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Environmental Compliance

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Compliance"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Compliance
Health and Safety Management Professional Certificate in Human Resources Tom Brandon, CPP, CUSA O (619) F (619)

2 Environmental Compliance
Water Pollution Air Pollution Pollution of the land Key events Industrial Hygiene Hazard Communication It’s become clear in the past few decades that the environment in which we live is finite and subject to substantial damage. For years, sewage poured into rivers, bays, and oceans; hazardous chemicals were discharged into the air, and the land was polluted by industrial wastes. Statutes concerning environmental pollution go far beyond common law and , in addition impose criminal penalties on those who are guilty of violating statutes.

3 Environmental Compliance
Water Pollution Clean Water Act Water Pollution Control Act Oil Protection Act Exxon Valdez Maintenance of water quality is main concern.. Also prohibits discharge of refuse matter of any kind. Oil protection act prohibits the discharge of oil from a tanker or ship, unless such discharge if for the securing the safety of a ship, preventing damage to cargo, or saving a life at sea. Criminal and civil penalties, including both fines and imprisonment

4 Environmental Compliance
Air Pollution Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Kyoto Protocol Noise Control Act The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at combating global warming. Goal of achieving "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."[1] The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February As of February 2009, 183 states have signed and ratified the protocol.[2] The Protocol establishes legally binding commitment for the reduction of four greenhouse gases (GHG) Noise Control Act is a statute of the United States initiating a federal program of regulating noise pollution with the intent of protecting human health and minimizing annoyance of noise to the general public. Aircraft noise, for a treatment of aviation related noise. Industrial noise, for a discussion of workplace noise. Noise health effects, for a summary of the health and annoyance impacts of noise. Noise regulation, for a fuller explication of the history and legacy of this law. Roadway noise, for a discussion of the prevalent form of environmental noise. Light Pollution

5 Environmental Compliance
Pollution of the land Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) “Superfund” Love Canal Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is a United States law, passed by the United States Congress in 1976, that regulates the introduction of new or already existing chemicals. It grandfathered most existing chemicals, The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) primary mission is to reduce crashes, injuries, fatalities, and property loss involving large trucks and buses by regulating the workers involved. In carrying out its safety mandate to reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities, FMCSA: What is RCRA? RCRA is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, which was enacted by Congress in RCRA's primary goals are to protect human health and the environment from the potential hazards of waste disposal, to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the amount of waste generated, and to ensure that wastes are managed in an environmentally sound manner. What is regulated under RCRA? regulates the management of solid waste (e.g., garbage), hazardous waste, and underground storage tanks holding petroleum products or certain chemicals. Superfund is the common name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), a United States federal law designed to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites[1] Superfund created the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and it provides broad federal authority to clean up releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment. The law authorized the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify parties responsible for contamination of sites and compel the parties to clean up the sites. Where responsible parties cannot be found, the Agency is authorized to clean up sites itself, using a special trust fund.

6 Environmental Compliance
Key events Bhopal In Bhopal, India, lethal methyl isocyanate gas was accidentally released from a pesticides plant run by a subsidiary of Union Carbide. Between 2,500 and 5,000 people in Bhopal died on the day of the disaster, and thousands more have died since from ill-effects. The Bhopal disaster or Bhopal gas tragedy was an industrial disaster that took place at a Union Carbide pesticide plant in the Indian city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. On 3 December 1984, the plant released 42 tonnes of toxic methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, exposing more than 500,000 people to toxic gases. The first official immediate death toll was 2,259. A more generally accepted figure is that 8, ,000 died within 72 hours, and it is estimated that 25,000 have since died from gas-related diseases this is my tribute to the people who lost their lives The 1985 reports[20][21][22] give a quite clear picture of what led to the disaster and how it developed, although they differ in details. Factors leading to this huge gas leak include: The use of hazardous chemicals (MIC) instead of less dangerous ones Storing these chemicals in large tanks instead of over 200 steel drums. Possible corroding material in pipelines Poor maintenance after the plant ceased production in the early 1980s Failure of several safety systems (due to poor maintenance and regulations). Safety systems shut down to save money - including the MIC tank refrigeration system which alone would have prevented the disaster.

