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Plant Science. Career Areas Forest careers are related to growing, managing, and harvesting trees for wood and wood by-products.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Science. Career Areas Forest careers are related to growing, managing, and harvesting trees for wood and wood by-products."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Science

2 Career Areas Forest careers are related to growing, managing, and harvesting trees for wood and wood by-products

3 Forest career examples Forester- is a service-oriented career that helps with the science of growing trees Forest ranger- finds employment primarily with the government to manage forests on state and federal lands but may also assist with fire prevention on private lands as well.

4 Forest career examples Logging foreman- will supervise a crew involved in the harvesting phase

5 Career Areas Horticultural careers are as varied as the industry itself Floriculture careers are related to flower production and use

6 Floriculture careers Floral designer- designs flowers for florist or business Flower grower- produces flowers used in floral design Greenhouse manager- manages the production process for a flower grower

7 Floriculture careers cont. Retail florist- floral business that furnishes flowers to the general public Wholesale florist- floral business that furnishes flowers and supplies to retail florist

8 Landscaping and nursery careers Landscaping and nursery careers are related to the use and production of plants for aesthetic purposes. Plants may be used around homes, businesses, parks, etc.

9 Landscaping and nursery careers Greenskeeper- takes care of golf course turf Landscaper- installs plants in various locations Landscape architect- designs plans for plant installation Nursery operator- grows trees and shrubs needed for landscaping Turf farmer- grows turf grass for sale

10 Plant Science TOOLS

11 Tools used in the plant science industry A bush axe is used for clearing undergrowth shaxe/brushaxe.htm

12 Tools used in the plant science industry A grafting tool is used to prepare woody parts of two plants to be joined together Fruit stock grafting knife catalog/h64110.html

13 Tools used in the plant science industry A planting bar is a forestry tool used for setting out seedlings

14 Tools used in the plant science industry A pruning saw is used to saw limbs 40.html

15 Tools used in the plant science industry A soil thermometer is used to determine soil temperature A soil tube is used to obtain a soil sample

16 Tools used in the plant science industry Chain saws are either electric or gasoline powered. Gasoline powered chain saws are used for cutting trees and large limbs

17 Tools used in the plant science industry Hand lopping shears are used when pruning shrubs or trees to cut large branches in hard to reach places

18 Tools used in the plant science industry Hedge shears are used when trimming and shaping shrubbery into a continuous row or hedge Pruning shears are used to cut small limbs when shaping shrubbery

19 What do plants grow in?

20 Types of plant growing media Soil is the top layer of the Earth’s surface and is the primary medium for cultivated plants Sphagnum moss is used for encouraging root growth under certain conditions

21 Types of plant growing media Perlite is a volcanic glass material used for starting new plants and in media mixes Vermiculite is a mineral mica-type material used for starting plant seeds and cuttings and in media mixes Peat moss is used in media mixes of various types

22 Amending the pH of Plant Growing Media Improper soil/media pH will have the most impact on the availability of nutrients in the soil/media Soil/media with high alkalinity are made more acidic by lowering the pH value with sulfur or aluminum sulfate

23 Amending the pH of Plant Growing Media Soil/media with a high acidic level is made more alkaline by raising the value with lime Lime is usually applied as finely ground limestone that supplies both calcium and magnesium

24 Fertilizers A complete fertilizer must contain the three primary nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium Fertilizers come in various forms, but most nutrients within a fertilizer must come in a liquid form (soluble) to be used by plants

25 Fertilizers Organic fertilizers include animal manures and compost made with plant or animal products. Some examples are: Dried and pulverized manures Bone meal (phosphorus is the primary element) Soybean meal

26 Fertilizers Organic fertilizers are usually slow acting and long lasting forms of nitrogen but lacking in the other primary nutrients (except bone meal) Inorganic fertilizers have a higher analysis of soluble nutrients that have been blended together for a specific purpose.

