Presentation on theme: "Second Quarter EOC Review. Remember!!! All LIVING things need energy for necessary life functions!! Energy comes from the sun. Producers capture light."— Presentation transcript:
Remember!!! All LIVING things need energy for necessary life functions!! Energy comes from the sun. Producers capture light energy and store it in food molecules. Energy in food is broken down by cellular respiration. Energy in foods provide organisms the fuel necessary for work such as reproduction.
Photosynthesis Plants are autotrophs (make their own food) Occurs in chloroplast inside leaf cells Chlorophyll is a green pigment that absorbs sunlight 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Affected by light, temperature and water
Organisms that Photosynthesize Some Bacteria Euglena (Protist) Green Algae (Protist) All plants Plant cell
Cellular Respiration Occurs in ALL LIVING things Releases energy by breaking down GLUCOSE Occurs in the mitochondria C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O Produces 36 ATP Plants go through cellular respiration at night
2 Types of Cellular Respiration 1. Aerobic respiration – does require oxygen –Occurs in the mitochondria –Produces more ATP than Anaerobic Respiration 2. Anaerobic respiration- does NOT require oxygen -Occurs in the cytoplasm
2 Types of Anaerobic Respiration 1) Alcoholic fermentation –Occurs in Yeast cells –Produces CO 2 & Alcohol (2 ATP) 2) Lactic acid fermentation –Occurs in Muscle cells (strenuous activity) –Occurs in bacteria cells (used in making yogurt) –Produces lactic acid (2 ATP)
Cellular Respiration Glucose + Oxygen Glycolysis 2 ATP Krebs Cycle 2 ATP Electron Transport Chain 32 ATP Carbon dioxide + Water + 36 ATP = Occurs in cytoplasm Occurs in mitochondria anaerobic aerobic
Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration PhotosynthesisCellular Respiration FunctionStores EnergyEnergy release LocationChloroplastMitochondria ReactantsCarbon dioxide and water Glucose and oxygen ProductsGlucose and oxygen Carbon dioxide and water
Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Balances CO 2 in the ecosystem
The Cell Theory 1.All LIVING things are made up of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of life. 3. New cells come from existing cells.
Asexual Reproduction Production of offspring by a single parent Offspring are genetically identical Process -Mitosis (asexual reproduction of body cells) Five types: 1) Binary Fission 2) Budding 3) Regeneration 4) Sporulation 5) Vegetative Sporulation
Sexual Reproduction Two parent cells join together to form a new individual –Sex cells (sperm & egg) produced by meiosis (Meiosis= reproduction cells) –Fertilization – combining of sex cells Offspring are different from parents Occurs in worms, insects, amphibians, plants and mammals
Types of Fertilization 1) Internal Fertilization: Occurs inside females body Example: reptiles, birds, and most land animals 2) External Fertilization: Occurs outside the females body Example: Frogs and Fish
Types of Development 1) Internal Development: Occurs inside females body Example: most land animals and dolphins 2) External Development: Occurs outside the females body Example: Frogs and Fish
Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Starts with one cellStarts with two cells One cell splits to form two new cells Two cells combine to form new organism New cells are genetically identical to parent cell New organism is genetically different from parent cells - Reproduction for unicellular organisms -Growth and development for multicellular organisms -Involves production and fusion of gametes
THE CELL CYCLE Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide Consists of four phases: –G1 PHASE – CELL GROWTH –S PHASE – CHROMOSOME REPLICATION –G2 PHASE – PREPARATION FOR MITOSIS –M PHASE – MITOSIS AND CYTOKINESIS
Mitosis oAsexual reproduction oDNA condenses into chromosomes oCells are Diploid (2N) “have paired chromosomes” oFour phases of Mitosis: (Hint: PMAT) 1 st P = Prophase 2 nd M= Metaphase 3 rd A= Anaphase 4 th T= Telophase
Meiosis Sexual reproduction Two cell divisions (Meiosis I and Meiosis II) Produces four haploid (N) cells “chromosomes unpaired” Produces gametes “sperm & egg cells” Crossing Over Increases genetic variation
