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**Variation Functions 8-1 Warm Up Lesson Presentation Lesson Quiz**

Holt Algebra 2

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**Warm Up Solve each equation. 2.4 = x 9 2 1. 10.8 2. 1.6x = 1.8(24.8)**

27.9 Determine whether each data set could represent a linear function. 3. x 2 4 6 8 y 12 3 no 4. x –2 –1 1 y –6 2 6 yes

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Objective Solve problems involving direct, inverse, joint, and combined variation.

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**Vocabulary direct variation constant of variation joint variation**

inverse variation combined variation

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**In Chapter 2, you studied many types of linear functions**

In Chapter 2, you studied many types of linear functions. One special type of linear function is called direct variation. A direct variation is a relationship between two variables x and y that can be written in the form y = kx, where k ≠ 0. In this relationship, k is the constant of variation. For the equation y = kx, y varies directly as x.

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A direct variation equation is a linear equation in the form y = mx + b, where b = 0 and the constant of variation k is the slope. Because b = 0, the graph of a direct variation always passes through the origin.

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**Example 1: Writing and Graphing Direct Variation**

Given: y varies directly as x, and y = 27 when x = 6. Write and graph the direct variation function. y = kx y varies directly as x. 27 = k(6) Substitute 27 for y and 6 for x. k = 4.5 Solve for the constant of variation k. y = 4.5x Write the variation function by using the value of k.

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Example 1 Continued Graph the direct variation function. The y-intercept is 0, and the slope is 4.5. Check Substitute the original values of x and y into the equation. y = 4.5x (6)

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**If k is positive in a direct variation, the value of y increases as the value of x increases.**

Helpful Hint

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Check It Out! Example 1 Given: y varies directly as x, and y = 6.5 when x = 13. Write and graph the direct variation function. y = kx y varies directly as x. 6.5 = k(13) Substitute 6.5 for y and 13 for x. k = 0.5 Solve for the constant of variation k. y = 0.5x Write the variation function by using the value of k.

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**Check It Out! Example 1 Continued**

Graph the direct variation function. The y-intercept is 0, and the slope is 0.5. Check Substitute the original values of x and y into the equation. y = 0.5x (13)

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When you want to find specific values in a direct variation problem, you can solve for k and then use substitution or you can use the proportion derived below.

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**Example 2: Solving Direct Variation Problems**

The cost of an item in euros e varies directly as the cost of the item in dollars d, and e = 3.85 euros when d = $5.00. Find d when e = euros. Method 1 Find k. e = kd 3.85 = k(5.00) Substitute. 0.77 = k Solve for k. Write the variation function. e = 0.77d Use 0.77 for k. 10.00 = 0.77d Substitute for e. 12.99 ≈ d Solve for d.

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Example 2 Continued Method 2 Use a proportion. e1 = d1 d2 e2 3.85 = 5.00 d 10.00 Substitute. 3.85d = 50.00 Find the cross products. 12.99 ≈ d Solve for d.

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Check It Out! Example 2 The perimeter P of a regular dodecagon varies directly as the side length s, and P = 18 in. when s = 1.5 in. Find s when P = 75 in. Method 1 Find k. P = ks 18 = k(1.5) Substitute. 12 = k Solve for k. Write the variation function. P = 12s Use 12 for k. 75 = 12s Substitute 75 for P. 6.25 ≈ s Solve for s.

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**Check It Out! Example 2 Continued**

Method 2 Use a proportion. P1 = s1 s2 P2 18 = 1.5 s 75 Substitute. 18s = 112.5 Find the cross products. 6.25 = s Solve for s.

