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© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 1 Third Year Project David R. Selviah Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering University College London Phone: Fax:
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 2 n n Project Aims and Description n n Project Deliverables n n Logbook, Viva n n Report Writing n n Bar Chart, First Report, Plagiarism n n Oral Presentation n n Literature Survey n n Project Work Mark n n Time Management Outline
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 3 Securing the Project n Once you have considered carefully your choice of project you need to register formally in order to secure the project. n Obtain a registration form from the departmental office room 705, and take it to your supervisor. n Agree with him the clear aims of the project, the title and what you will be doing.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 4 Securing the Project n Make sure the form is completed by you and your supervisor with the agreed title, your name in block capitals underlining your family name and both of you must sign it. n Give it to the departmental office to secure your registration. n Some supervisors may ask for you to give them a photocopy of the form.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 5 Project Aims and Description n Write a clear description of what you think are the agreed aims and project to be carried out, putting the title and your name at the top and it to your supervisor. n In this way your supervisor can check that you both have the same clear idea of what is involved in the project. n He will then either modify it or will write a correct description of the project which he sends to the third year project co-ordinator. n A panel of academics will then double check that the project is neither too hard nor too easy and that the aims are likely to be achievable in the given time.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 6 Securing the Project
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 7 Second Assessor n A ‘second assessor’ is appointed by your supervisor to act as a second examiner. n The second assessor acts as an independent second check on the fairness of marking and plays a major role in the viva. n The second assessor is usually not involved in the project but can help the student during the project by bringing complementary expertise and a second viewpoint of the work.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 8 The course of the Project n You will begin your project in term 3 of this year. n Immediately after your last exam you must go to see your supervisor. n We expect you to carry out at least two weeks of project work and attend the two design lectures before the end of term so do not arrange your flights home until after that. n It is mainly library search work and photocopying of key sections of books, research papers and web sites. n In addition, you will begin to prepare your first report.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 9 Project Assessment n The project will be marked on the following: u Work task planning u Task execution (Work Quality) u Time and resource management u Independence u Initiative and Originality u Oral Presentation u Written Work u Effort u Achievement
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 10 Project Assessment n You will be marked by your supervisor and the second assessor. n Then the marks will be moderated by the Departmental Project Review Panel to ensure fairness.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 11 Project Importance n The project is worth one quarter of the marks for the whole third year. n Employers ask supervisors to send them a secret letter telling them about your punctuality, ability to meet deadlines, honesty, how hard you work as well as your academic ability. n So poor performance in the project may affect your employment prospects. n If you fail the project the FIRST TIME that you take it you can only be awarded a degree without a specified field of study, even if you take the project again and pass it. n Such a degree is not accredited by the IEE.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 12 Project Deliverables n You are required to submit pieces of work, known as ‘deliverables’ which must be carried out by certain deadlines. n Marks are awarded for these deliverables. n The following table shows the percentage of the total project mark allocated for each deliverable.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 13 Project Deliverables
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 14 Project Deliverable Penalties n If you are late in submitting a report your marks for that report will be reduced by the percentages given in the following table. n If you are absent from the presentation without due cause you will lose quarter of the marks for the whole project!
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 15 Project Deliverable Penalties
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 16 Logbook n The first thing you must do is to obtain a logbook. n The logbook is a record of everything you have done on the project. n It is A4 hardback with fixed bound in pages which cannot be removed - try ULU and the college shop. n You should number every page so that it will be clear if anyone has torn out any pages - for legal intellectual property (IP) reasons. n Leave 2 pages free at the start so that you can enter an index to help you to find your way around it. n It need not be neat but it must be legible.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 17 Logbook n Always date every entry. n Record in it the experimental parameters for each experiment you do and the results - tables and graphs. n Record every modification to a computer program that you make and its new name and the program output. n Record every program run, the input parameters and the output data file. n Glue in print outs of computer programs, graphs and tables. n Take it with you to all your meetings with your supervisor. n Draw rough sketches in it and ask your supervisor to do so and not on scrap paper during your meetings.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 18 Logbook n There is a mark of up to 15 % for project work given by your supervisor and he may use your entries in your logbook to help to determine this mark. n You must also take your logbook to the viva to show to your supervisor and second assessor.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 19 Viva n The viva is a live examination in which you are questioned by two examiners and discuss your project work and your second report. n The examiners are your supervisor and your second assessor. n The second assessor generally runs the viva and asks most of the questions.