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A New Nation and State Grows America and North Carolina 1790’s-1850.

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Presentation on theme: "A New Nation and State Grows America and North Carolina 1790’s-1850."— Presentation transcript:

1 A New Nation and State Grows America and North Carolina 1790’s-1850

2 The Nation

3 1789 GEORGE WASHINGTON BECOMES FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES – Whiskey Rebellion – First political parties 1. Federalists – believed in strong national government controlled by the wealthy elite 2. Democratic- Republicans – believed in a limited national government run by all men.

4 1789 FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS NOBILITY IS DRIVEN FROM POWER AND MANY ARE EXECUTED Neutrality Proclamation – America will not get involved in European conflicts

5 1790 WASHINGTON DC ESTABLISHED AS CAPITAL OF UNITED STATES, REPLACING NEW YORK

6 1791 FIRST BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ESTABLISHED Alexander Hamilton Government could deposit money and make loans to business National Mint – government could print money

7 1796 JOHN ADAMS ELECTED 2 ND PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES XYZ Affair – 1798 – French wanted bribes to negotiate with America – led to undeclared war Alien and Sedition Acts – 1798 – allowed the President to deport foreign citizens and made it illegal to criticize government policies.

8 1800 Thomas Jefferson elected 3 rd President of the US LOUISIANA PURCHASE US BUYS MIDDLE THIRD OF NORTH AMERICA FROM FRANCE FOR $15 MILLION Lewis and Clark Expedition – –Meriwether Lewis/William Clark, Sacagawea Pike’s Expedition – 1806 – Zebulon Pike

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10 Meriwether Lewis William Clark Sacagawea

11 WAR OF 1812 BETWEEN US AND ENGLAND FOUGHT OVER BORDER DISPUTES, TRADE PROBLEMS, AND IMPRESSMENT President – James Madison Andrew Jackson – best General for the US US WINS

12 1823 Florida added in 1819 Missouri Compromise – 1820 – Henry Clay MONROE DOCTRINE – James Monroe STATES THAT US WILL NOT PERMIT EUROPEAN NATIONS TO COLONIZE OR INTERFERE WITH THE AMERICAS

13 Missouri Compromise

14 1828 ANDREW JACKSON BECOMES SEVENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES Nullification Crisis

15 1820’s-1860’s – Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Oregon Trail Santa Fe Trail Immigrants moved west following these trails to settle in California, Oregon and other western areas. Donner Party

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17 1830 INDIAN REMOVAL ACT AUTHORIZED THE REMOVAL OF ALL INDIANS EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI TO RESERVATIONS IN THE WEST

18 Texas Independence 1836 Texas becomes an independent country, breaking away from Mexico – joins the US in 1845 Battle of the Alamo

19 TRAIL OF TEARS US ARMY MOVES CHEROKEE INDIAN TRIBE TO OKLAHOMA 25% OF THE TRIBE DIES DURING THE JOURNEY

20 War with Mexico – United States defeats Mexico in war Gains all of the Southwest part of America – California, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, parts of Texas

21 California Gold Rush Thousands of people head to California after gold is discovered in 1848 California has tremendous population growth – leads to Compromise of 1850

22 THE SOUTH AND COTTON COTTON BECOMES THE MAJOR CASH CROP OF THE SOUTHERN STATES 1793 – COTTON GIN INVENTED BY ELI WHITNEY Scientific agriculture COTTON BELT – SOUTH CAROLINA TO EAST TEXAS SLAVE TRADE HAD BEEN OUTLAWED IN 1808

23 Cotton Gin

24 Triangle Trade 1.Going to Europe – Raw materials 2.Going to Africa – trade goods 3.Going to America – Slaves (Middle Passage) Usually, one-third to one-half of the slaves would die on the voyage

25 Cotton Belt

26 COTTON CONTINUED MOST COTTON WAS SHIPPED TO EUROPE, ESPECIALLY ENGLAND Cotton production discouraged the growth of Southern industry ABOUT ONE THIRD OF SOUTHERN WHITES WERE SLAVEOWNERS. ONLY 25% OF THAT COUNTED AS PLANTERS(OWNERS OF MORE THAN 20 SLAVES) Yeomen - small farmers 1860 – 4 MILLION BLACK SLAVES IN SOUTH 250,000 free blacks in the South

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28 Slavery Begins in America 1517 – Atlantic Slave Trade begins – Spain imports slaves from Africa to Central and South America (Native Americans were tried first) Between 1517 and 1808, over 20 million people are taken from West Africa. Half did not survive to reach America 1619 – First Africans arrive in Jamestown, Virginia – indentured servants Slaves were viewed as necessary for the South’s agricultural economy.

