Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Agriculture"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Agriculture Understand Global AgricultureObjective 2.01: Understand the history of global agriculture.
2 Applied Science vs. Basic Science Agriscience DefinedAgriculture- The activities related to the production of plants, animals and related processes.Agribusiness- Refers to commercial firms that have developed from agricultureAgriscience- The application of scientific principles and new technologies to agricultureApplied Science vs. Basic Science
4 Areas of Agriscience The Basic Sciences 1) Biology- The study of living things2) Chemistry- Deals with elements and simple substances3) Biochemistry- Focuses on chemistry as it is applied over living things.
5 Fact!!!A United States Department of Agricultural study forecast that job opportunities for graduates in agricultural and life sciences will exceed the graduates available in the coming years.
6 Applied Sciences Soil Science Biotechnology Horticulture Hydroponics Definition- The application of one or more of the basic sciences for practical (real life) purposes.AquacultureAgricultural EngineeringAnimal ScienceCrop ScienceAgronomySoil ScienceBiotechnologyHorticultureHydroponics
7 Agriscience Examples Agronomy Uses biology and chemistry to produce and control cropsCottonSoybeansTobaccoCornHay and Turf grass
8 Agriscience Examples Entomology Agriculture Engineering Uses biology and chemistry to study insect lifeAgriculture EngineeringUses physics to develop new machines, tools and implements
9 Agriscience Examples Biotechnology Uses biology, genetics, and chemistry to modify or change organisms for a useful purpose
10 Scientific MethodAgriculture and other sciences use the Scientific Method to solve problems (we will discuss this more in Objective 3.02)
11 What is Agriculture?The activities concerned with the production of plants, animals, and related supplies, mechanics, products, processing, and marketingProduction agriculture (farming) only accounts for 1/5th of the total agriculture jobs in the USUSDA refers to agriculture as “agriculture/agribusiness and renewable natural resources.
15 What is Agribusiness?Refers to commercial firms that have developed with or stemmed out of agricultureTake a moment to name three agribusinesses in your notes:John DeereMonsantoTractor SupplyD.D. McColl’sFCX
16 Examples of Agribusiness: Farm relatedChemical company, tractor manufacturer, pharmaceutical company (veterinary medicines)Horticulture relatedLandscape or nursery business, seed company, mower manufacturer
17 Renewable Natural Resources Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselves.Important both economically and for posterity’s sake to maintain life.ExamplesWildlifeTreesFish
18 Progress in Agriculture Mechanization helps 2% of America’s work force meet the food and fiber needs of our nationThere has been a reduction from 90% of nations populace involved in farming 200 years ago to less than 2% in 2012.Farms are becoming larger and fewer.
19 Eli Whitney Invented the cotton gin 1793 Transformed cotton to a usable productRemoved cotton seed from cotton fiber
21 George Washington Carver Late 1890sSoil improvement and crop rotationUse of “legumes”Crops that “make” their own nitrogen, ie. Peanuts.Improved soil fertility in the US South.
22 Cyrus McCormick 1834 Invented the grain reaper Cut grains Cut wheat, oats, and other crops
23 Cutting GrainWith the sickle or reaping hook one man could cut from one-half to one acre in a hard day's work.The cut grain was later bound by hand
24 The ReaperWhile this first machine required only 2 people for operation (a person to ride the horse and a man to rake the cut grain from the platform), it cut as much grain in one day as men with reaping hooks.
25 Cast Iron Plow Invented in the early 1800’s Thomas Jefferson Rough surface that dirt stuck to
26 Henry Blair1834 – Seed Planter1836 – Cotton Planter
27 Steel Moldboard Plow Invented 1837 John Deere Smoother surface Rich clay soil did not stick to itMade plowing easier and faster
28 Corn Picker Invented in 1850 Edmund Quincy Helped speed up the harvesting of corn
29 Joseph Glidden1874Barbed WireDramatically changed raising livestock
30 Milking Machine Invented in 1878 Anna Baldwin Used vacuum suction Replaced hand milking
31 Thomas Elkins 1879 Perishable Food Preservation Designed a device that helped preserve food by way of refrigeration.
32 Benjamin Holt Invented in 1904 Tractor Replaced the mule as a source of powerHorse power
33 John Sanford1987Gene gunDevice for injecting cells with genetic information
34 GPS & GIS1993Tractor based GPS systems together with sophisticated GIS used to gather dataUsed forSoil condition, humidity, temperature and other variables, which system then uses to control such things as intensity of planting, application of fertilizer and pesticides, water schedules, etc.
35 Robotic Milking Machines Late 1990sFirst used in Ontario, CanadaReduction in laborHigh initial cost = disadvantage to small producer
36 Establishment of Land Grant Institutions NCSUNC A&T State UniversityClemson
37 DefinitionAn institution designated by its state legislature to receive funding (Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890) to teach agriculture, military tactics, and the mechanical arts.Key component is the agricultural experiment station (Hatch Act 1887)
38 The Truth Examples North Carolina A&T (1890)- Greensboro, NC North Carolina State University (1887) – Raleigh, NCClemson University (1889) – Clemson, SCUniversity of Georgia (1785) – Athens, GAUniversity of Tennessee (1794) – Knoxville, TNVirginia Tech University (1872) – Blacksburg, VAThe Truth
40 Agriculture related Agencies Established to assist farmers, ranchers, and the general public with information, professional assistance and, in some cases, funding.
41 Examples USDA (1862) – United States Department of Agriculture Provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on sound public policy, the best available science, and efficient management.BranchesNRCS (1935) – Natural Resource Conservation ServiceAPHIS (1972) – Animal Plant and Health Inspection ServiceNASS (1863) – National Agricultural Statistics ServiceUSFS (1905) – United States Forest ServiceSustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation’s forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations.
42 Examples… NCCES (1914) – North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Help individuals, families, and communities put research based knowledge to work for economic prosperity, environmental stewardship and an improved quality of life.NCDA&CS – North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Promote and improve agriculture.
43 Origins of Major Food Crops – Fruits/Vegetables Peaches – ChinaTomato – South AmericaPeanut – Peru, South AmericaSweet potato – Central America
44 Grain, Oil, and Fiber Crops Corn – Cuba, MexicoSoybeans – Southeast AsiaCotton – Mexico, Africa, PakistanWheat – Southwest Asia
45 US Agricultural Production Regions develop based on a variety of factors including soils, weather, market development, feed availability, etc.
46 High Ranking Regions Citrus Fruit – Florida, Texas, and California Corn Belt – Midwestern statesWheatHard Red Spring Wheat – highest protein content, excellent bread wheat, superior milling and baking characteristicsMN, ND, SD, MT, ID, OR, WA, CASoft Red Winter Wheat – High yielding, low protein, used for cakes, biscuits, pastriesNC, TN, KY, GA, OH, IN, IL, MO
47 Production Regions… Spearmint – WA, OR, ID Floriculture Crops – CA, FL, MI, TX, NCBeef Cattle – TX, KS, NE, IA, CO, OK, MO, SDDairy – MN, WI, MI, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, MA, ME (CA, ID, TX)Hogs – NC, IA, IL, IN, MNPoultry (broilers) – NC, GA, AL, AR, MS, TX