7 Environmental Compliance
Key events Bhopal: the Union Carbide gas leak Chernobyl: Russian nuclear power plant explosion Seveso: Italian dioxin crisis The 1952 London smog disaster Major oil spills of the 20th and 21st century The Love Canal chemical waste dump The Baia Mare cyanide spill The European BSE crisis Spanish waste water spill The Three Mile Island near nuclear disaster

8 Environmental Compliance
Bhopal

9 Industrial Hygiene Part science, part art
Industrial Hygiene is the application of scientific principles in the workplace to prevent the development of occupational disease or injury Requires knowledge of chemistry, physics, anatomy, physiology, mathematics

10 History of IH Disease resulting from exposure to chemicals or physical agents have existed ever since people chose to use or handle materials with toxic potential In the far past, causes were not always recognized Lead poisoning among miners by Hippocrates, 4th century BC Georgius Agricola published a 12 volume set in 1556, De Re Metallica Town physician in Saxony Silver mining Described diseases of lungs, joints, eyes Woodcuts (see next slide) “If the dust has corrosive qualities, it eats away at the lungs, and implants consumption in the body” Later determined to be silicosis, tuberculosis, and lung cancer Bernardino Ramazzini ( ): Urged physicians to ask the question, “Of what trade are you?” He described diseases associated with various lower-class trades, such as corpse carriers and laundresses. Mad Hatter: Lewis Carroll’s “Alice in Wonderland” (1865) Mad Hatter exhibited symptoms of mercury poisoning, such as mental and personality changes marked by depression and tendency to withdraw Mercury was used in processing hides made into hats Bars were installed on windows at hat factories presumably to prevent afflicted workers from leaping during bouts of depression A few industrial hygienists were practicing in early 1900s Physicians sometimes saw the industrial hygienist as a threat to their realm of expertise Dr. Alice Hamilton was a pioneer Occupational Physician and female pioneer. She helped foster the field of IH in the US American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) formed in 1939

11 IH Program: Minimum Elements
Commonly regarded as the three phase of industrial hygiene Identification of health hazards Evaluation of health hazards Control of health hazards Recordkeeping Employee training Periodic program review

12 Dose-Response Relationship
The toxicity of a substance depends not only on its toxic properties, but also on the amount of exposure, or the dose Differentiated between Chronic (low-level, long-term) poisoning Acute (high-level, short-term) poisoning

13 Scope of IH Recognition, Evaluation, and Control of hazards or agents
Chemical Agents Dusts, mists, fumes, vapors, gases Physical Agents Ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, vibration, and temperature extremes Biological Agents Insects, molds, yeasts, fungi, bacteria, viruses Ergonomic Agents Monotony, fatigue, repetitive motion

14 Control of Agents Controls in this order of preference
Engineering Controls Engineering changes in design, equipment, processes Substituting a non-hazardous material Substitute a less hazardous material, local exhaust ventilation Administrative Controls Reduce the human exposure by changes in procedures, work-area access restrictions, worker rotation Worker rotation, training Personal Protective Equipment / Clothing Ear plugs / muffs, safety glasses / goggles, respirators, gloves, clothing, hard-hats Respirators, gloves, eye protection, ear protection, etc.

15 Evaluation of hazards Measurements Calculation of dose Keep records
Air sampling, noise meters, light meters, thermal stress meters, accelerometers (vibration) Calculation of dose Level and duration of exposure Keep records

16 Acute and Chronic Terminology: Exposure as well as Response
Acute exposure: short time / high concentration Chronic exposure: long-term, low concentration Acute response: rash, watering eyes, cough from brief exposure to ammonia Chronic response: emphysema from years of cigarette smoking Latency Period : Long delay between exposure and disease Some diseases may not develop for many years Lung cancer may occur as much as 30 years after exposure to asbestos This makes animal studies and epidemiological studies even more difficult, but also very valuable

17 Routes of Exposure Inhalation Ingestion Absorption through the skin
Less common Injection Absorption through eyes and ear canals Inhalation: Most common route of entry into body Therefore our area of highest concern Lungs are designed for efficient gas exchange between the air and bloodstream Skin Absorption: Materials can be absorbed into blood stream just below the skin surface or toxins can be stored in fat deposits Obviously workers can easily expose their hands into solvents, oils, chemicals, etc., plus these materials can be sprayed or rubbed on other parts of the body Many chemicals are either soluble in water or in oil (fat, lipid) The skin easily absorbs lipid-soluble materials Solvents Water-soluble materials are not easily absorbed Lipid layer on skin provides a barrier Ingestion: Ingestion is not usually intentional Unintentional ingestion Failure to wash hands and face before meals Eating/drinking in areas where airborne hazards exist Lighting cigarettes with dirty hands Application of cosmetics Use of chewing tobacco or gum in contaminated areas

18 Professional Organizations (USA)
American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), member organization American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), member organization for government employees American Board of Industrial Hygiene (ABIH), independent organization that administers certification programs for industrial hygiene professional American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Founded 1939 Nonprofit professional society for IH professionals Exists to promote the field 12,500 members in 2000 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Founded 1938, Approximately 5,000 members Full members government and academic IHs only Increased role for associate members Publish threshold limit values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) Malaysian Industrial Hygiene Association (MIHA)