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31 The Middle Passage Most slaves were kidnapped by African slavers or sold to slave traders by the tribal kings Most were sent to “Seasoning Camps” first Triangle Trade – three-part voyage 1. Europe to Africa – guns, textiles, manufactured goods 2. Africa to America – Middle Passage – slaves to America - 6 to 8 weeks 3. America to Europe – sugar, tobacco, cotton etc.

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34 The Middle Passage Slave ships typically carried between 100 to 300 slaves, both men and women Most slaves were between the ages of 12 and 30 Conditions on the trip were horrific. Anywhere from 10% to 50% of the slaves would not survive the trip Slave Auctions – slaves were sold anywhere between $200 and $2500 usually

35 Graph for Loading slaves Aboard ship

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38 SLAVERY SLAVES DID MANY DIFFERENT JOBS, BUT WERE MOST COMMONLY USED FOR AGRICULTURE HOUSE SLAVES FIELD SLAVES GANG LABOR OVERSEERS DRIVERS – SLAVE FOREMAN

39 SLAVERY CONTINUED SLAVES WERE PROPERTY, NOT PEOPLE SLAVES COULD NOT LEGALLY TRAVEL OR BE TAUGHT TO READ OR WRITE SLAVE FAMILIES WERE FREQUENTLY SPLIT UP PHYSICAL PUNISHMENT WAS COMMON

40 SLAVERY CONTINUED RELIGION WAS USED TO SUPPORT SLAVERY SLAVES TRIED TO KEEP THEIR CULTURE THROUGH FOLKTALES AND SPIRITUALS 1831 – NAT TURNER’S REBELLION Slave rebellions were the biggest fear for white southerners

41 Underground Railroad 1830’s – escape system set up by free Blacks, escaped slaves, white abolitionists, and religious groups (Quakers) Harriet Tubman, Harriet Jacobs – 40,000 slaves escaped using the Underground Railroad

42 Frederick Douglass Escaped slave Taught himself to read and write Became leading abolitionist and speaker

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44 Abolition Abolition – complete end to slavery Emancipation – to free from slavery Abolition groups – religious groups, Quakers, Transcendentalists Not all abolitionists agreed on what to do 1817 – American Colonization Society – group to send freed slaves to Liberia Robert Finley Theodore Dwight Weld David Walker William Lloyd Garrison – published the Liberator, founded the American Anti-slavery Society in 1833.

45 Abolition Leaders William Lloyd Garrison David Walker Theodore Dwight Weld Angelina and Sarah Grimke

46 Opposition to Abolition Most Northern whites were opposed to Abolition Many worried that freed slaves would take their jobs The U.S. government ignored the issue as much as possible Southern whites believed that slavery was vital for their economy Did not want outsiders interfering Believed that blacks were better off Drove most southern abolitionists out

47 NORTH VS. SOUTH INDUSTRIES AND SOCIETY

48 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TIME PERIOD BEGINNING IN MID 1700’S WHEN PEOPLE BEGAN TO FOCUS ON USE OF MACHINES TO HELP SPEED UP MANUFACTURING AND PRODUCTION BEGAN IN ENGLAND – TEXTILE INDUSTRY TECHNOLOGY – TOOLS AND MACHINERY USED TO PRODUCE GOODS

49 NEW METHODS MASS PRODUCTION MAKING OF LARGE NUMBERS OF IDENTICAL GOODS INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS SYSTEM IN WHICH EACH PARTICULAR PART OF A PRODUCT WOULD BE MADE EXACTLY THE SAME WAY