Lets Compare Meiosis to Mitosis!! Mitosis Starts with diploid cell One nuclear division Ends with two diploid cells (2N) Asexual reproduction Produces body cells Meiosis Starts with diploid cell Two nuclear divisions Ends with four haploid cells (N) Sexual reproduction Produces gametes
Mendelian Genetics Punnett squares- used to show probability in genetic crosses Probability – chance of an event happening Simple traits governed by two alleles Alleles – alternate forms of a gene (AKA: LETTERS) Dominant allele= CAPITAL LETTERS Recessive allele= lowercase letters (Dominant masks recessive) Genotype – genetic make up (letters) Homozygous – same alleles (AA) Heterozygous – different alleles (Aa) Phenotype – organism’s physical appearance (looks) EXAMPLE: Brown Hair or Blue Eyes Test Cross: Always homozygous recessive
Monohybrid Cross (one set of traits) In guinea pigs, black fur is dominant to white fur. Cross two heterozygous Black guinea pigs. Parents: Bb x Bb Genotypic Ratio: 1 BB: 2 Bb: 1 bb Phenotypic Ratio: 3 black: 1 white BBBb bb B b B b
Remember!! NOT ALL traits follow Mendel’s Law of dominance. These are complex inheritance patterns. Incomplete dominance Codominance Multiple alleles Polygenic Inheritance
Incomplete Dominance (BOTH genes BLEND) In Four O'clock Plants One allele is not completely dominant over the other Both alleles are partially expressed Produces a 3 rd phenotype (Pink) Remember: Capital letters only, NO recessive letters Four O'clock flowers Alleles:Key: R = RedRR = Red W = WhiteRW = Pink WW = White Image from: http://www.gwu.edu/~darwin/BiSc150/One/rose.GIF
Incomplete Dominance Cross two pink-flowered plants Parents: RW X RW RW R W RRRW WW Genotypic Ratio: 1 RR: 2 RW: 1 WW Phenotypic Ratio: 1 Red: 2 Pink: 1 White
Codominance Both traits are expressed at the same time (NO BLENDING) Both alleles are completely expressed Results in a 3 rd phenotype (checkered) In chickens: –Black and White alleles are both dominant In blood groups: –Alleles I A and I B are codominant Remember: Capital letters only, NO recessive letters Image from: http://www.harvestofhistory.org/assets/object-images/main/dominique.jpg
Codominance Cross a black chicken (B) with a white chicken (W) Parents: BB X WW BB W W BW Phenotype: 4 Checkered Chickens Genotype: 4 BW
Multiple Alleles Four Human Blood Groups Types A, B, AB, O Type A: I A I A (homozygous dominant) or I A i (heterozygous dominant) Type B: I B I B (homozygous dominant) or I B i (heterozygous dominant) Type AB: I A I B ( Codominant) Type O: ii (only recessive blood group) Image from: http://science.uwe.ac.uk/research/uploads/CRIB_blood_cells.jpg Determined by three alleles (IA, IB, & i)
Multiple Alleles: Cross a heterozygous type A person (I A i) with a heterozygous type B (I B i) person Parents: I A i X I B i IAIA i IBIB i IAIBIAIB IAiIAiii IBiIBi Genotypic Ratio: 1 I A I B 1 I A i 1 I B i 1 ii Phenotypic Ratio: 1 Type AB 1 Type A 1 Type B 1 Type O
Multiple Alleles : Cross a male type O person (ii) with a female type AB (I A I B ) person Parents: ii X I A I B ii IAIA IBIB IAiIAi IBiIBiIBiIBi IAiIAi Genotypic Ratio: 2 I A i 2 I B i Phenotypic Ratio: 2 Type A 2 Type B
Polygenic Inheritance Determined by more than one gene (A, B, C, D) Results in a broad range of phenotypes –AABBCCDD – darkest (dominant) –AaBbCcDd – intermediate –aabbccdd – lightest (recessive) Examples: –Skin color, eye color, height –Forms bell shape when graphed –Intermediates are more common
Human Chromosomes (one chromosome from mom and one from dad) Karyotype – A picture of a person’s chromosomes Shows genetic disorders Shows gender In humans 1 st -22 nd pairs are called autosomes 23 rd pair are called sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes are XY – males (BOY) (one large, one small) XX – females (two matching large) Image from: www.bioteach.ubc.ca
Pedigree (used to trace traits) Look at the Pedigree and see if you can find the pictures that are represented on the Key Image from: www.uihealthcare.com/.../images/pedigree.jpg Who are siblings? Who is married? Who is affected with a trait? -Sara, Joe, and Jim -Tim and Lori -Tom and Sue -Jim and Kay Sue, Joe, Jim and Tim Who is unaffected? Tom, Sara, Jeri, Lori, and Kay Key
Autosomal Recessive Alleles “Defect on chromosomes 1-22” Albinism, Cystic Fibrosis, PKU, and Tay Sachs Lack of pigment Accumulation of mucus in the lungs Lack an enzyme necessary to break down Phenylalanine Nervous tissue deterioration