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 20 Viva n The viva is really a time when the examiners can help you to improve your marks. n The viva has several aims u To find out if you wrote your second report. u To find out if there are any ‘holes’ in your knowledge of the subject which you can then ‘plug’ before the presentation questions and final report. u To see if you have a good plan of how to complete the project. u To feedback to you comments on how to improve on your second report when you write your final report.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 21 Viva n The viva usually begins with you giving a short ~5 minute presentation about your aims, your method to achieve the aims and your results. n You should prepare this in advance. n The feedback you get from the examiners will help you to improve this so that you can give it again at the oral presentation. n We cannot tell you what questions we will ask as they arise naturally in response to what you say in your presentation and in answer to earlier questions. n You may refer to your second report or draw sketches or write equations.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 22 Report Writing n You may not have a lot of experience of writing text as you may have concentrated on scientific subjects and given up writing many years ago. n Employers expect new graduate engineers to write clearly and logically and to spell correctly. n So you need to develop and practice these skills. n If you carry out some exciting research and then cannot explain in written form or in oral form what you have done then no one will be able to appreciate your work.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 23 Report Writing n An extended piece of writing cannot be written by just sitting down and writing it. n You must have a plan and a structure. n Everything must be placed logically so that later arguments build on the conclusions of earlier arguments.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 24 Report Writing n You cannot expect the reader to sit down and read from the start to the end of your report without putting it down. n The reader may put it down for a few days and then pick it up again to continue having forgotten what came before. n You can overcome this by reminding the reader of the main conclusions that you would like them to remember from the previous sections. n However, if you do this too much you will annoy readers who do read from start to finish as they will notice this repetition.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 25 Report Writing n Place ‘signposts’ in the text to tell the reader where he is, where he has come from and where you are going in the next section. n It is very common for students not to say what they are trying to prove or trying to show in that section. n The natural inclination is to hide the big climax until you have built up to it and then to reveal it in the hope that you will stun the reader with admiration. n However, this actually serves only to annoy the reader.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 26 Report Writing n Every statement that you make must either be proved by you there or must have a reference to someone who stated that fact before.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 27 Report Writing n The best way to start writing a report is not to do any writing of text. n Instead start by making a plan of the report structure. n A good way to do this is to write down a ‘skeleton’ of the report in the form of chapter titles, section and subsection titles. n You can show this to your supervisor and obtain advice. n Then add to your outline all of the points, graphs and figures that you want to include in each section and estimate the number of pages of each section. n This will help you to avoid leaving anything out and to decide the correct balance between sections.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 28 Report Layout A standard report layout consists of n Title page using the standard format from the web. n Abstract n Statement of authorship and originality from the web. n Acknowledgements n Contents List n Introduction n Chapters reviewing background work and earlier similar work
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 29 Report Layout n Chapters describing how you carried out the project. n Chapters presenting the results of your work n Chapters discussing your work n Conclusions n References n Appendices n A full description of the report layout and how to write a report is given in a detailed document at web site which is one of the articles you will need to read during this summer.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 30 Report Layout n Use standard forms for diagrams, symbols, references, etc. n BS 4811:1972 The layout of reports BS 5555:1993, ISO 1000:1992 SI Units and their multiples BS 1629:1989 Format of references to published material BS EN :1996 Symbols for components n Other standards for the format of references are u Harvard Standard u Citation of electronic web sites u IEEE standard
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 31 First Report Layout n The standard report layout will need to be adapted to suit the needs of the first and second reports. n The first report will describe the aims and how you intend to proceed in order to achieve those aims. n It will include a review of the books and academic papers that you have read during the summer. n It will include a detailed plan of the tasks that you need to perform and how long each will take and when you will start and finish them. n This is conveniently displayed on a ‘bar chart’ drawn using Excel or using a GANTT chart program.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 32 Bar Chart Time Plan
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 33 First Report Layout n The first report will list the books and academic papers that you found during your literature search and that you refer to in the review chapters. n Although 2000 words sounds a lot it is usually too few to say what you wish to say. n So you will need to plan it carefully. n You need to submit two paper copies and one electronic copy of your report so we can electronically verify that there has been no plagiarism.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 34 Plagiarism n Plagiarism is committed if you copy a paragraph, sentence, phrase or even an idea from someone else's text without acknowledging that it has been copied so that it looks as if you are trying to present it as if it were your own work. n If you must use a phrase or sentence from somewhere then put it in inverted commas and also make it italic and give a reference to where you copied it from. n Preferably you should rewrite it using your own words and give a reference to where you obtained the information. n It is very easy for us to identify plagiarised work. n We do not hesitate in treating plagiarism VERY, VERY SEVERELY similar to copying or cheating in exams.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 35 Plagiarism n The need for correct acknowledgement also applies to figures, drawings and computer programs. n Each drawing that is copied must have a reference to where you copied it from in the figure caption. n Preferably you should redraw the figure yourself and still say that it was inspired by a figure in a quoted reference. n This includes copying from web sites, other students reports and earlier students reports.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 36 Plagiarism n Read the posters around the department describing what constitutes plagiarism. n This also applies to copying data sheets or programs into the appendix of your report. n We ask that you include at the front of your reports a signed statement of authorship and originality printed from the project web page.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 37 Report Assessment n The reports are marked on u Technical content u Presentation and Style u Structure u Originality and Independence u Effort and Dedication u Achievement
