Chapter 28 – Sun-Earth-Moon System Space, the final frontier... -Cpt. James T. Kirk- USS Enterprise
28.1 Tools of Astronomy OBJECTIVES Describe electromagnetic radiation. -Explain Spectrum Explain how telescopes work. -what types are there? -what makes them different? Describe space exploration. -Who and when? -What countries? Describe moon features -ejecta, mare, albedo…
28.1 Electromagnetic spectrum The arrangement of waves that includes gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, and radio waves according to wavelength and frequency is called the electromagnetic spectrum.
28.1 Refracting Telescopes The telescope that uses lenses to bring visible light to a focus is a refracting telescope.
28.1 Reflecting Telescopes Telescopes that uses mirrors to bring visible light to a focus
28.1 Interferometry Interferometry i s the process of linking many separate telescopes together to act as one
28.1 Satellites Telescopes are placed above the atmosphere in order to most effectively collect infrared and ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays. Hubble Space Telescope
28.1 Space spinoff Cell phones, PCs, flat screen TV are a few examples of this.
28.2 The Moon OBJECTIVES Describe the development of exploration of the Moon Identify features on the Moon. Explain the theories about how Moon was created.
Space Race Yuri Gagarin was the first man in space.
Project Mercury Alan Shepard was the first American man in space. Project Mercury launched the first American into space on May 5, 1960.
Project Gemini Project Gemini launched a two-person spacecraft into orbit in 1965.
Project Apollo The space exploration program that landed astronauts on the Moon was Apollo. Apollo Missions
July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to step foot on the Moon.
Moon’s Features The Moon’s surface is very different from the surface of Earth because the Moon has no erosion.
Ejecta Ejecta is the material blasted out of the Moon’s surface as a result of space-object impacts.
Mare Dark, smooth plains on the Moon's surface (Maria, pl.)
Albedo The portion of sunlight reflected by the Moon’s surface. (actually from any satellite or planet that cannot produce its own light)
Rilles Valley-like structures on the Moon's surface
Synchronous Rotation The Moon's state, in which its rotational and orbital periods are equal
Simultaneous formation theory The theory that suggests the Moon was formed at about the same time as Earth and from similar materials is called the simultaneous formation theory.
28.3 The Sun-Earth-Moon System OBJECTIVES Identify the relative positions and motions of Earth, the Sun, and the Moon. Describe the phases of the moon. Explain eclipses of the Sun and Moon.
Earth’s Rotation The daily rising and setting of heavenly objects like the Sun is caused by the rotation of Earth.
Solar Day Our timekeeping system is based on the solar day.
Foucault pendulum Hanging-weight system that helps demonstrate the rotation of Earth
Ecliptic Plane of the Earth's orbit about the Sun called the ecliptic
Earth’s Tilt Different seasons occur because of Earth’s tilt and Earth’s orbital motion around the Sun.
Solstice Earth’s position near or on December 21, at which the northern hemisphere has its minimum daylight hours Earth’s position around June 21, at which the northern hemisphere has its maximum daylight hours
Equinox Earth’s position when the lengths of day and night are equal ‘Vernal’ ‘Autumnal’
Apogee vs. perigee Apogee - Farthest point from Earth in the Moon’s orbit Perigee - Closest point to Earth in the Moon’s orbit
Lunar Phases The sequential changes in the appearance of the Moon are called lunar phases. Sun
Waxing When the Moon waxes during its lunar cycle, the amount of its sunlight portion that we see appears to increase in size.
“Blue Moon” When 2 full moons occur in the same calendar month.. YearMonth First Full Moon Blue Moon 2009December2 nd at 07:2931 st at 19:11 YearMonth First Full Moon Blue Moon 2012August2 nd at 03:2531 st at 13:56
Lunar Eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes through Earth's shadow. Can only occur during the phase of the full moon.
Solar Eclipse Occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth ( Solar eclipses can only occur at time of New Moon )
Eclipses - Why not every month? The orbit of the Moon is tilted 5° relative to the ecliptic plane of the Earth-Sun. ie. Most months its shadow passes north or south of the Earth.