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A joint variation is a relationship among three variables that can be written in the form y = kxz, where k is the constant of variation. For the equation y = kxz, y varies jointly as x and z. The phrases “y varies directly as x” and “y is directly proportional to x” have the same meaning. Reading Math

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**Example 3: Solving Joint Variation Problems**

The volume V of a cone varies jointly as the area of the base B and the height h, and V = 12 ft3 when B = 9 ft3 and h = 4 ft. Find b when V = 24 ft3 and h = 9 ft. Step 1 Find k. Step 2 Use the variation function. V = kBh 1 3 12 = k(9)(4) Substitute. V = Bh Use for k. 1 3 1 3 = k Solve for k. 1 3 24 = B(9) Substitute. 8 = B Solve for B. The base is 8 ft2.

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Check It Out! Example 3 The lateral surface area L of a cone varies jointly as the area of the base radius r and the slant height l, and L = 63 m2 when r = 3.5 m and l = 18 m. Find r to the nearest tenth when L = 8 m2 and l = 5 m. Step 1 Find k. Step 2 Use the variation function. L = krl 63 = k(3.5)(18) Substitute. L = rl Use for k. = k Solve for k. 8 = r(5) Substitute. 1.6 = r Solve for r.

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A third type of variation describes a situation in which one quantity increases and the other decreases. For example, the table shows that the time needed to drive 600 miles decreases as speed increases. This type of variation is an inverse variation. An inverse variation is a relationship between two variables x and y that can be written in the form y = , where k ≠ 0. For the equation y = , y varies inversely as x. k x

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**Example 4: Writing and Graphing Inverse Variation**

Given: y varies inversely as x, and y = 4 when x = 5. Write and graph the inverse variation function. k x y = y varies inversely as x. k 5 Substitute 4 for y and 5 for x. 4 = k = 20 Solve for k. 20 x Write the variation formula. y =

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**x y –2 –10 –4 –5 –6 – –8 x y 2 10 4 5 6 8 Example 4 Continued**

To graph, make a table of values for both positive and negative values of x. Plot the points, and connect them with two smooth curves. Because division by 0 is undefined, the function is undefined when x = 0. x y –2 –10 –4 –5 –6 – –8 x y 2 10 4 5 6 8 10 3 10 3 5 2 5 2

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Check It Out! Example 4 Given: y varies inversely as x, and y = 4 when x = 10. Write and graph the inverse variation function. k x y = y varies inversely as x. k 10 Substitute 4 for y and 10 for x. 4 = k = 40 Solve for k. 40 x Write the variation formula. y =

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**Check It Out! Example 4 Continued**

To graph, make a table of values for both positive and negative values of x. Plot the points, and connect them with two smooth curves. Because division by 0 is undefined, the function is undefined when x = 0. x y –2 –20 –4 –10 –6 – –8 –5 x y 2 20 4 10 6 8 5 20 3 20 3

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When you want to find specific values in an inverse variation problem, you can solve for k and then use substitution or you can use the equation derived below.

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**Example 5: Sports Application**

The time t needed to complete a certain race varies inversely as the runner’s average speed s. If a runner with an average speed of 8.82 mi/h completes the race in 2.97 h, what is the average speed of a runner who completes the race in 3.5 h? k s t = Method 1 Find k. k 8.82 2.97 = Substitute. k = Solve for k. s t = Use for k. s Substitute 3.5 for t. 3.5 = Solve for s. s ≈ 7.48

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Example 5 Continued Method Use t1s1 = t2s2. t1s1 = t2s2 (2.97)(8.82) = 3.5s Substitute. = 3.5s Simplify. 7.48 ≈ s Solve for s. So the average speed of a runner who completes the race in 3.5 h is approximately 7.48 mi/h.

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Check It Out! Example 5 The time t that it takes for a group of volunteers to construct a house varies inversely as the number of volunteers v. If 20 volunteers can build a house in 62.5 working hours, how many working hours would it take 15 volunteers to build a house? Method 1 Find k. k 20 62.5 = Substitute. k v t = k = 1250 Solve for k. 1250 v t = Use 1250 for k. 1250 15 Substitute 15 for v. t = 1 3 t ≈ 83 Solve for t.