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 38 Oral Presentation n A few weeks before the presentation you will submit an abstract describing your talk. n At the presentation you stand and talk using powerpoint slides, to between 5 and 20 students and 4 or 5 academics. n A professor from another university may also attend to check on fair marking. n You will speak for 10 minutes and then answer questions from anyone for a further 5 minutes. n Three or more of the academics present (not your supervisor) will mark your presentation.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 39 Oral Presentation n The chairman will stop you after 10 minutes whether you have finished or not. n He may give you a one minute warning before the end. n Then he will call for questions from the floor. n The questions may require you to defend your work and methods of achieving your aims. n It gives you the chance to impress the examiners with additional knowledge that you may have about the subject. n The questions may require you to go back to an earlier slide and then to explain it again more clearly. n So it is helpful to number the slides.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 40 Oral Presentation n You will be marked on the following criteria: n Interest - Did you make the subject sound interesting and excite the audience to want to know more? n Presentation style - Did you avoid ‘ums’ and ‘errs’, have good body language, a loud clear voice well projected, clearly laid out slides with easily readable font without spelling errors, smart, clean and neat personal appearance?
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 41 Oral Presentation n Structure - Did you plan your talk well with a logical progression of ideas arranged for clear understanding? Was your abstract clear? n Achievements - What did you actually achieve yourself in terms of experimental results or computer output? n Content - Is your work of a high quality? Do you have a good depth of understanding of the subject? n Effort - Try to impress the examiners with the amount of effort involved in obtaining the results.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 42 Oral Presentation n A typical layout for a presentation would be u Title slide listing the aims. u Outline of talk. u Background u Work Done u Results u Conclusions n If you use 20 powerpoint slides it means one every 30 seconds.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 43 Oral Presentation n This presentation uses Dark Blue Times New Roman Font size: Titles Bold Italic 44, Text 24 on a white background with bright red square bullets. n You can choose your own fonts but they must be as clearly and easily readable as this. n Bullet points are a good way to put across information. n You notice that it is not possible to fit more than about 6 bullet points on a slide.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 44 Oral Presentation n Try to concentrate on graphs, diagrams and tables rather than lots of equations as they can be quickly assimilated. n Avoid the use of too many graphical animation effects as it does not impress the examiners and tends to distract from the content of your presentation.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 45 Oral Presentation n You will need to practice projecting your voice. n You need to sound interested if you want the audience to be interested as well. n Do not speak on a monotone and sound boring. n Do not reduce the pitch or volume of your voice towards the end of a sentence. n Do not try to hold your breath while speaking and then let it out in a sigh at the end of the sentence. n Try to speak in a loud resonant voice, this will sound confident.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 46 Oral Presentation n Body Language and your posture is important. n Do not cross your arms or put your hands in your pockets. n Do not turn your back to the audience and talk to the board. n Do try to look at them in their eyes. n Look interested, alert and keen.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 47 Oral Presentation n If you can perform a successful demonstration it will make your talk more interesting. n You might run a computer program, or control a robot, or demonstrate a remote control, or pass around a device you fabricated in the clean room. n Even if your project is a maths one you might construct a 3D model to illustrate the output.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 48 Oral Presentation n Practice you talk u on your own u in front of a mirror u in front of friends u in front of your supervisor u in front of a video camera and voice recorder. n The best student who won a prize practised 20 times in all.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 49 Literature Survey n All projects begin in the same way by carrying out a literature survey of the subject area. n This is a very precise search to find similar earlier work carried out anywhere in the world. n This is begun during your second year in the two weeks following your last exam before the end of term 3 so do not book your flights home until after the end of term. n During this period your aim is to locate and print or photocopy or borrow from the library relevant texts.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 50 Literature Survey n Start by searching the Library Contents database of all of its books to find out which books are available which contain the required information and then borrow them. n Go to the Library web site at n n Click on the Library Catalogue, eUCLid n Find out which books are available which contain the required information and then borrow them. n The library offers courses of 1-2 hours on use of e-resources, searches and databases. n Please ask the librarians for help.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 51 Literature Survey n Follow this by the search for academic papers. n Begin this by going to the library and registering for an ATHENS username and password. n This will allow you to access the library’s electronic databases from any terminal with access to the web. n Go to the library’s web page n n Click on electronic databases and choose scientific databases n Info/Divisions/Library/database/science.php
