Timothy joined Paul at Corinth and brought him news about the church in Thessalonica. Paul wrote to the church to encourage the believers, as well as to address some pertinent issues
Pauls Purpose in Writing IssuePauls response Outline of 1 Thessalonians The people are growing wellEncourage Commendation (1:1-10) You are great! Some accuse Paul of greedDefend Conduct (2:1-16) Im innocent The people face persecutionExhort Concern (2:173:13) I care for you Love (4:1-12) Please God The people question about believers who have died Answer Eschatology (4:135:11) Be comforted but watchful The church is growingInstruct Church Life (5:12-28) Live holy
Preparing for the Rapture the Rapture Although Paul appeared to be writing about and addressing 5 different issues in his letter, there is one topic which he repeatedly mentions: the Rapture. Each of the five chapters closes with an exhortation regarding the Lords soon coming: 1:10 1:10…and to wait for his Son from heaven… 2: :19-20…in the presence of our Lord Jesus when he comes… 3:13 3:13…when our Lord Jesus comes with all his holy ones. 4: :13-18…we who are still alive and are left will be caught up with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air… 5: :23-24…at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Key Word Rapture (Triumph before Return) Key Verse 1 Thess 3:12-13 And may the Lord cause you to increase and abound in love for one another, and for all people, just as we also do for you; so that He may establish your hearts without blame in holiness before our God and Father at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all His saints.
Summary Statement Paul prepares the Thessalonians for the Rapture by defending his motives for starting the church (to silence accusations of greed) and instructing the believers (to strengthen the churchs doctrinal and relational foundation so it can continue to grow). Application Are you ready for the Lords return if He comes today?
Authorship Nearly all scholars believe that Paul penned this epistle. External Evidence Support for Pauline authorship has been upheld very probably since Polycarp and possibly earlier with Ignatius. To this is added the Marcion Canon and Muratonian Canon, as well as the testimony of the early Church Fathers and ancient versions. Internal Evidence The letter supports Pauline authorship: 1. Claims to be written by Paul (1:1; 3:17). 2. Premature ending (3:1-5) suits Paul more than a conscious imitator. 3. Similarities to 1 Thessalonians, cited by some critics as evidence against Pauline authorship, actually support it. 4. Supposed discrepancies between the eschatologies of 2 Thess 2:1-12 and 1 Thess 4:135:11 have also been levied by critics, but these differences refer to the two different phases of the parousia.
Date Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians in the summer AD 51 (just a few months after his first letter). The following supports this claim: 1.Paul, Silas, and Timothy (1:1) are not known to have been together again after their stay in Corinth. 2. The same general conditions exist in the church as discussed in 1 Thessalonians ( cf. 1 Thess. 4:11-12; 2 Thess. 3:6-15). 3.These men apparently stayed in Corinth another year. The second letter precedes Paul's visit to them five years later. It is fairly certain that 2 Thessalonians did not follow the first letter by more than 12 months
To the remotest part of the earth … (Acts 1:8) Acts Fall 49 The Council May 57- Aug 59 Trials Spring 68 Expansion of Church Thess Corinth Summer 51 2 Thess Corinth Summer 51 Apr 48- Sep 49 1 Galatia Apr 50- Sep 52 2 Aegean Spr 53- May 57 3 Asia Feb 60- Mar 62 1 Rome Aut 67- Spr 68 2 Rome May 57- Aug 59 Damascus Antioch Spr 62- Fall 67 4 Spain Galatians Antioch Fall 49 Paul & His Letters
Occasion Within only a few months after writing 1 Thessalonians, Paul received news of problems unresolved by his first letter The persecution of the believers had increased (1:3- 10), false teachers had taught that the day of the Lord had already come (2:1-12) Some of the Thessalonian Christians had become idle as they simply waited for the rapture (3:6-15) Therefore Paul decided to write the church again to help the believers handle these difficulties
Pauls Purpose in Writing Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians to help the believers handle three difficulties facing the church: 1.Increased persecution (1:3-10) 2.False teaching that the day of the Lord had already come (2:1-12) 3.Idleness among some of the Thessalonian Christians who were waiting for the rapture (3:6-15).
Christian Eschatological View begunconsummated THE CROSS & RESURRECTION THE SECOND COMING ALREADY NOT YET THE AGE TO COME THIS AGE (passing away) (never ending)
Christian Eschatological View AlreadyNot Yet RighteousnessComplete righteousness Peace Perfect peace HealthNo sickness or death Holy SpiritFullness of the Holy Spirit
Key Word Tribulation (Tribulation before Return) Key Verse 2 Thess 2:2-3 Do not become easily unsettled or alarmed by some prophecy, report or letter supposed to have come from us, saying that the day of the Lord has already come. Dont let anyone deceive you in any way, for that day will not come until the rebellion occurs and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the man doomed to destruction
Summary Statement Paul corrects the persecuted Thessalonians' misconception that the day of the Lord (Tribulation) had already begun to exhort perseverance among the disheartened and industry among the idle to help them stand firm in correct doctrine despite false teachers. Application Do you study eschatology, believing that it affects your behavior as a Christian?