2Pop Quiz 18 What amendment legalized income taxes? When does the federal fiscal year start?What executive agency helps prepare the budget?What independent group conducts monetary policy?Name 1 economic theory that our government has followed.What is the largest area of expenditure for our federal government?
3Measuring The Economy Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Inflation UnemploymentConsumer Price Index (CPI)Interest Rates
4Economic IndicatorsGDP is the total dollar value of all FINAL GOODS produced in a country in a year.Not affected by inflation (Real GDP)Inflation can affect GDP (ex. Gas prices)CPI (consumer price index) & the PPI (producer price index) are the main gauges of inflation.
5Economic IndicatorsUnemployment is the total # out of work actively seeking a jobFull employment is around 4%Highest unemployment was 33% during the height of the Great DepressionUnemployment is gauged by the number of people applying for benefits.Unemployment has an impact on many other economic indicators.
7Five Economic Theories Monetarism: Belief that inflation occurs when too much money is chasing too few goodsKeynesianism: Belief that the government must manage spending more money when in a recession and cut spending when there is inflationEconomic Planning: Belief that government plans, such as wage and price controls or the direction of investment, can improve the economySupply-side: Belief that lower taxes and fewer regulations will stimulate the economyReaganomics: Belief that a combination off monetarism, lower federal spending, and supply-side economics will stimulate the economy
8Controlling the Economy Fiscal PolicyControlling taxing and spending by the government to influence the economy. Affects incomes, services, benefits & spending. Fiscal policy is controlled by the President and Congress.
9The Art of Making the Budget A Budget announces how much will be collected and how much will be spentFiscal year (FY) is from 10/1-9/30First federal budget came in 1921First presidential budget came in 1930Entitlements take up much of the budget so it is hard to make changes in spendingBoth branches remain independent with their own group of economic experts: Congress has CBO; POTUS has OMB.
10The Budget Process President submits budget House & Senate budget committees analyze budgetBudget resolution in May proposes budget ceilingsMembers informed whether or not spending proposals conform to budget resolutionsCommittees approve appropriations bills, Congress passes them, and sends them to the president for signature
11Congressional Budget & Impoundment Control Act of 1974 Titles I-IX layout the budget process as seen on the previous slide.Title II created the CBO.Title X basically ended the Presidential practice of impoundment. This limit was upheld by the SCOTUS in Train v. City of New York.
12Affecting the EconomyHow does a rise in taxes effect the economy? Explain.How does an increase in government spending (such as on programs like building bridges, schools, or roads) effect the economy? Explain.Using the above examples, how does the government use fiscal policy to affect the economy?
13Income taxes Until 1913 most revenue came from tariffs 16th amendment allowed income taxesWar and peace caused fluxes in tax levelsWWII saw big increases in tax ratesHuge loopholes offset high tax ratesBefore 1986, tax bills were more about deductions than ratesThe Tax Reform Act of 1986 made lower rates with smaller deductions
14“Only 2 Certainties in life…Death & Taxes.” Complete chart on types of taxes.Discuss each.Complete quotes and debate discussion questions.
19Reducing Spending Gramm-Rudman Balanced Budget Act Cap on the deficit every yearSpending plan within the capBudget would be cut by sequesters if Congress and the president didn’t agreeThe institutions went around the actNow Congress proposes tax increases and a cap on discretionary spending, so we at least try to pay as we go
20“And now the rest of the story.” Who really controls the economy?How do you stop a recession?How do you restore confidence?
21Controlling the Economy Monetary PolicyControlling the money supply to influence the US economy. Affects interest rates, loans, credit, spending, & saving. Monetary policy is conducted by the Federal Reserve Board.
227 members are appointed by the president, confirmed by the Senate; serve a nonrenewable fourteen-year term; removable for causeIndependent of both the president and CongressEach of the 12 districts has a President that reports to the Federal Reserve Board.Current Chairwoman is Janet Yellen.
24Monetary Policy Tool 1 Reserve Requirements The amount of funds that a depository institution must hold in reserves in the form of vault cash or deposits with Federal Reserve Banks.
25Monetary Policy Tool 2 The Discount Rate The interest rate charged to commercial banks and other depository institutions on loans they receive from the Fed.
26Open Market Operations Monetary Policy Tool 3Open Market OperationsPurchases and oversees sales of U.S. Treasury and federal agency securities. These operations are the Fed's principal tool for implementing monetary policy.