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 52 Literature Survey n For Electronic Engineering the best databases are n Web of Science and Science Citation index n for INSPEC n for Compendex n IEEE Explore n Databases of the titles and abstracts of all PhD theses
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 53 Literature Survey n For Patent searches use n Patent Office Database n European and US Patent office via EiCompendex at edina. n These are basic search engines but if you are searching a subject with many patents, or a new field for which the keywords are not adequate the use the British Library. n Go to the British Library, join as a member, Go to the second floor Science and Engineering wing, Use the 3 patent search engines, including DERWENT. n The British library give instructions on how to use them.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 54 Literature Survey n To search these databases you need to type in keywords in a logical form. n Keep a note of every combination of keywords that you use in your logbook and of how effective that combination was. n Your aim is to identify optimum search strings which will include all of the papers you want to find but will not include too many papers that you do not want.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 55 Literature Survey n (Optical OR Optic) AND (Fibre OR Fiber) AND (Communications OR Communication) AND Link n This logical search string excludes Optic Fibre Link Optical Interconnect Optical Telecom Link Optical Submarine Cable Link n So better search strings might be n (Optical OR Optic) AND Link used together with n (Optical OR Optic) AND (Interconnect Or Interconnection)
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 56 Literature Survey n You will have to use several search strings to make sure that you do not miss any papers. n You should aim to reduce the number to about 50 by making use of the titles and abstracts to identify relevant ones. n Your supervisor may then be prepared to help you identify the most relevant ones and to grade them in order of relevance. n Alternatively he may wish you to reduce it further or to identify the most relevant ones yourself. n You should now be down to about 10 papers.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 57 Literature Survey n You must now obtain paper copies of these papers. n Start by seeing if the papers you want are on IEEE Explore which contain IEE and IEEE journal and conference papers. n The library web site lists the journals which it takes in electronic form and from which papers may be downloaded. n
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 58 Literature Survey n If not then see if the DMS Watson Bloomsbury Science Library takes a paper copy of the journal. n If not you can order a copy of the paper from our librarians n If not look at catalogues of other libraries particularly The British Libary n Info/Divisions/Library/Other_libraries.html n Go to the British Library at St. Pancras and photocopy one. n Info/Divisions/Library/Other_libraries.html
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 59 Literature Survey n Once you have your 10 papers your supervisor may be prepared to help you grade them into easier reading at the start. n Of course the internet is also available and so you should use web browsers with appropriate search strings. n Once you have located books - photocopy relevant sections or borrow them, research papers - download or photocopy them, web pages - print them
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 60 Literature Survey n Take away the documents and read them during the summer. n Start with the books and then move on to the papers. n It is best to make notes in your logbook as you read each reference so that you can use the notes to help you to write your first report during the summer or when you come back. n You might want to learn how to touch type during the summer.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 61 Safety Appraisal n You need to have a filled in safety appraisal form signed by your supervisor before you can begin.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 62 The Project n Students often think that the aim is to complete the piece of work that the supervisor has set and then they will get a good mark. n Actually it is an interactive process. n As the project progresses you may come across unforeseen difficulties. n In that case the supervisor will not expect as much progress for the full marks to be awarded. n If on the other hand the tasks are easier than expected then more progress will be expected from you for the full marks. n This will be achieved by extending the project aim during the project.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 63 The Project n If an unexpected problem occurs the student may become worried, disappointed, unhappy that they cannot solve it so that they will not get full marks and the supervisor will not like them. However, 1) The problems are the most exciting times because this gives you the opportunity to be creative and to invent or devise a new solution or to gain new understanding about the behaviour of the system. 2) The supervisor will help you to solve the problem or will solve it for you or will redirect the project around the problem or in another direction to avoid it. n Of course you must go to your supervisor with the problem otherwise he cannot help you rather than avoiding him.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 64 The Project n You should aim to see your supervisor at least once a week. n The academics help is likely to be proportional to the effort you are putting into the project.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 65 Project Work Mark n The project work mark of 15 % is given by the supervisor taking into account the following u Work Discipline u Enthusiasm u Dedication u Perseverance u Achievement u Reliability u Logbook entries
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 66 Time Management n Some students have an increasing exponential work rate as they become used to the idea of carrying out a project. n Some students only do work immediately before deadlines. n You should try to maintain a constant work rate which is a lot less stressful. n You will be marked on your time management skills as part of the project work mark.
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 67 Time Management Deadline Time Student Effort
© ©UCL (University College London) 2003 Key Skills 68 Finally n We hope you enjoy your project and find it stimulating, exciting and useful.
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