Dominant Alleles disorder “one dominant allele needed to be expressed” Achondroplasia and Huntington's Disease Heads and limbs not proportional to body torso Deterioration of brain and nervous system
Chromosomal disorders “caused by nondisjunctions; chromosomes fail to separate” Down Syndrome, Turners, and Kleinfleters Male has an extra X chromosome Female missing one X chromosome Extra 21 st chromosome
Down Syndrome Turners Syndrome Kleinfleters Syndrome Chromosomal Disorders Karyotype
Sickle-Cell Disease (Both alleles are equally expressed) Caused by codominant alleles –S - sickle blood –N – normal blood More common in African Americans Heterozygotes(NS) in Africa are immune to Malaria Clumping of blood cells N S S NNNNS SS
Sex-linked Genes Found on sex chromosomes (Only on the X chromosome) More often expressed in males than females **Why? Because males inherit the X chromosome from their mother Example: Colorblindness Hemophilia Image from: http://www.phschool.com/atschool/science_activity_library/images/red_green_colorblind.jpg
Sex-Linked Genes Color blindnessHemophilia Individuals lack clotting factor in blood Individuals have a hard time distinguishing between colors
1.Cellular respiration is carried out by which of the following? A. all living organisms all of the time B. animals but not plants C. animals all of the time but plants only at night D. heterotrophs but not autotrophs
2. Two students set up the following apparatus in a lab. A pipette was filled with a mixture of yeast and apple juice and inverted in a test tube filled with warm water. The students observed bubbles being released from the end of the pipette. Which of the following most likely represents the gas being released? A. carbon dioxide B. hydrogen peroxide C. oxygen D. nitrogen
3. Which of the following processes releases the most ATP per molecule of glucose for immediate cell use? A. aerobic respiration B. anaerobic respiration C. chemosynthesis D. photosynthesis
4. Which statement is true regarding asexual reproduction as a method of producing offspring? A. common among mammals B. not a method used by plants C. produces offspring that are genetically identical D. limited to unicellular organisms
5. Which process is responsible for the diversity of plants within a species? A. cross-pollination B. transpiration C. self-fertilization D. photosynthesis
6. Which of the following demonstrates the most significant difference between asexual and sexual reproduction? A. The chromosome number is reduced during asexual reproduction. B. The number of chromosomes is reduced during sexual reproduction. C. The appearance of the organism is changed as a result of asexual reproduction. D. There is genetic variation as a result of sexual reproduction.
7. What is true about any two normal gametes from a human male parent? A. Each has a diploid number of chromosomes. B. They can combine to form a new organism. C. Their chromosomes are exactly the same. D. They have the same number of chromosomes.
8. A cell has undergone a meiotic division cycle. In order for the cell to achieve a diploid state, what must occur? A. cleavage B. fertilization C. meiosis D. mitosis
9. A human skin cell contains 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are present in a human sperm cell? A. 23 B. 46 C. 92 D. 138
10. Some traits are determined by more than two alleles. If aabbcc is crossed with AABBCC, what would be the genotype of the offspring? A. AaBbCc B. AABBCC C. aabbcc D. aaAAbbBBccCC
11. In a genetics laboratory, two heterozygous tall plants are crossed. If tall is dominant over short, what are the expected phenotypic results? A. 100% tall B. 75% tall, 25% short C. 50% tall, 50% short D. 25% tall, 75% short
12. Mr. Jones has blood type A and Mrs. Jones has blood type AB. What is the probability that they will have a child with blood type A if both of Mr. Jones’s parents were AB? A. 0% B. 25% C. 50% D. 100%
13. Color blindness is a sex-linked recessive trait. A mother with normal color vision and a color blind father have a color blind daughter. Which of the following statements is correct? A. All of their daughters will be color blind. B. The mother is a carrier of the color blindness gene C. All of their sons will have normal color vision. D. All of their sons will be color blind.
