Presentation on theme: "Understand Global Agriculture Objective 2.01 : Understand the history of global agriculture."— Presentation transcript:
Understand Global Agriculture Objective 2.01 : Understand the history of global agriculture.
Agriscience- The application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture Agriculture- The activities related to the production of plants, animals and related processes. Agribusiness- Refers to commercial firms that have developed from agriculture Applied Science vs. Basic Science
The Basic Sciences 1) Biology- The study of living things 2) Chemistry- Deals with elements and simple substances 3) Biochemistry- Focuses on chemistry as it is applied over living things.
A United States Department of Agricultural study forecast that job opportunities for graduates in agricultural and life sciences will exceed the graduates available in the coming years.
Aquaculture Agricultural Engineering Animal Science Crop Science Agronomy Soil Science Biotechnology Horticulture Hydroponics Definition- The application of one or more of the basic sciences for practical (real life) purposes.
Agronomy – Uses biology and chemistry to produce and control crops Cotton Soybeans Tobacco Corn Hay and Turf grass
Entomology – Uses biology and chemistry to study insect life Agriculture Engineering – Uses physics to develop new machines, tools and implements
Biotechnology – Uses biology, genetics, and chemistry to modify or change organisms for a useful purpose
Agriculture and other sciences use the Scientific Method to solve problems (we will discuss this more in Objective 3.02)
The activities concerned with the production of plants, animals, and related supplies, mechanics, products, processing, and marketing – Production agriculture (farming) only accounts for 1/5 th of the total agriculture jobs in the US USDA refers to agriculture as “agriculture/agribusiness and renewable natural resources.
Roses – Production – flower grower, roses – Processing/Marketing – harvesters, wholesale and retail florist – Transportation – plane, truck, floral delivery dealer – Related Supplies and Services – glass vase sales, greenhouse manufacturers, floral designers
Refers to commercial firms that have developed with or stemmed out of agriculture – Take a moment to name three agribusinesses in your notes: John Deere Monsanto Tractor Supply D.D. McColl’s FCX
Farm related – Chemical company, tractor manufacturer, pharmaceutical company (veterinary medicines) Horticulture related – Landscape or nursery business, seed company, mower manufacturer
Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselves. Important both economically and for posterity’s sake to maintain life. Examples – Wildlife – Trees – Fish
Mechanization helps 2% of America’s work force meet the food and fiber needs of our nation There has been a reduction from 90% of nations populace involved in farming 200 years ago to less than 2% in 2012. – Farms are becoming larger and fewer.
Invented the cotton gin 1793 Transformed cotton to a usable product Removed cotton seed from cotton fiber
Late 1890s Soil improvement and crop rotation – Use of “legumes” Crops that “make” their own nitrogen, ie. Peanuts. – Improved soil fertility in the US South.
1834 Invented the grain reaper Cut grains – Cut wheat, oats, and other crops
With the sickle or reaping hook one man could cut from one-half to one acre in a hard day's work. The cut grain was later bound by hand
While this first machine required only 2 people for operation (a person to ride the horse and a man to rake the cut grain from the platform), it cut as much grain in one day as 12-16 men with reaping hooks.
Invented in the early 1800’s Thomas Jefferson Rough surface that dirt stuck to
1834 – Seed Planter 1836 – Cotton Planter
Invented 1837 John Deere Smoother surface Rich clay soil did not stick to it Made plowing easier and faster
Invented in 1850 Edmund Quincy Helped speed up the harvesting of corn
Invented in 1878 Anna Baldwin Used vacuum suction Replaced hand milking
1879 Perishable Food Preservation Designed a device that helped preserve food by way of refrigeration.
Invented in 1904 Tractor Replaced the mule as a source of power – Horse power
1987 Gene gun – Device for injecting cells with genetic information
1993 Tractor based GPS systems together with sophisticated GIS used to gather data Used for – Soil condition, humidity, temperature and other variables, which system then uses to control such things as intensity of planting, application of fertilizer and pesticides, water schedules, etc.
Late 1990s First used in Ontario, Canada Reduction in labor High initial cost = disadvantage to small producer
NCSU NC A&T State University Clemson
An institution designated by its state legislature to receive funding (Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890) to teach agriculture, military tactics, and the mechanical arts. Key component is the agricultural experiment station (Hatch Act 1887)
North Carolina A&T (1890)- Greensboro, NC North Carolina State University (1887) – Raleigh, NC Clemson University (1889) – Clemson, SC University of Georgia (1785) – Athens, GA University of Tennessee (1794) – Knoxville, TN Virginia Tech University (1872) – Blacksburg, VA
Established to assist farmers, ranchers, and the general public with information, professional assistance and, in some cases, funding.
USDA (1862) – United States Department of Agriculture – Provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on sound public policy, the best available science, and efficient management. – Branches NRCS (1935) – Natural Resource Conservation Service APHIS (1972) – Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service NASS (1863) – National Agricultural Statistics Service USFS (1905) – United States Forest Service – Sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation’s forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations.
NCCES (1914) – North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service – Help individuals, families, and communities put research based knowledge to work for economic prosperity, environmental stewardship and an improved quality of life. – NCDA&CS – North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Promote and improve agriculture.
Peaches – China Tomato – South America Peanut – Peru, South America Sweet potato – Central America
Corn – Cuba, Mexico Soybeans – Southeast Asia Cotton – Mexico, Africa, Pakistan Wheat – Southwest Asia
Regions develop based on a variety of factors including soils, weather, market development, feed availability, etc.
Citrus Fruit – Florida, Texas, and California Corn Belt – Midwestern states Wheat – Hard Red Spring Wheat – highest protein content, excellent bread wheat, superior milling and baking characteristics MN, ND, SD, MT, ID, OR, WA, CA – Soft Red Winter Wheat – High yielding, low protein, used for cakes, biscuits, pastries NC, TN, KY, GA, OH, IN, IL, MO