19 Hazard Communication Standard

20 Hazard Communication Standard
Became law under OSHA in 1983 Mandates responsibilities for chemical “providers” (chemical manufacturers) Evaluate chemicals Label containers Provide MSDS to users Mandates responsibilities for chemical “users” (employers) Evaluate workplace hazards Develop written plan to communicate hazards

21 Flow of Chemical Information
Manufacturer Employer Employee

22 Written Program Lists hazardous materials Describes labeling system
Location of MSDSs Information for non-routine hazards explained Describes training program Explains how contractors’ employees are informed of hazards Available to employees, their representatives, OSHA and NIOSH OSHA – Occupational Safety & Health Administration NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

23 Three Key Components Container Labeling Employee Training
General Job Specific Material Safety Data Sheets

24 Product Container Labeling
All containers brought into the workplace must be labeled Bags, barrels, bottles, boxes, cans, cylinders, drums, storage tanks, piping systems Labels to include: Identity of chemical Name and address of manufacturer or importer Hazard warning

25 Labeling by Employer Containers provided on site must be labeled
Identity of chemical Hazard warning All containers are labeled Piping systems Stationary containers, tanks and vessels, process equipment May be posted with single sign or placard

26 Hazard Labels NFPA Fire Diamond Red: Flammability Blue: Health
Yellow: Reactivity White: Special Numbered 0-4 0=no hazard 4=extreme hazard

27 Employee Training General Overview of standard Implementation at site
Job Specific Specific to work area Specific to chemicals used Updated with new chemicals and processes

28 MSDS Standardized summary of the results of health and safety research on a chemical product Available at your work site If needed information is missing - ASK If you have a question - ASK Know the information before you use a chemical Never rely on looking it up after an accident

29 Material Safety Data Sheets
CONTENTS: Material Identification Hazardous Ingredients Physical Data Fire and Explosion Data Reactivity Health Hazards Spill, Leak, Disposal Data Special Protection Information Additional Information

30 MSDS Material Identification Hazardous Ingredients/Composition
Product name/identifier Chemical formula Manufacturer Emergency contacts Hazardous Ingredients/Composition Chemical name CAS number Percentage Chemical Abstract Service # - A specific identification number for chemicals. If more than one chemical there will be more than one CAS

31 MSDS Physical Data pH, boiling point, melting point, specific gravity, vapor density (air = 1) Fire and Explosion Data Flash point, LEL-UEL, NFPA rating Reactivity Data Materials that are incompatible Possible reactions Stability LEL – Lower Explosive Limits – minimum concentration in the air to ignite UEL – Upper Explosive Limits – Maximum concentration required for ignition to be present NFPA – National Fire Protection Association

32 MSDS Health Hazards Routes of Exposure How can you be exposed
Types of Exposure Chronic or acute Toxicity Potential to cause harm Carcinogenicity Cancer causing

33 Health Hazards - Routes of Exposure
How can you be exposed? Inhalation Breath it Ingestion Eat or drink it Absorption Through the skin

34 Health Hazards - Type of Exposure
Chronic Exposure: An adverse effect with symptoms that develop slowly over a long period of time e.g., repeated exposure to asbestos Acute Exposure: An adverse effect with symptoms that develop rapidly e.g., dropped bottle of acid

35 Health Hazards - Exposure Limits
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Regulatory standard set by OSHA Threshold Limit Value (TLV) ACGH recommendation Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) 8-hour day and 40-hour week Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) 15 min/4X per dayI60 mm interval/TWA not exceeded Ceiling Limit (TLV-C) At no time to be exceeded ACIGH – American Conference Industrial Hygienists

36 Health Hazards - Toxicity Determination
Generally based on animal studies LC50 Lethal Concentration (in air) For 50% of test population LD50 Lethal Dose (ingested) IDLH Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health The smaller the level, the more toxic the chemical

37 MSDS Spill, Leak, Disposal Data
Primarily used by spill team and waste operations Special Protection Information Equipment and precautions for handling Additional Information DOT shipping name and ID number TSCA SARA 313 TSCA – Toxic Substance Control Act SARA – Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act of 1986

38 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Safety Glasses/Goggles Chemical, machine Gloves Chemical, work Garments/Aprons/Smocks Earplugs/Ear Muffs Respiratory Protection Boots

39 MSDS It is Your Right to Know It is Your Responsibility to Work Safely
Know What the Hazards are ...Know How to Avoid Them

40 HazCom at Home Chemicals and products used in the home are also
hazardous Irritants: chlorine bleach, ammonia Toxics: pesticides, herbicides, silver cleaner Corrosives: tile cleaner, battery acid Flammables: paints, furniture stripper, diesel fuel Read warning labels Be aware of potential hazards Use with care

41 Environmental Compliance
Tools and resources EPA Air Quality Management District (AQMD) (business resources)


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