2 Galatians: Authorship External EvidenceTraditional view :Paul wrote Galatians Early support by Polycarp, Marcion 2. Even 19th century German critics accept Pauline authorship.Internal EvidenceGalatians explicitly notes Paul as its author (1:1; 5:2)Paul probably departed from his usual practice of dictating his letters to a secretary by penning the epistle himself (6:11)Chapters 1 and 2 are autobiographical with many Pauline themes (grace, law).Both the external and the internal evidence point to Paul's authorship
5 Galatians: Date and Recipients The issue of date is closely related to the letter’s destination.The North Galatian Theory(Later date)The South Galatian Theory(Earlier date)Gallic believers in the territory of Galatia (ethnic Galatia, including the cities of Ancyra, Pessinus, and Tavium) – 2nd missionary journey (Acts 16:6).Greek believers in the Roman province of Galatia (political Galatia, including the cities of Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe) – 1st missionary journey (Acts 13–14).Arguments for both dates and recipients are inconclusive, although the best evidence supports the South Galatian Theory and the earlier date of about fall AD 49.
6 “To the remotest part of the earth …” (Acts 1:8) Paul & His Letters“To the remotest part of the earth …” (Acts 1:8)ActsApr 48- Sep 491 GalatiaApr 50- Sep 522AegeanSpr 53- May 573 AsiaFeb 60- Mar 621 RomeSpr 62- Fall 674 SpainAut 67- Spr 682 RomeMay 57- Aug 59Damascus AntiochMay 57- Aug 59TrialsFall 49TheCouncilSpring 68Expansion of ChurchGalatiansAntiochFall 49
7 Galatians 1. Turning from true gospel 2. Hypocrisy found in Peter 3. Example of Abraham’s Faith4. Law versus true liberty5. Attitudes from Spirit’s leading6. Win back erring believersBarry Huddleston, The Acrostic Summarized Bible
9 Are these actual laws somewhere in the world? True or False?Are these actual laws somewhere in the world?KentuckyThe law requires people to take a bath once a yearIt is illegal to own a dogBy law, people must know how to read in order to get marriedReykjavik, IcelandFinland
10 The Problem in GalatiaFreedom and unity in Christ are central themes of Paul’s letter to the Galatians.His letter addresses Christians, whose preoccupation with keeping the Law was splitting their churches along racial lines, separating Jews from Gentiles.The false teachers were teaching that faith alone cannot save, but you also need works of the law.
11 Who are these false teachers? Paul actually never gives them a name.However, since they emphasize on returning to the Jewish law, they have been given the term “Judaizers”.Jews(unbelievers)GentilesChurch(Jew & Gentile believers)Judaizers
12 Occasion170The Galatians had an enthusiastic beginning in the gospel which ended due to opposition from Jewish false teachers (Judaizers). They proclaimed “another gospel” associated with the Jewish Torah and circumcision. Paul wrote the churches immediately to combat this false teaching with a defense of his apostleship (chs. 1–2) and the true gospel of justification by faith alone (chs. 3–4), which produces a unique lifestyle based upon freedom in Christ (chs. 5–6).
13 Paul versus the Judaizers Justification by Faith Judaizer’s AttackPaul’s DefenseIssueChs.1–2“Paul teaches this doctrine by his own authority!”“God called me and the 12 apostles affirmed this”Biographical3–4“This is a new teaching contrary to the OT!”“Salvation has always been by faith, even in the OT”Theological5–6“Teaching faith alone will encourage a sinful lifestyle!”“No, justification by faith naturally leads to godly living”PracticalJustification by Faith
14 Key Word Key Verse Justification (Gospel of Liberty) Galatians 2:16 “[We Jews] know that a man is not justified by observing the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ. So we, too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by observing the law, because by observing the law no one will be justified.”
15 Is your faith based on Christ’s work or your religiosity? Summary StatementPaul defends his apostleship and justification by faith so that the Galatians would not seek salvation through adherence to the law.ApplicationDo you add any other requirements for salvation except faith in Christ—baptism, tongues, good works?Is your faith based on Christ’s work or your religiosity?
