Presentation on theme: "Hello I'll tackle this question from an ecological perspective. First, I'll (very broadly) describe an ecological perspective/approach: relationships between."— Presentation transcript:
Hello I'll tackle this question from an ecological perspective. First, I'll (very broadly) describe an ecological perspective/approach: relationships between organisms and the manner in which these organisms interact in their environment in complex ways where the environment is seen as an indivisible whole. Now that that's out of the way, here's a list of 'teacher talk functions': SDT (TT) functions from an ecological perspective: 1) Direct Instruction: may be a tool but meaning is seen as being constantly co-constructed. 2) Feedback: mediation as a process whereby tools (materials) and language are used to develop and internalize new language. This differs from traditional corrective feedback (CF) in that it is not a treatment of error, rather, a collaborative dialog, although CF techniques ( explicit correction, metalinguistic explanation, elicitation, paralinguistic signals as gestures, intonation and the like, recasts, repetition and clarification requests from T to S or from S to T) may be employed. 3) Questions: integral part of the mediation process as context/situation signals their use (from very closed to very open) but must have relevance or the potential to scaffold the interaction. Wait time is context dependent. 4) Instructions: use of visual aid, gestures and rehearsals. Indexicality (pointing, naming, gesturing) may be necessary to build joint understanding. 5) First language Use: seen as a legitimate tool in the mediation process, no stigma attached.
More ecological functions: 6) Teacher as Learner: questions and statements as teacher takes on the role of learner. Teacher talk becomes learner talk. 7) Scaffolding: 'assisted participation in proximal contexts'. It is seen as a kind of 'handover/takeover' game where 'learning opportunities (or 'affordances') emerge' (van Lier, 2004, p. 147-152). A talking teacher has an ear open to the moment when the conversational lead can be handed over to the learner. I'll finish with a quote from Vygotsky (via van Lier, 2004): "In conversation, every sentence is prompted by a motive. Desire or need lead to a request, question to answer, bewilderment to explanation. The changing motives of the interlocutors determine at every moment the turn oral speech will take. It does not have to be consciously directed-- the dynamic situation takes care of that." You may say: That's crazy... I can barely get my students to answer a question much less participate in a 'dynamic situation'... and I would respond: You're right. An ecological or, in this case, a sociocultural approach, may not be successful unless the participants have threshold level motive (a desire to learn). But then, isn't this always true? The following slide (figure one) is meant to show a very primitive representation of the ecological (triadic) framework in which teacher talk may occur. Resources: Lantolf and Thorne (2006) Sociocultural Theory and the Genesis of Second Language Development. Oxford Press. van Lier (2004) The Ecology and Semiotics of Language Learning. Kluwer.
Learner TalkTeacher Talk Materials/Tools Teacher-Learner Relationship Learner-Tools Relationship Teacher-Tools Relationship Teacher-Learner-Tools The degree to which teacher and learner are able to collaborate effectively and affectively The 'budget' of opportunities that exist in the environment for teacher and learner (as collaborators) to co-construct meaning in relationship to each other and in relationship to the cultural and symbolic tools available. This process is mediated by providing appropriate scaffolded experiences to allow the learner to internalize and 'own' new language The degree to which the learner is able to use the materials to become engaged in mediating new language The degree to which the teacher is able to use the materials to become engaged in mediating new language The main function of teacher talk is to mediate language to promote learner 'self-regulation' The main function of learner talk is to mediate language for internalization 1) Cultural tools; computers, software, books, charts, diagrams, songs, stories, dance and so on 2) Symbolic tools: language, gesture, intonation and so on Figure One: The triadic nature of language learning