Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16: Teaching Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Research"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 16: Teaching Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Research EQ: How do you teach critical thinking, problem solving, and research?
2General NotesTo teach the higher order process skills of critical thinking, problem solving, and research to gifted learners is to engage them in lifelong learning skills that provide the scaffolding for all worthwhile learning in the future.
3General Notes Cont.Because higher order thought is not formulaic, it requires being open to the moment, asking the probing question at the right time, engaging the class in the right activity based on when they most need it, and assessing levels of functioning with regularity.
4Elements of Reasoning Purpose, goal, or end view Question at issue (or problem to be solved)Points of view or frame of referenceExperiences, data, evidenceConcepts and ideasAssumptionsInferencesImplications and consequences
5Template for Analyzing the Logic of an Article The main purpose of this article is…The key question that the author is addressing is…The most important information in this article is…The main inferences and/or conclusions in this article are…The key concept(s) we need to understand in this article is (are)…By these concepts the author means…
6Template for Analyzing the Logic of an Article Cont. The main assumption(s) underlying the author’s thinking is (are)…If we take this line of reasoning seriously, the implications are…If we fail to take this line of reasoning seriously, the implications are…The main point(s) of view presented in this article is (are)…
7Problem Solving Students are in charge of their own learning. The problem statement is ambiguous, incomplete, and yet appealing to students because of its real-world quality and the stakeholder role that they assume in it.The role of the teacher is facilitative, not directive, aiding students primarily through question asking and providing additional scaffolding of the problem with new information or resources needed.Students complete a need to know board
8Problem Solving StepsRecognize a problemRepresent the problemDeliver or choose a solution planExecute the planEvaluate the solution
9Purdue University IDEAL I—identify the problem or potential problemsD—define, delineate, or clarify the problem(s)E—explore options or approaches to solving the problem(s)A—act or carry out the planned solution activitiesL—look at the effects and evaluate the solution
10Creative Problem Solving Mess FindingData FindingProblem FindingIdea FindingSolution FindingAcceptance Finding
11MetacognitionThere is value in direct instruction, collaborative learning across age levels, and reflection techniques such as journaling, discussion, and introspection
12Strategies…Question askingSummarizing and paraphrasingIdentifying the main ideaKeeping logsUsing checklists
13Teaching Research—Compare this to BIG 6 Identify your issue of problemRead about your issue and identify points of view or arguments through information sourcesForm a set of questions that can be answered by a specific set of data.
14Teaching Research—Compare this to BIG 6 Cont. Gather evidence through research techniques such as surveys, interviews, or analysis of primary and secondary source documents.Manipulate and transform data so that it can be interpretedDraw conclusions and make inferences
15Teaching Research—Compare this to BIG 6 Cont. Determine implications and consequencesCommunicate your findingsPrepare an oral presentation for classmates based on note cards and written report
16Non-cognitive Aspects of Thinking Listening to studentsAppreciating individuality and opennessEncouraging open discussionPromoting active learningAccepting student ideasAllowing time to thinkNurturing confidenceGiving helpful feedback
17Reflection: Discussion Question Give an example of how you teach critical thinking, problem solving and research in your classroom.
18Chapter 17: Teaching Creativity EQ: How do you teach creativity?
19General NotesThe ways in which gifted students are socialized to working with others, learning to work on areas of interest, and following their passions are critical to maintaining high interest and motivation for learning.Lessons about the importance of time and effort are also best taught within creativity.
20General Notes Cont.Type III enrichment activities help students be engaged.Recent research on the use of creative problem solving and problem-based learning lends support to the idea that all students can benefit from such instruction.
21Characteristics Creative People Have Challenging but doable tasksTime and space to concentrate on tasksGoal-oriented tasks with a feedback mechanismHigh level of task involvement, to the exclusion of everyday concernsLoss of self-consciousness replaced by task orientationTime passing unnoticed
22Perkins’ Creativity Model Involves traits that make a person creativeRequires four fundamental acts: planning, abstracting, undoing, and making means into endsThe guiding force that creates a product is purpose or intentIs a process of selecting among many possible outcomes by using such approaches as noting opportunities and flaws, directed remembering, reasoning, looking harder, setting work aside, using schemata, and problem findingInvolves a style, values, beliefs, and tactics
23Instill CreativityWork autonomy: students plan their own workTime allocationMentorsSupportive environmentUse of creative skills
24Applications of Creativity to C & I Creative expression: exposed to different artistic media and ways to express themselves orally, in writing, and kinesthetically in creative modes. Journaling of thoughts and ideas should be routinely encouraged. Use of movement and dance in the classroom should be employed as well.
25Applications of Creativity to C & I Cont. Aptitude and Interest Matches: they develop skills if the area in which they are working reflects strength and is an area in which they have passionate interest. Also, an area they find challenging deepens their knowledge base.
26Applications of Creativity to C & I Cont. Links to the Professions: students require both mentorships and internships to acquaint them with the activities, beliefs, and culture of a variety of professions.
27Applications of Creativity to C & I Cont. Reading of Biographies: read biographies and autobiographies of individuals who have demonstrated creative breakthroughs in a variety of fields.Academic Counseling: importance of academic counseling as a technique to help students find their strongest interests and abilities.
28Applications of Creativity to C & I Cont. Multiple Options and Outlets for Creativity: classroom assignments and projects should always provide alternative ways to demonstrate proficiency.Emphasis on Metacognition: learning how to plan, monitor, and assess one’s work is a critical part of becoming more creative.
29Applications of Creativity to C & I Cont. Open-Ended Activities and Approaches: employing open-ended questions and problem-based scenarios or simulationsEmphasis on Targeted Extracurricular Options: prime area to use their creative talents such as Future Problem Solving and Odyssey of the Mind
30Teaching CreativityFluency—ability to think of, or to recall, many ideas or problems for a given concept or taskCreative thinking can be developed or taught in all subjectsIn selective comparison, one is able to relate new information to information acquired in the past.Brainstorming
31Teaching CreativityFlexibility—capacity to produce new ideas that deviate from normally expected ideas, and to be able to produce new ideas that shift categorically during the process of ideas production.
32Teaching CreativityElaboration—process of filling in details, developing ideas, or bringing an abstract concept to lifeThese same skills are central components of the most popular models that focus on creative problem solving and problem-based learning.Originality
33Use of Creativity Instruments The use of performance-based tasks and tryout strategies for identifying these special populations appears to be a more promising way to approach the identification of creativity potential in schools.Performance Task(Nonverbal)(Verbal)(Mathematical)
34Reflection: Discussion Question How do you ensure teaching creativity in your classroom?
35Preview Chapter 18 CCGL/Peer Review Unit April 11 Action Research Presentation April 4.No Class due to Spring Break March 28