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**Check It Out! Example 5 Continued**

Method 2 Use t1v1 = t2v2. t1v1 = t2v2 (62.5)(20) = 15t Substitute. 1250 = 15t Simplify. 1 3 83 ≈ t Solve for t. So the number of working hours it would take 15 volunteers to build a house is approximately hours. 1 3 83

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**You can use algebra to rewrite variation functions in terms of k.**

Notice that in direct variation, the ratio of the two quantities is constant. In inverse variation, the product of the two quantities is constant.

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**Example 6: Identifying Direct and Inverse Variation**

Determine whether each data set represents a direct variation, an inverse variation, or neither. A. In each case xy = 52. The product is constant, so this represents an inverse variation. x 6.5 13 104 y 8 4 0.5 B. y x x 5 8 12 y 30 48 72 In each case = 6. The ratio is constant, so this represents a direct variation.

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**Example 6: Identifying Direct and Inverse Variation**

Determine whether each data set represents a direct variation, an inverse variation, or neither. C. x 3 6 8 y 5 14 21 Since xy and are not constant, this is neither a direct variation nor an inverse variation. y x

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**x 3.75 15 5 y 12 3 9 x 1 40 26 y 0.2 8 5.2 Check It Out! Example 6**

Determine whether each data set represents a direct variation, an inverse variation, or neither. 6a. x 3.75 15 5 y 12 3 9 In each case xy = 45. The ratio is constant, so this represents an inverse variation. 6b. x 1 40 26 y 0.2 8 5.2 In each case = 0.2. The ratio is constant, so this represents a direct variation. y x

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A combined variation is a relationship that contains both direct and inverse variation. Quantities that vary directly appear in the numerator, and quantities that vary inversely appear in the denominator.

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**Example 7: Chemistry Application**

The change in temperature of an aluminum wire varies inversely as its mass m and directly as the amount of heat energy E transferred. The temperature of an aluminum wire with a mass of 0.1 kg rises 5°C when 450 joules (J) of heat energy are transferred to it. How much heat energy must be transferred to an aluminum wire with a mass of 0.2 kg raise its temperature 20°C?

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**Step 2 Use the variation function.**

Example 7 Continued Step 1 Find k. Step 2 Use the variation function. kE m Combined variation ΔT = E 900m ΔT = Use for k. 1 900 k(450) 0.1 5 = Substitute. E 900(0.2) 20 = Substitute. 1 900 = k Solve for k. 3600 = E Solve for E. The amount of heat energy that must be transferred is 3600 joules (J).

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Check It Out! Example 7 The volume V of a gas varies inversely as the pressure P and directly as the temperature T. A certain gas has a volume of 10 liters (L), a temperature of 300 kelvins (K), and a pressure of 1.5 atmospheres (atm). If the gas is heated to 400K, and has a pressure of 1 atm, what is its volume?

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Check It Out! Example 7 Step 1 Find k. Step 2 Use the variation function. kT P Combined variation V = 0.05T P Use 0.05 for k. V = k(300) 1.5 10 = Substitute. 0.05(400) (1) V = Substitute. 0.05 = k Solve for k. V = 20 Solve for V. The new volume will be 20 L.

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Lesson Quiz: Part I 1. The volume V of a pyramid varies jointly as the area of the base B and the height h, and V = 24 ft3 when B = 12 ft2 and h = 6 ft. Find B when V = 54 ft3 and h = 9 ft. 18 ft2 2. The cost per person c of chartering a tour bus varies inversely as the number of passengers n. If it costs $22.50 per person to charter a bus for 20 passengers, how much will it cost per person to charter a bus for 36 passengers? $12.50

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Lesson Quiz: Part II 3. The pressure P of a gas varies inversely as its volume V and directly as the temperature T. A certain gas has a pressure of 2.7 atm, a volume of 3.6 L, and a temperature of 324 K. If the volume of the gas is kept constant and the temperature is increased to 396 K, what will the new pressure be? 3.3 atm

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