2Disease Does not allow the body to function normally Can affect individual organs or an entire body systemDivided into two groups – Infectious and Non-infectious
3Infectious DiseaseAn infectious disease is a disease that is caused by the presence of a living thing within the body.When you have an infectious disease, pathogens have gotten inside your body & caused harm.
10When a pathogen enters the body: It works by damaging individual cells within the organsIn some cases it attacks an entire body system
11Immune System The Body's Defense distinguishing (telling the difference) between the different kinds of pathogensReacting to each kind according to its typeThe body has 3 lines of defense
12F1rst Line of Defense Against Pathogens Skin-Physical & chemical barrierMucous & Cilia-trap & remove most pathogensSneezing & CoughingChemicals in saliva & stomach acid kill pathogens
13Second Line of Defense Triggers inflammatory response. Fluid & white blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby tissues.White blood cells then fight the pathogens. These wbc’s are called phagocytes.Phagocytes engulf & destroy pathogens.During the inflammatory process, the affected area becomes red, swollen, & warm.Fever may also occur
14Immune Response, 3rd Line of Defense The cells of the immune system can distinguish between different kinds of pathogens.The immune system cells react to each kind of pathogen with a defense targeted specifically at the pathogen.White blood cells that target specific pathogens are called lymphocytes.
15Noninfectious Diseases Are diseases that are not caused by pathogens in the body.Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, & cancer are examples of noninfectious diseases.
16AllergyIs a disorder in which the immune system is overly sensitive to a foreign substance- something not normally found in the body.An allergy develops in response to various foreign substances that set off a series of reactions in the body.An allergen is any substance that causes an allergy.People may be allergic to pollen, dust, molds, some foods, or even some medicines.
17DiabetesYour pancreas produces insulin, a chemical that enables body cells to take in glucose from the blood & use it for energy.If you have diabetes, your pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, or the body’s cell fail to properly use insulin.As a result, a person with diabetes has high levels of glucose in the blood and may even excrete glucose in urine.People with diabetes may lose weight, feel weak, & always be hungry.
18CancerIs a disease in which cells multiply uncontrollably, over & over, destroying healthy tissue in the process.As cancerous cells divide over & over, they often form abnormal tissue masses called tumors.A carcinogen is a substance or factor in the environment that can cause cancer.
19Care of People with Cancer Surgery, drugs, & radiation are all used to treat cancer.People can reduce their risk of cancer by avoiding carcinogens. They can increase their chance of surviving cancer by having regular medical checkups.
20Asthma Affects the lungs and the airways that deliver air to the lungs Causes periodic attacks of wheezing and difficulty breathing
21Asthma attacksOccur when the airways become inflamed in response to a stimulus, such as dust, mold, pets, exercise, or cold weatherSome attacks start for no apparent reason