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Introduction to Agriculture

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Agriculture"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Agriculture
Understand Global Agriculture Objective 2.01: Understand the history of global agriculture.

2 Applied Science vs. Basic Science
Agriscience Defined Agriculture- The activities related to the production of plants, animals and related processes. Agribusiness- Refers to commercial firms that have developed from agriculture Agriscience- The application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture Applied Science vs. Basic Science

3 Basic Sciences

4 Areas of Agriscience The Basic Sciences
1) Biology- The study of living things 2) Chemistry- Deals with elements and simple substances 3) Biochemistry- Focuses on chemistry as it is applied over living things.

5 Fact!!! A United States Department of Agricultural study forecast that job opportunities for graduates in agricultural and life sciences will exceed the graduates available in the coming years.

6 Applied Sciences Soil Science Biotechnology Horticulture Hydroponics
Definition- The application of one or more of the basic sciences for practical (real life) purposes. Aquaculture Agricultural Engineering Animal Science Crop Science Agronomy Soil Science Biotechnology Horticulture Hydroponics

7 Agriscience Examples Agronomy
Uses biology and chemistry to produce and control crops Cotton Soybeans Tobacco Corn Hay and Turf grass

8 Agriscience Examples Entomology Agriculture Engineering
Uses biology and chemistry to study insect life Agriculture Engineering Uses physics to develop new machines, tools and implements

9 Agriscience Examples Biotechnology
Uses biology, genetics, and chemistry to modify or change organisms for a useful purpose

10 Scientific Method Agriculture and other sciences use the Scientific Method to solve problems (we will discuss this more in Objective 3.02)

11 What is Agriculture? The activities concerned with the production of plants, animals, and related supplies, mechanics, products, processing, and marketing Production agriculture (farming) only accounts for 1/5th of the total agriculture jobs in the US USDA refers to agriculture as “agriculture/agribusiness and renewable natural resources.

12 Examples of Agriculture:
Cattle Production – farmer, cow-calf, feeder steers Processing – Slaughter facility, rendering, beef, leather Marketing – Butcher, grocery, steaks Transportation – Plane, rail, truck Related Supplies and Services – Veterinarian, feed dealer.

13 Examples of Agriculture
Wheat Production – farmer, grain Processing – grain mills, flour Marketing – bakery, bread Transportation – grain trucks, rail Related Supplies and Services – fertilizer dealer, crop scouting, machinery dealer, GPS

14 Examples of Agriculture
Roses Production – flower grower, roses Processing/Marketing – harvesters, wholesale and retail florist Transportation – plane, truck, floral delivery dealer Related Supplies and Services – glass vase sales, greenhouse manufacturers, floral designers

15 What is Agribusiness? Refers to commercial firms that have developed with or stemmed out of agriculture Take a moment to name three agribusinesses in your notes: John Deere Monsanto Tractor Supply D.D. McColl’s FCX

16 Examples of Agribusiness:
Farm related Chemical company, tractor manufacturer, pharmaceutical company (veterinary medicines) Horticulture related Landscape or nursery business, seed company, mower manufacturer

17 Renewable Natural Resources
Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselves. Important both economically and for posterity’s sake to maintain life. Examples Wildlife Trees Fish

18 Progress in Agriculture
Mechanization helps 2% of America’s work force meet the food and fiber needs of our nation There has been a reduction from 90% of nations populace involved in farming 200 years ago to less than 2% in 2012. Farms are becoming larger and fewer.

19 Eli Whitney Invented the cotton gin 1793
Transformed cotton to a usable product Removed cotton seed from cotton fiber

20 Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin

21 George Washington Carver
Late 1890s Soil improvement and crop rotation Use of “legumes” Crops that “make” their own nitrogen, ie. Peanuts. Improved soil fertility in the US South.

22 Cyrus McCormick 1834 Invented the grain reaper Cut grains
Cut wheat, oats, and other crops

23 Cutting Grain With the sickle or reaping hook one man could cut from one-half to one acre in a hard day's work. The cut grain was later bound by hand

24 The Reaper While this first machine required only 2 people for operation (a person to ride the horse and a man to rake the cut grain from the platform), it cut as much grain in one day as men with reaping hooks.

