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Agents of Disease Mrs. Pittaluga 8 th Grade Science.

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1 Agents of Disease Mrs. Pittaluga 8 th Grade Science

2 Viruses H1N1 Virus

3 Characteristics Nonliving Neither a prokaryote or an eukaryote Prokaryote – no nucleus or other defined organelles Eukaryote – nucleus and defined organelles Varicella Virus – Chicken Pox

4 Other Characteristics Neither a heterotroph nor an autotroph Reproduces by invading host cells Two parts: Protective protein outer coat (called the capsid) Inner core that stores genetic material Because viruses are non-living, antibiotics are ineffective. Immunizations help prevent viral infections Anti-virals are typical method of treatment (Tamiflu)

5 Method of Infection Invades a cell and reproduces inside the cell until it splits open and destroys the cell How Viruses Attack


7 Common Viruses Common Cold Flu – H1N1 (Swine Flu), Bird Flu (H5N1) HIV/AIDS Chicken Pox/Shingles Polio Rabies

8 Bacteria Living Prokaryote – no nucleus Single celled organism Good and bad bacteria

9 Other Characteristics Both heterotrophs and autotrophs Heterotrophs gain their food from other organisms or from food other organisms make. Autotrophs gain their food by capturing and using the sun’s energy Rapid growth by means of either asexual (binary fission) or sexual reproduction (conjugation). Different shapes – spiral, round, rod-shaped There are approximately five nonillion (5 x ) on Earth The study of bacteria is bacteriology, a branch of microbiology

10 Shapes of Bacteria 3 primary shapes Spherical (cocci/coccus) Streptococcus (Strep throat, Scarlet fever, pneumonia) Rod-shaped (bacilli/bacillum) – Most common shape Salmonella Lactobacillus acidophilus (yogurt) Spiral (spirilli/spirillum) Cholera Lyme Disease part-1-f-sc-biology-chapter-6.html

11 Method of Infection Some bacteria invade cells directly Some bacteria produce toxins which damage cells Can be treated with antibiotics Amoxicillin (Amoxil) Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) Azithromycin (Zithromax) Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (Septra) Cholera Bacteria

12 Diseases Caused by Bacteria Strep Throat Tuberculosis Anthrax Bubonic Plague E. Coli Necrotizing Fasciitis (“Flesh- eating bacteria”) – Streptococcus pyogenes Acidophilus (good bacteria) E. Coli Bacteria

13 Protists The Kingdom of Protists are kind of like the misfits. They contain a variety of characteristics that do not place them in any of the other kingdoms of life. (Monera – bacteria, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia)

14 Protists Living Eukaryotes – they do have a nucleus 3 primary types Plant-like Animal-like Fungus-like

15 Other Characteristics Usually grow in wet places Most are heterotrophs Three forms of movement Flagella Pseudopods Cilia Some are parasites to humans

16 Method of Infection Drinking contaminated water Eating contaminated food Sustaining an insect bite

17 Diseases Caused by Protists Malaria ( Plasmodium) Giardiasis ( Giardia intestinalis ) Amoebic dysentary ( Entamoeba hystolica ) African Sleeping Sickness ( Trypanosoma )

18 Fungi

19 Characteristics Living Eukaroyotes Heterotrophs Use spores to reproduce Are decomposers Live in damp, warm places Some are parasites to humans

20 Classification of Fungi Club Fungi Sac Fungi Zygote Fungi

21 Methods of Infection Spores from an infected person can survive on damp surfaces (showers) and infect skin Growth on skin: Asexual reproduction – budding Sexual reproduction – Hyphae of two fungi grow together and exchange genetic material

22 Diseases Caused by Fungus Fungal Meningitis (not contagious) Jock Itch – Tinea cruris Athlete’s foot Ringworm

23 Helminths Multicellular organisms with a physiology that is similar to humans so they are difficult to treat Diseases include: Schistosomiasis (caused by the Schistosoma flatworm) Trichinosis (caused by the Trichinella spiralis roundworm) Guinea worm disease (caused by Dracunculus medinensis roundworm )

24 Prions New classification of pathogen (last few decades) Infectious Proteins Diseases include: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans Scrapie in sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”) in cattle

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