16 Issue #1: Legalism Definition: “Legalism” is attempting to win God’s favor by our own determined efforts of dedication and obedience.In Galatians:Try to win God’s approval by strict adherence to the law.Today:Try to live up to God’s and other people’s expectations of how Christians should be—obedience, dedication, fulltime Christian service, academic study, and volunteer work.Lesson:We must obey and serve freely out of love and gratitude to Christ. The Holy Spirit must empower us. Our dedicated service cannot remove sin or obtain saving grace.
17 Issue #2: Labelism Definition: “Labelism” is pride of ownership for having the “right” religion.In Galatians:Take pride in observing the “right” religious activities (e.g. food laws, circumcision).Today:Take pride in having the right doctrine, being in the right church, practicing the right ministry strategies.Lesson:We are who we are by God’s grace, and not because of ourselves or what we have done.
19 Formation of Thessalonian Church Paul went to Thessalonica with Timothy and Silas but left after a riot (Acts 17:1-10)Length of Paul’s Stay3-Week StayFOR: Paul preached for 3 Sabbaths in the synagogue (Acts 17:2).AGAINST: Luke’s writing of Acts accurate and reliable but selected only some materials according to his focus.3-Month Stay (Nov 50-Jan 51)FOR: Enough time for Paul to establish a church (1 Thess 1:1) with its own leaders (1 Thess 5:12).FOR: Possible to set up a church in such a short time but would lack sufficient teaching time that gave rise to tension with leaders (1 Thess 5:12).
20 Authorship The epistle claims to have been written by Paul (1:1) Attack 1: Lack of Pauline ideas and OT citations.Response: Church was mostly Gentile, so OT would not be cited so frequently.Attack 2: Reference to the fall of Jerusalem (2:16b) places the epistle after Paul’s death.Response: The supposed reference to the fall of Jerusalem is not obvious.Attack 3: A large amount of non-Pauline vocabulary.Response: One of Paul’s earliest letters, and not primarily a doctrinal treatise, hence does not reflect the same theological vocabulary as later letters.Nearly all scholars believe that Paul penned this epistle.
21 “To the remotest part of the earth …” (Acts 1:8) Paul & His Letters“To the remotest part of the earth …” (Acts 1:8)ActsApr 48- Sep 491 GalatiaApr 50- Sep 522AegeanSpr 53- May 573 AsiaFeb 60- Mar 621 RomeSpr 62- Fall 674 SpainAut 67- Spr 682 RomeMay 57- Aug 59Damascus AntiochMay 57- Aug 59TrialsFall 49TheCouncilSpring 68Expansion of ChurchGalatiansAntiochFall 491 ThessCorinthSummer 51
22 OccasionPaul went to Thessalonica with Timothy and Silas but left after a riot for Berea (Acts 17:1-10)Jews from Thessalonica followed them and incited the crowd against them. Paul left Silas and Timothy with the church and instructed them to meet him at Athens (Acts 17: 11-16)After they met in Athens, Paul sent Timothy back to Thessalonica (1 Thess 3:1-2)Later, Timothy joined Paul at Corinth and brought him news about the church in Thessalonica.Paul wrote to the church to encourage the believers, as well as to address some pertinent issues
23 Paul’s Purpose in Writing IssuePaul’s responseOutline of1 ThessaloniansThe people are growing wellEncourageCommendation (1:1-10)“You are great!”Some accuse Paul of greedDefendConduct (2:1-16)“I’m innocent”The people face persecutionExhortConcern (2:17—3:13)“I care for you”Love (4:1-12)“Please God”The people question about believers who have diedAnswerEschatology (4:13—5:11)“Be comforted but watchful”The church is growingInstructChurch Life (5:12-28)“Live holy”
24 Preparing for the Rapture Although Paul appeared to be writing about and addressing 5 different issues in his letter, there is one topic which he repeatedly mentions: the Rapture.Each of the five chapters closes with an exhortation regarding the Lord’s soon coming:1:10 “…and to wait for his Son from heaven…”2:19-20 “…in the presence of our Lord Jesus when he comes…”3:13 “…when our Lord Jesus comes with all his holy ones.”4:13-18 “…we who are still alive and are left will be caught up with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air…”5:23-24 “…at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.”
