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Chapter 16: Teaching Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Research

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1 Chapter 16: Teaching Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Research
EQ: How do you teach critical thinking, problem solving, and research?

2 General Notes To teach the higher order process skills of critical thinking, problem solving, and research to gifted learners is to engage them in lifelong learning skills that provide the scaffolding for all worthwhile learning in the future.

3 General Notes Cont. Because higher order thought is not formulaic, it requires being open to the moment, asking the probing question at the right time, engaging the class in the right activity based on when they most need it, and assessing levels of functioning with regularity.

4 Elements of Reasoning Purpose, goal, or end view
Question at issue (or problem to be solved) Points of view or frame of reference Experiences, data, evidence Concepts and ideas Assumptions Inferences Implications and consequences

5 Template for Analyzing the Logic of an Article
The main purpose of this article is… The key question that the author is addressing is… The most important information in this article is… The main inferences and/or conclusions in this article are… The key concept(s) we need to understand in this article is (are)… By these concepts the author means…

6 Template for Analyzing the Logic of an Article Cont.
The main assumption(s) underlying the author’s thinking is (are)… If we take this line of reasoning seriously, the implications are… If we fail to take this line of reasoning seriously, the implications are… The main point(s) of view presented in this article is (are)…

7 Problem Solving Students are in charge of their own learning.
The problem statement is ambiguous, incomplete, and yet appealing to students because of its real-world quality and the stakeholder role that they assume in it. The role of the teacher is facilitative, not directive, aiding students primarily through question asking and providing additional scaffolding of the problem with new information or resources needed. Students complete a need to know board

8 Problem Solving Steps Recognize a problem Represent the problem Deliver or choose a solution plan Execute the plan Evaluate the solution

9 Purdue University IDEAL
I—identify the problem or potential problems D—define, delineate, or clarify the problem(s) E—explore options or approaches to solving the problem(s) A—act or carry out the planned solution activities L—look at the effects and evaluate the solution

10 Creative Problem Solving
Mess Finding Data Finding Problem Finding Idea Finding Solution Finding Acceptance Finding

11 Metacognition There is value in direct instruction, collaborative learning across age levels, and reflection techniques such as journaling, discussion, and introspection

12 Strategies… Question asking Summarizing and paraphrasing Identifying the main idea Keeping logs Using checklists

13 Teaching Research—Compare this to BIG 6
Identify your issue of problem Read about your issue and identify points of view or arguments through information sources Form a set of questions that can be answered by a specific set of data.

14 Teaching Research—Compare this to BIG 6 Cont.
Gather evidence through research techniques such as surveys, interviews, or analysis of primary and secondary source documents. Manipulate and transform data so that it can be interpreted Draw conclusions and make inferences

15 Teaching Research—Compare this to BIG 6 Cont.
Determine implications and consequences Communicate your findings Prepare an oral presentation for classmates based on note cards and written report

16 Non-cognitive Aspects of Thinking
Listening to students Appreciating individuality and openness Encouraging open discussion Promoting active learning Accepting student ideas Allowing time to think Nurturing confidence Giving helpful feedback

17 Reflection: Discussion Question
Give an example of how you teach critical thinking, problem solving and research in your classroom.

18 Chapter 17: Teaching Creativity
EQ: How do you teach creativity?

19 General Notes The ways in which gifted students are socialized to working with others, learning to work on areas of interest, and following their passions are critical to maintaining high interest and motivation for learning. Lessons about the importance of time and effort are also best taught within creativity.

20 General Notes Cont. Type III enrichment activities help students be engaged. Recent research on the use of creative problem solving and problem-based learning lends support to the idea that all students can benefit from such instruction.

21 Characteristics Creative People Have
Challenging but doable tasks Time and space to concentrate on tasks Goal-oriented tasks with a feedback mechanism High level of task involvement, to the exclusion of everyday concerns Loss of self-consciousness replaced by task orientation Time passing unnoticed

22 Perkins’ Creativity Model
Involves traits that make a person creative Requires four fundamental acts: planning, abstracting, undoing, and making means into ends The guiding force that creates a product is purpose or intent Is a process of selecting among many possible outcomes by using such approaches as noting opportunities and flaws, directed remembering, reasoning, looking harder, setting work aside, using schemata, and problem finding Involves a style, values, beliefs, and tactics

23 Instill Creativity Work autonomy: students plan their own work Time allocation Mentors Supportive environment Use of creative skills

24 Applications of Creativity to C & I
Creative expression: exposed to different artistic media and ways to express themselves orally, in writing, and kinesthetically in creative modes. Journaling of thoughts and ideas should be routinely encouraged. Use of movement and dance in the classroom should be employed as well.

25 Applications of Creativity to C & I Cont.
Aptitude and Interest Matches: they develop skills if the area in which they are working reflects strength and is an area in which they have passionate interest. Also, an area they find challenging deepens their knowledge base.

26 Applications of Creativity to C & I Cont.
Links to the Professions: students require both mentorships and internships to acquaint them with the activities, beliefs, and culture of a variety of professions.

27 Applications of Creativity to C & I Cont.
Reading of Biographies: read biographies and autobiographies of individuals who have demonstrated creative breakthroughs in a variety of fields. Academic Counseling: importance of academic counseling as a technique to help students find their strongest interests and abilities.

28 Applications of Creativity to C & I Cont.
Multiple Options and Outlets for Creativity: classroom assignments and projects should always provide alternative ways to demonstrate proficiency. Emphasis on Metacognition: learning how to plan, monitor, and assess one’s work is a critical part of becoming more creative.

29 Applications of Creativity to C & I Cont.
Open-Ended Activities and Approaches: employing open-ended questions and problem-based scenarios or simulations Emphasis on Targeted Extracurricular Options: prime area to use their creative talents such as Future Problem Solving and Odyssey of the Mind

30 Teaching Creativity Fluency—ability to think of, or to recall, many ideas or problems for a given concept or task Creative thinking can be developed or taught in all subjects In selective comparison, one is able to relate new information to information acquired in the past. Brainstorming

31 Teaching Creativity Flexibility—capacity to produce new ideas that deviate from normally expected ideas, and to be able to produce new ideas that shift categorically during the process of ideas production.

32 Teaching Creativity Elaboration—process of filling in details, developing ideas, or bringing an abstract concept to life These same skills are central components of the most popular models that focus on creative problem solving and problem-based learning. Originality

33 Use of Creativity Instruments
The use of performance-based tasks and tryout strategies for identifying these special populations appears to be a more promising way to approach the identification of creativity potential in schools. Performance Task (Nonverbal) (Verbal) (Mathematical)

34 Reflection: Discussion Question
How do you ensure teaching creativity in your classroom?

35 Preview Chapter 18 CCGL/Peer Review Unit April 11
Action Research Presentation April 4. No Class due to Spring Break March 28

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