25 Cast Iron Plow Invented in the early 1800’s Thomas Jefferson
Rough surface that dirt stuck to

26 Henry Blair 1834 – Seed Planter 1836 – Cotton Planter

27 Steel Moldboard Plow Invented 1837 John Deere Smoother surface
Rich clay soil did not stick to it Made plowing easier and faster

28 Corn Picker Invented in 1850 Edmund Quincy
Helped speed up the harvesting of corn

29 Joseph Glidden 1874 Barbed Wire Dramatically changed raising livestock

30 Milking Machine Invented in 1878 Anna Baldwin Used vacuum suction
Replaced hand milking

31 Thomas Elkins 1879 Perishable Food Preservation
Designed a device that helped preserve food by way of refrigeration.

32 Benjamin Holt Invented in 1904 Tractor
Replaced the mule as a source of power Horse power

33 John Sanford 1987 Gene gun Device for injecting cells with genetic information

34 GPS & GIS 1993 Tractor based GPS systems together with sophisticated GIS used to gather data Used for Soil condition, humidity, temperature and other variables, which system then uses to control such things as intensity of planting, application of fertilizer and pesticides, water schedules, etc.

35 Robotic Milking Machines
Late 1990s First used in Ontario, Canada Reduction in labor High initial cost = disadvantage to small producer

36 Establishment of Land Grant Institutions
NCSU NC A&T State University Clemson

37 Definition An institution designated by its state legislature to receive funding (Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890) to teach agriculture, military tactics, and the mechanical arts. Key component is the agricultural experiment station (Hatch Act 1887)

38 The Truth Examples North Carolina A&T (1890)- Greensboro, NC
North Carolina State University (1887) – Raleigh, NC Clemson University (1889) – Clemson, SC University of Georgia (1785) – Athens, GA University of Tennessee (1794) – Knoxville, TN Virginia Tech University (1872) – Blacksburg, VA The Truth

39 Government Agencies

40 Agriculture related Agencies
Established to assist farmers, ranchers, and the general public with information, professional assistance and, in some cases, funding.

41 Examples USDA (1862) – United States Department of Agriculture
Provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on sound public policy, the best available science, and efficient management. Branches NRCS (1935) – Natural Resource Conservation Service APHIS (1972) – Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service NASS (1863) – National Agricultural Statistics Service USFS (1905) – United States Forest Service Sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation’s forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations.

42 Examples… NCCES (1914) – North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
Help individuals, families, and communities put research based knowledge to work for economic prosperity, environmental stewardship and an improved quality of life. NCDA&CS – North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Promote and improve agriculture.

43 Origins of Major Food Crops – Fruits/Vegetables
Peaches – China Tomato – South America Peanut – Peru, South America Sweet potato – Central America

44 Grain, Oil, and Fiber Crops
Corn – Cuba, Mexico Soybeans – Southeast Asia Cotton – Mexico, Africa, Pakistan Wheat – Southwest Asia

45 US Agricultural Production
Regions develop based on a variety of factors including soils, weather, market development, feed availability, etc.

46 High Ranking Regions Citrus Fruit – Florida, Texas, and California
Corn Belt – Midwestern states Wheat Hard Red Spring Wheat – highest protein content, excellent bread wheat, superior milling and baking characteristics MN, ND, SD, MT, ID, OR, WA, CA Soft Red Winter Wheat – High yielding, low protein, used for cakes, biscuits, pastries NC, TN, KY, GA, OH, IN, IL, MO

47 Production Regions… Spearmint – WA, OR, ID
Floriculture Crops – CA, FL, MI, TX, NC Beef Cattle – TX, KS, NE, IA, CO, OK, MO, SD Dairy – MN, WI, MI, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, MA, ME (CA, ID, TX) Hogs – NC, IA, IL, IN, MN Poultry (broilers) – NC, GA, AL, AR, MS, TX

48 NC Agriculture Mountains Piedmont Coastal Plains

49 NC Ag Production by Region
Mountain counties Christmas Trees, Apples, Trout Piedmont counties Greenhouse and nursery crops, broilers, turkeys, dairy Eastern counties Hogs, turkeys, broilers, tobacco (flue-cured), sweet potatoes, vegetables, peanuts, cotton, corn, soybeans.

50 Farm Cash Receipts (2011) $10,000,000,000 ($10B) annually
Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry - 2/3 of all FCR Broilers and hogs account for nearly ½ of this amount Crops – 1/3 of all FCR

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