25 (Triumph before Return) Key WordRapture(Triumph before Return)Key Verse1 Thess 3:12-13“And may the Lord cause you to increase and abound in love for one another, and for all people, just as we also do for you; so that He may establish your hearts without blame in holiness before our God and Father at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all His saints.”
26 Are you ready for the Lord’s return if He comes today? Summary StatementPaul prepares the Thessalonians for the Rapture by defending his motives for starting the church (to silence accusations of greed) and instructing the believers (to strengthen the church’s doctrinal and relational foundation so it can continue to grow).ApplicationAre you ready for the Lord’s return if He comes today?
28 The letter supports Pauline authorship: External EvidenceSupport for Pauline authorship has been upheld “very probably” since Polycarp and possibly earlier with Ignatius. To this is added the Marcion Canon and Muratonian Canon, as well as the testimony of the early Church Fathers and ancient versions.Internal EvidenceThe letter supports Pauline authorship:1. Claims to be written by Paul (1:1; 3:17). 2. Premature ending (3:1-5) suits Paul more than a conscious imitator.3. Similarities to 1 Thessalonians, cited by some critics as evidence against Pauline authorship, actually support it.4. Supposed discrepancies between the eschatologies of 2 Thess 2:1-12 and 1 Thess 4:13—5:11 have also been levied by critics, but these differences refer to the two different phases of the parousia.Nearly all scholars believe that Paul penned this epistle.
29 DatePaul wrote 2 Thessalonians in the summer AD 51 (just a few months after his first letter). The following supports this claim:1. Paul, Silas, and Timothy (1:1) are not known to have been together again after their stay in Corinth.2. The same general conditions exist in the church as discussed in 1 Thessalonians ( cf. 1 Thess. 4:11-12; 2 Thess. 3:6-15).These men apparently stayed in Corinth another year. The second letter precedes Paul's visit to them five years later. It is fairly certain that 2 Thessalonians did not follow the first letter by more than 12 months
30 “To the remotest part of the earth …” (Acts 1:8) Paul & His Letters“To the remotest part of the earth …” (Acts 1:8)ActsApr 48- Sep 491 GalatiaApr 50- Sep 522AegeanSpr 53- May 573 AsiaFeb 60- Mar 621 RomeSpr 62- Fall 674 SpainAut 67- Spr 682 RomeMay 57- Aug 59Damascus AntiochMay 57- Aug 59TrialsFall 49TheCouncilSpring 68Expansion of ChurchGalatiansAntiochFall 491 ThessCorinthSummer 512 ThessCorinthSummer 51
31 OccasionWithin only a few months after writing 1 Thessalonians, Paul received news of problems unresolved by his first letterThe persecution of the believers had increased (1:3-10), false teachers had taught that the day of the Lord had already come (2:1-12)Some of the Thessalonian Christians had become idle as they simply “waited for the rapture” (3:6-15)Therefore Paul decided to write the church again to help the believers handle these difficulties
32 Paul’s Purpose in Writing Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians to help the believers handle three difficulties facing the church:Increased persecution (1:3-10)False teaching that the day of the Lord had already come (2:1-12)Idleness among some of the Thessalonian Christians who were “waiting for the rapture” (3:6-15).
33 Christian Eschatological View THE CROSS & RESURRECTION begunconsummated(passing away)THIS AGETHE AGE TO COME(never ending)THE CROSS & RESURRECTIONTHE SECOND COMINGALREADYNOT YET
34 Christian Eschatological View AlreadyNot YetRighteousnessComplete righteousnessPeacePerfect peaceHealthNo sickness or deathHoly SpiritFullness of the Holy Spirit
35 (Tribulation before Return) Key WordTribulation(Tribulation before Return)Key Verse2 Thess 2:2-3Do not “become easily unsettled or alarmed by some prophecy, report or letter supposed to have come from us, saying that the day of the Lord has already come. Don’t let anyone deceive you in any way, for that day will not come until the rebellion occurs and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the man doomed to destruction”
36 Summary Statement Application Paul corrects the persecuted Thessalonians' misconception that the day of the Lord (Tribulation) had already begun to exhort perseverance among the disheartened and industry among the idle to help them stand firm in correct doctrine despite false teachers.ApplicationDo you study eschatology, believing that it affects your behavior as a Christian?