27 Fertilizer applications Broadcasting or spreading evenly over the entire surface is used on turf and home lawns Side-dressing is done by placing fertilizer in bands about 8 inches from the row of growing plants Foliar application is the spraying of fertilizer directly onto the leaves of plants, usually organic

28 Roots: take in the nutrients and water from the soil Taproot: main root of a plant and generally Fibrous roots: thin, thread-like, usually without a primary root present

29 Stem Woody stems are tough and winter hardy. They often have bark around them Herbaceous stems are succulent, often green, and will not survive in cold climates Supports the leaves, flowers, and fruit Two basic types of aboveground stems: woody and herbaceous

30 Stem modifications Tuber: underground stem enlarged for storage of food

31 Stem modifications Rhizome: underground stem, often has buds which sprout to form new shoots

32 Stem modifications Stolon: above ground stem, has buds which sprout to form new shoots

33 Stem modifications Bulb: underground stem with fleshy leaves which store food, for example an onion Corm: fleshy underground stem wit papery leaves, for example a gladiolus

34 Leaves The leaf manufactures the food for the plant by using light energy

35 Leaves are useful for identification of the plant. The leaf edge (margin), shape, and arrangement are all important in plant identification

36 Flowers The primary function of flowers is the production of seed A perfect flower contains all male and female parts

37 Other Seed develops in the female part of the flower (pistil) The pistil then enlarges and becomes the fruit

38 The photosynthesis process Photosynthesis is a series of processes in which light energy is connected to chemical energy in the form of a simple sugar Chlorophyll and chloroplast are essential Plants used carbon dioxide to manufacture food for plant and releases oxygen necessary for animal life at the same time

39 The photosynthesis process The rate at which the photosynthesis (food making) process occurs depends on and varies with light intensity, temperature, and concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

40 The photosynthesis process A shortage of carbon dioxide causes a low rate of photosynthesis An enclosed greenhouse can have a shortage of carbon dioxide A carbon dioxide generator might be used to correct a shortage of carbon dioxide in the greenhouse

41 The photosynthesis process Low light hinders plant growth A dark room reduces the rate of photosynthesis and plants will have stunted growth and yellow leaves Plants adapt to various levels of light brightness (intensity) but all plants have a preferred range of light intensity

42 The photosynthesis process Temperature affects the process of photosynthesis The best rate of photosynthesis occurs between 65-85 degrees Fahrenheit Extremes of temperature can completely stop the process

43 Parts of the Flower The male part is the stamen and consists of the: Filament that supports the anther Anther that manufactures pollen Pollen that is the male reproductive cell

44 Parts of the Flower The female part is the pistil and consists of the : Stigma that receives the pollen Style that is the connection to the ovary Ovary that contains the ovules (female reproductive cells)

45 Parts of the Flower Petals are the colored part of the flower that attract insects or other natural pollinators Sepals function as a protection for the developing flower

46 Parts of the seed gwmager/SeedLbl.html

47 Parts of the seed Seed coat- protects the seed Sometimes the seed coat is very hard and difficult to germinate Horticulturalists assist germination by scarifying the seed coat or damaging the seed coat to promote germination

48 Parts of the seed Endosperm- supplies food for the germinating seed Embryo- is the young plant itself

49 Propagation Increasing the number of a plant species or reproduction of a species Sexual propagation is the use of a seed for reproducing plants Only way to obtain new varieties and increase hybrid vigor Often times is less expensive and quicker than other methods

50 Propagation Asexual propagation is the use of a part or parts of a plant for reproducing plants Also called vegetative propagation The new plant is an exact duplication of the parent plant

51 Methods of asexual propagation Cuttings are vegetative parts that the parent uses to regenerate itself. Some examples include leaf, root, and stem cuttings

52 Air layering Layering is a method where the stem is encouraged to root while still attached to the parent plant. Some examples include: simple, tip, and air layering

53 Methods of asexual propagation Division is a method that divides or separates the main part of the plant into smaller parts

54 T bud grafting Grafting is a method that joins two plants together as they grow as one (T budding is most common)

55 Methods of asexual propagation Tissue culture or micro propagation is the use of a very small and actively growing part of the plant to produce a high number of new plants (cloning) Micropropagation


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