Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18: Chemical Equilibrium"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 18: Chemical Equilibrium A State of Dynamic Balance
2What is Equilibrium?A reversible reaction is a reaction that can take place in both the forward and reverse directions.When a reaction is reversible a double-headed arrow will be used. Chemical equilibrium occurs when the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same speed. At equilibrium, the concentrations of reactants and products remain the same.
3Law of Chemical Equilibrium This law states that at a given temperature, a chemical system may achieve a state in which a ratio of reactant and product concentrations has a constant value.The general equation for an equilibrium reaction isaA + bB cC + dD
4Equilibrium ConstantThe equilibrium constant expression for an equilibrium system is given asKeq = [C]c[D]d[A]a[B]bThe brackets refer to molar concentrations.
5Homogeneous vs Heterogeneous Equilibria In homogeneous equilibria, all of the compounds are in the same state.When more than one state is present, pure solids and liquids are not included in the equilibrium expression.
6H2S (g) + 2H2O (g) SO2 (g) + 3H2 (g) Homogeneous ExampleWrite the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide and water vapor to form sulfur dioxide and hydrogen.H2S (g) + 2H2O (g) SO2 (g) + 3H2 (g)
7Heterogeneous Example Write the equilibrium constant expression for the high-temperature reaction of carbon dioxide and solid carbon to form carbon monoxide.CO2 (g) + C (s) 2 CO (g)
8Practice ProblemsWrite equilibrium constant expressions for the following equilibria.a. C2H4O (g) CH4 (g) + CO (g)b. 3O2 (g) 2O3 (g)c. 2N2O (g) + O2 (g) 4NO (g)d. 4NH3 (g) + 3O2 2N2 (g) + 6H2O (g)
9Practice ProblemWrite equilibrium constant expressions for the following equilibria.a. C4H10 (l) C4H10 (g)b. NH4HS (s) NH3 (g) + H2S (g)c. CO (g) + Fe3O4 (s) CO2 (g) + 3 FeO (s)d. (NH4)2CO3 (s) 2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) + H2O (g)
10Calculating KeqThe value of Keq is a constant for a given reaction at a given temperature.If Keq is greater than 1, then products are favored at equilibrium.If Keq is less than 1, reactants are favored.If you know the concentrations you can find the Keq.
112NO (g) + Br2 (g) 2NOBr (g) ExampleNitrogen monoxide and bromine react to form nitrosyl bromide according to the following equation.2NO (g) + Br2 (g) 2NOBr (g)Calculate Keq for this equilibrium using the data [NOBr] = M, [NO] = M and [Br2] = M.
12HCONH2 (g) NH3 (g) + CO (g) Practice ProblemsThe following is the chemical equation for the decomposition of formamide.HCONH2 (g) NH3 (g) + CO (g)Calculate Keq using the equilibrium data [HCONH2] = M, [NH3] = M and [CO] = M.
134H2 (g) + CS2 (g) CH4 (g) + 2H2S (g) Practice ProblemsHydrogen and carbon disulfide react to form methane and hydrogen sulfide according to this equation.4H2 (g) + CS2 (g) CH4 (g) + 2H2S (g)Calculate Keq if the equilibrium concentrations are [H2] = M, [CS2] = M, [CH4] = M and [H2S] = M.
14Le Châtelier’s Principle This principle states that if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that relieves the stress.Situations:Adding or removing componentsChanges in volumeChanges in temperature
152NO (g) + Br2 (g) 2NOBr (g) ExampleUse Le Chatelier’s principle to predict how each of the following changes would affect this equilibrium.2NO (g) + Br2 (g) 2NOBr (g)Adding more NOBrAdding more NORemoving Br2Decreasing the volume
16Changes in Temperature A change in temperature changes both the equilibrium position and the value of Keq.For example, considerH2 (g) + Cl2 (g) 2HCl (g) ΔH°= -185 kJThe forward reaction releases heat, so heat is a product as seen asH2 (g) + Cl2 (g) 2HCl (g) + heat
17Temperature Changes (cont’d) Raising the temperature causes the value of Keq to decrease, since heat is removed.If the temperature is lowered, the equilibrium relieves the stress by shifting to the right, increasing the concentration of product and the Keq.
18PCl5 (g) PCl3 (g) + Cl2 (g) + heat Practice ProblemPhosphorus pentachloride decomposes exothermically to form phosphorus trichloride and chlorine.PCl5 (g) PCl3 (g) + Cl2 (g) + heatHow would you regulate the temperature of this equilibrium in order to do the following?Increase the concentration of PCl5Decrease the concentration of PCl3Increase the amount of Cl2 in the systemDecrease Keq