50 FACTORY WORKERS MANY WOMEN – Lowell System SMALL CHILDREN – Rhode Island System MANY EMPLOYEES WORKED LONG SHIFTS DOING DANGEROUS JOBS FOR LOW PAY AND BENEFITS LABOR UNIONS – WORKERS ORGANIZATIONS TO GET BETTER PAY AND CONDITIONS – strikes and law suits

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53 TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION PERIOD DURING THE EARLY 1800’S IN WHICH TRANSPORTATION IN THE US WAS RAPIDLY IMPROVED STEAM POWER – Robert Fulton BOATS AND LOCOMOTIVES 30,000 MILES OF RAILROAD IN US BY st transcontinental line finished in 1861

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55 COMMUNICATION 1832 – SAMUEL MORSE INVENTS TELEGRAPH ENABLED MESSAGES TO BE SENT INSTANTLY Morse Code 1844 – 1 st message sent between two locations

56 AGRICULTURAL AND HOME IMPROVEMENTS STEEL PLOW – 1837 – JOHN DEERE MECHANICAL REAPER – CYRUS MCCORMICK – BEGAN TO BE MASS-PRODUCED IN 1850’S SEWING MACHINE – 1846 – ELIAS HOWE AND ISSAC SINGER ICEBOXES – 1830’S IRON COOKSTOVES CLOCKS INDOOR PLUMBING

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58 North Carolina

59 Eastern Prosperity Farmers in Eastern North Carolina did well during this time period Bright Leaf Tobacco Most political and economic power stayed in the East Most Western farmers struggled – subsistence farming

60 Rip Van Winkle State Few internal improvements Transportation system was poor – few roads and waterways Most North Carolinians did not want to pay taxes for public programs (education and transportation) Archibald Debow Murphey – early reformer

61 Slow Improvements Constitution of 1835 – spread power more evenly between east and west, removed land ownership from voting requirements 1830’s – 1840’s – improvement in transportation – plank roads and first railroads – helped western farmers and businesses move product more easily Public education system begun in the 1850’s – Calvin Wiley – first state education superintendent

62 Religious Revival 2 nd Great Awakening 1790’s-1830’s Charles G. Finney Believed that sin was avoidable and each person was responsible for their own salvation Led to large growth in church membership

63 Transcendentalism Belief in spiritualism over money and belongings Each person should rely on themselves instead of outside authority Ralph Waldo Emerson – Self-Reliance – 1841 Henry David Thoreau – Walden

64 Utopian Communities Some Transcendentalists tried to form perfect societies Brooks Farm Shakers – did not believe in private ownership, lived plain lifestyle

65 Romanticism Belief that all individuals brought unique, important views to the world Nathaniel Hawthorne – Scarlet Letter Edgar Allan Poe Emily Dickinson

66 New Immigration – 4 million new immigrants Mostly German and Irish – fleeing famine and harsh government Many native citizens resented them and feared that they would take their jobs - Nativists Know-Nothing Party – opposed to immigrants Major urban growth – jobs in factories Middle class Poor people lived in bad conditions - tenements

67 Prison and Mental Health Reform Many people wanted to improve society Dorothea Dix – mental health reformer Child Crime Prison Conditions

68 Alcohol Abuse 1830’s – average person consumed 7 gallons of alcohol a year Temperance Movement – stop drinking Lyman Beecher

69 Education Reform 1800’s – poor public education Few resources, little money, untrained teachers, one-room schools Many children worked to support their families Common-school movement Horace Mann Lengthened school year, better salaries and training

70 Women and Minorities Few women went past grade school Catharine Beecher Emma Willard Led to increased opportunities for women Oberlin College – 1837 – first co-ed college Free Blacks in the North had separate schools at first Few colleges would accept them – Oberlin in 1835 was first Southern Blacks had little to no Education

71 Seneca Falls Convention First women’s rights convention – July 1848 – New York Beginning of the Women’s Rights movement Declaration of Rights and Sentiments Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton Sojourner Truth Susan B. Anthony

72 Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton Sojourner Truth Susan B. Anthony


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