Presentation on theme: "S MALL G ROUP C OMMUNICATION Grace Geng Tom Kwasa Alex Halvaty Tao Ji."— Presentation transcript:
S MALL G ROUP C OMMUNICATION Grace Geng Tom Kwasa Alex Halvaty Tao Ji
O UTLINES Small-Group Communication and Problem Solving Definition of a small Group Use and Value of Teams in the Effective Organization Characteristics of Effective Problem- Solving Teams The Basic Problem- Solving Procedure Selecting The Group Format Participation and Leadership in Teams Effective Team Participants Have Good Communication Skills Effective Team Participants Perform Needed Task and Maintenance Roles Effective Team LeadershipLeader Responsibilities
S MALL G ROUP C OMMUNICATION AND P ROBLEM S OLUTION
D EFINITION OF A S MALL G ROUP Small Group A small number of people Face-to-face interaction Actively working together toward a common goal
U SE AND V ALUE OF T EAMS IN THE E FFECTIVE O RGANIZATION Seek or Share Information Learningg Group Seek to inspire desirable attitudes, understanding, and communication patterns rather than merely to inform Self- maintenance Groups a series of decisions in an attempt to solve a particular problem Problem- solving Groups
C HARACTERISTICS OF E FFECTIVE P ROBLEM -S OLVING T EAMS Well organized Receive periodic training Examine assumptions and opinions Evaluate possible solutions Avoid groupthink Manage cultural diversity Operate virtually
E FFECTIVE T EAMS A RE W ELL O RGANIZED Groups follow an organized procedure are more productive Avoid sloppy thinkingFewer problems and negative behaviorHand conflicts betterBuild on strengths of membersFeel more empowered
E FFECTIVE T EAMS R ECEIVE P ERIODIC T RAINING Group productivity Group training Training can dispel a variety of prejudices people have about teams.
E FFECTIVE T EAMS E VALUATE P OSSIBLE S OLUTIONS Compare the solution to predetermined criteria Example: select employee Supervisor receive at least one letter of recommendation from satisfied customer At least an increase of 20% in sales over the previous month Employee should be liked by fellow workers
E FFECTIVE T EAMS M ANAGE C ULTURAL D IVERSITY Not all cultures view or solve problems in the same way. U.S. Expect problems to occur and are quick to identify them when they do. Great value on speed and decisiveness. Asian countries Take longer to identify problems. Evaluate all alternatives, base decision on tradition and past experience
M ANAGE C ULTURAL D IVERSITY CONT. Recognize differences Elect members for their task-related abilities Find a purpose, vision, or superordinate goal Avoid cultural dominance Develop mutual respect for each other Seek a high level of feedback Recommendations:
E FFECTIVE T EAMS O PERATE V IRTUALLY Face to face meetings Computer-mediated communication (CMC)
T HE B ASIC P ROBLEM -S OLVING P ROCEDURE a List possible alternatives List as many as time/resources allow, use brainstorming and NGT (silent vote) b Evaluate each alternative Eliminate bad, combine similar, eliminate those not meeting all “need” criteria, rank remaining against “wants” c Select best alternative and discuss implementation Best solution=highest totals, tie breakers
S ELECTING THE G ROUP F ORMAT Roundtables (most common) Small group discussion, in private, using problem solving Panel Small panel of well informed ind.discussing in front of a group Symposium Small group of experts, formal, often to educate public Forum Audience participation following panel or symposium
E FFECTIVE T EAM P ARTICIPANTS H AVE G OOD C OMMUNICATION S KILLS Active Listening: Receives, interprets, checks, repeat Open-mindedness Reach a decision that benefits group as a whole
E FFECTIVE T EAM P ARTICIPANTS H AVE G OOD C OMMUNICATION S KILLS Effective Personality Types (big five) Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience
E FFECTIVE T EAM P ARTICIPANTS P ERFORM N EEDED T ASK AND M AINTENANCE R OLES Task and Maintenance Roles Handling Dysfunctional Behaviors
G ROUP T ASK R OLES a) Initiate b) Give information c) Seek information d) Give Opinions e) Seek Opinions f) Elaborate on ideas g) Energize the group h) Review and summarize the discussions i) Record group suggestions
G ROUP M AINTENANCE R OLES 1. Encourage 2. Harmonize 3. Relieve tension 4. Gatekeep
D YSFUNCTIONAL B EHAVIORS Blocking Aggression Story Telling Recognition Seeking Dominating Confessing Special Interest Pleading Distracting Withdrawing
H ANDLING D YSFUNCTIONAL B EHAVIORS Plan your opening remarks carefully. Position the person next to a leader Avoid direct eye contact. Assign specific tasks to dysfunctional members Ask members to speak in a specific order. Break in at break time Position talkative member between 2 quiet members Encourage withdrawers Give praise and encouragement
E FFECTIVE T EAM L EADERSHIP Behavior Theories: 1. Trait 2. Two-dimension 3. Function 4. Three-dimension Situational Theories: 1. Situational Contingency 2. Path-Goal Recent Theories: 1. Normative decision 2. Transformational
L EADER R ESPONSIBILITIES Face-To-Face Meetings a) Inform about meeting location. b) Select a meeting place conducive to effective discussion. c) Check the facilities prior to meeting d) Welcome attendants e) Start and end on time. f) Preview and stick to the agenda. g) Keep minutes (recorder or secretary) h) Ask questions i) Listen carefully j) Summarize k) See to tasks and maintenance l) Thank participants m) Inform stakeholders.
L EADER R ESPONSIBILITIES Virtual Meetings a) Select team members carefully b) Avoid micro management c) Provide detailed training d) Encourage regular and extensive communications.
C ONCLUSION What is a small group? What are the advantages of teams, and why? How does one solve problems in small group? How do you make team participants effective? How to be an effective team leader?