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Infectious Diseases. Nature of infectious diseases Pathogens Infection Disease In order to cause disease, pathogens must be able to enter, adhere, invade,

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Presentation on theme: "Infectious Diseases. Nature of infectious diseases Pathogens Infection Disease In order to cause disease, pathogens must be able to enter, adhere, invade,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Infectious Diseases

2 Nature of infectious diseases Pathogens Infection Disease In order to cause disease, pathogens must be able to enter, adhere, invade, colonize, and inflict damage Growth of pathogens or the production of toxins/enzymes cause disease

3 Microbes that cause infectious diseases Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Helminths Prions

4 Occurrence of infectious diseases Epidemiology –study of the occurrence of disease in populations Disease reservoirs-where the infectious agent survives (humans, rodents) Example = yersinia pestis (plague) Modes of transmission ingestion, inhalation, casual contact, intimate contact, bites/animals

5 History Emerging infectious diseases- Have not occurred in humans before, Have occurred previously but affected only small numbers, Or have occurred throughout human history, but only recently recognized as disease due to infectious agent Re-emerging infectious diseases Once were major health problems globally or in a particular country, then declined dramatically, but are again becoming health problems for a significant proportion of the population.

6 The body’s defense mechanisms First Line of Defense Skin Secretions Non-specific defenses - macrophages Normal Flora

7 The body’s defense mechanisms Immune System urses/biology/archive/animations /hires/a_hiv1_h.html Humoral (antibody) response – B-cells B-cell, plasma cell, antibodies, memory B-cells Cell-mediated response – T-cells helper T-cells, killer T-cells, memory T-cells Vaccination produces immunity

8 Prevention Safewater  Purification methods  Testing against contamination Sewage Treatment  Waste water plants separate components of sewage and treat them  Chlorination Food Safety  Inspections  Pasteurization  Regulations

9 Prevention Animal Control  Domestic inspections  Vaccinations  Sanitation Vaccinations  Pre-school  Threshold proportion  Herd immunity

10 Public Health Organizations NIH – supports health-related research CDC – investigates disease outbreaks, informs the public FDA – monitors safety of foods and medicines WHO – coordinates health/vaccine programs internationally

11 Treatment Bacteria (prokaryotes)  Antibiotics “destroyer of life”  Inhibit cell wall, protein, lipid, or RNA synthesis  Penicillin was the first – interfers with cell wall  Chloramphenicol, tetracycline – protein synthesis  Rifampicin – prevents RNA from being made

12 Treatment Viruses  Non-living; uses cell materials to replicate  Highly toxic to host cells  Target virus-specific enzymes involved in making DNA/RNA  Acyclovir – herpes  Amantadine – influenza  AZT - AIDS

13 Treatment Fungi, protozoans, helminths  Highly toxic because also eukaryotes  Target reproduction, cell membrane, or other necessary functions  Choroquinine - malaria

14 Resistance  the ability of the pathogen to survive treatment by a particular drug  Growing problem Mechanism  change in genes that allows them to evade the action of the drug  Stuctural changes in proteins, receptors Transfer of anti-microbial genes  Don’t mutate but acquire it from others  Transformation – taking up free-floating DNA plasmids  Transduction – virus carries resistant gene to other bacteria  Transposons – small “rogue” sections of DNA  Mutations and genetic exchange is rare; but bacterial growth is high

15 Bioterrorism Violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that…appear to be intended: 1. To intimidate or coerce a civilian population; 2. To influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or 3. To affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping.

16 Bioterrorism Biological weapons used in bioterrorism are living microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, that can kill or incapacitate. Health care facilities may be the initial site of recognition and response to bioterrorism activity. Because of this, the names and telephone numbers for internal and external departments or agencies that need to be contacted should be kept by each facility in its bioterrorism readiness plan.

17 Bioterrorism Response to bioterrorism agents: Internal reporting requirements (within a facility):  Infection control personnel  Epidemiologist (local and state)  Administration (health care facility and health department)  Office of public affairs in the health facility

18 Bioterrorism External contacts (outside of facility)  Local health department  State Health Department  FBI  CDC  Local police  EMS

19 Bioterrorism Agents  Bacterial- Anthrax and Plague  Viral- Small Pox Toxins- Botulism and Ricin


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