14. In sickle cell anemia, the heterozygous condition results in resistance to malaria. If two heterozygous parents have a child, what are the chances of that child being resistant to malaria but not having sickle cell anemia? A. 25% B. 50% C. 75% D. 100%
15. In guinea pigs, the allele for rough coat (R) is dominant to the allele for smooth coat (r). A rough coat male and a smooth coat female mate. They produce several litters, of which 50% are rough coat and 50% are smooth coat. What were the genotypes of the parents? A. RR × rr B. Rr × rr C. RR × Rr D. Rr × Rr
16. Which genotype is used in a test cross? A. homozygous dominant B. heterozygous dominant C. homozygous recessive D. heterozygous recessive
17. After performing amniocentesis, which analysis is most often used to determine the chromosomal condition of a developing fetus? A. blood type B. DNA sequence C. genetic marker D. karyotype
18. When viewing a karyotype to detect genetic disorders, which of the following would be a concern? A. different chromosomes of different lengths B. two X chromosomes C. twenty-three pairs of chromosomes D. three chromosomes in any one set
19. Albinism is a genetic mutation that results in some animals being born without the enzyme that produces the pigment for skin and eye color. Which of the following best explains this mutation? A. The DNA failed to replicate. B. The deoxyribose sugar became separated from the DNA. C. The genetic code change caused the wrong protein to form. D. The RNA necessary to produce proteins was not present.
20. A student has cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition caused by the presence of a homozygous recessive gene. What could be her parent’s genotypes for the cystic fibrosis trait? A. Her father is homozygous dominant; her mother is homozygous recessive. B. Her father is heterozygous; her mother is homozygous dominant. C. Her father is homozygous dominant; her mother is homozygous dominant. D. Her father is heterozygous; her mother is homozygous recessive.
21. The bacteria that cause tetanus can survive in a puncture wound that has healed on the outer surface of the skin. Through what process do these bacteria acquire the energy they need to survive? A. aerobic respiration B. anaerobic respiration C. chemosynthesis D. photosynthesis
22. In terms of ATP production, which process results in the most stored energy? A. aerobic respiration B. anaerobic respiration C. fermentation D. photosynthesis
23. Which statement best distinguishes aerobic from anaerobic respiration? A. Only aerobic respiration involves fermentation. B. Only anaerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria. C. Only aerobic respiration requires oxygen. D. Only anaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide.
24. Which most accurately describes the difference in ATP production between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration? A. Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than anaerobic respiration. B. Anaerobic respiration produces more ATP than aerobic respiration. C. Only anaerobic respiration produces measurable amounts of ATP. D. Anaerobic and aerobic respiration produce the same amount of ATP.
25. Before a cell goes through either mitosis or meiosis, which process must be carried out by the DNA in the nucleus? A. replication B. nondisjunction C. transcription D. translation
26. Sexual reproduction provides for what to occur? A. cloning B. budding C. genetic stability D. genetic variation
27. Which term best describes the type of cell division in which parent cells produce daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cells? A. mitosis B. meiosis C. spermatogenesis D. oogenesis
28. What is the primary cause of variation in the offspring of sexually reproducing organisms? A. cytoplasmic division B. environmental changes C. mutation D. recombination of alleles
29. Which is responsible for most genotypic and phenotypic variation among humans? A. meiosis B. budding C. mitosis D. regeneration
30. In genetics research, what is the purpose of a test cross? A. to determine the phenotypes of the parents B. to determine the genotypes of the parents C. to determine whether or not two parents could produce viable offspring D. to determine how many offspring can be produced by two parents
31. Most sex-linked, recessive traits–including hemophilia and colorblindness–appear in males. This phenomenon is best explained by which statement? A. Males have an X chromosome with dominant genes. B. Most of the genes on the X and Y chromosomes of males are recessive. C. In males, the recessive sex-linked genes appear only on the Y chromosome. D. In males, the Y chromosome lacks the genes needed to mask the recessive genes on the X chromosome.
32. A karyotype of a human female shows that she has only one sex chromosome. Which genotype would represent her genetic condition? A. XO B. XXX C. XY D. XYY