2Remember!!! All LIVING things need energy for necessary life functions!!Energy comes from the sun.Producers capture light energy and store it in food molecules.Energy in food is broken down by cellular respiration.Energy in foods provide organisms the fuel necessary for work such as reproduction.
3Photosynthesis Plants are autotrophs (make their own food) Occurs in chloroplast inside leaf cellsChlorophyll is a green pigment that absorbs sunlight6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2Affected by light, temperature and water
4Organisms that Photosynthesize Some BacteriaEuglena (Protist)Plant cellGreen Algae (Protist)All plants
5Cellular Respiration Occurs in ALL LIVING things Releases energy by breaking down GLUCOSEOccurs in the mitochondriaC6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2OProduces 36 ATPPlants go through cellular respiration at night
62 Types of Cellular Respiration 1. Aerobic respiration – does require oxygenOccurs in the mitochondriaProduces more ATP thanAnaerobic Respiration2. Anaerobic respiration- does NOT require oxygen-Occurs in the cytoplasm
72 Types of Anaerobic Respiration 1) Alcoholic fermentationOccurs in Yeast cellsProduces CO2 & Alcohol(2 ATP)2) Lactic acid fermentationOccurs in Muscle cells (strenuous activity)Occurs in bacteria cells (used in making yogurt)Produces lactic acid
8Electron Transport Chain Cellular RespirationOccurs in cytoplasmOccurs in mitochondriaCarbon dioxide+Water36 ATPKrebs Cycle2 ATPElectron Transport Chain32 ATPGlycolysis2 ATPGlucose+Oxygen=anaerobicaerobic
9Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration FunctionStores EnergyEnergy releaseLocationChloroplastMitochondriaReactantsCarbon dioxide and waterGlucose and oxygenProducts
10Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Balances CO2 in the ecosystem
11The Cell Theory All LIVING things are made up of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of life.3. New cells come from existing cells.
12Asexual Reproduction Production of offspring by a single parent Offspring are genetically identicalProcess -Mitosis (asexual reproduction of body cells)Five types:1) Binary Fission2) Budding3) Regeneration4) Sporulation5) Vegetative Sporulation
13Types of Asexual Reproduction Binary FissionSporulationBuddingVegetative PropagationRegeneration
14Sexual ReproductionTwo parent cells join together to form a new individualSex cells (sperm & egg) produced by meiosis(Meiosis= reproduction cells)Fertilization – combining of sex cellsOffspring are different from parentsOccurs in worms, insects, amphibians, plants and mammals
16Types of Fertilization 1) Internal Fertilization:Occurs inside females bodyExample: reptiles, birds, and most land animals2) External Fertilization:Occurs outside the females bodyExample: Frogs and Fish
17Types of Development 1) Internal Development: Occurs inside females bodyExample: most land animals and dolphins2) External Development:Occurs outside the females bodyExample: Frogs and Fish
18Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Starts with one cellStarts with two cellsOne cell splits to form two new cellsTwo cells combine to form new organismNew cells are genetically identical to parent cellNew organism is genetically different from parent cells-Reproduction for unicellular organisms-Growth and development for multicellular organisms-Involves production and fusion of gametes
19THE CELL CYCLESeries of events that cells go through as they grow and divideConsists of four phases:G1 PHASE – CELL GROWTHS PHASE – CHROMOSOME REPLICATIONG2 PHASE – PREPARATION FOR MITOSISM PHASE – MITOSIS AND CYTOKINESIS
20Mitosis Asexual reproduction DNA condenses into chromosomes Cells are Diploid (2N)“have paired chromosomes”Four phases of Mitosis: (Hint: PMAT)1st P= Prophase2nd M= Metaphase3rd A= Anaphase4th T= Telophase
21Meiosis Sexual reproduction Two cell divisions (Meiosis I and Meiosis II)Produces four haploid (N) cells“chromosomes unpaired”Produces gametes“sperm & egg cells”Crossing Over Increases genetic variation
22Lets Compare Meiosis to Mitosis!! Starts with diploid cellOne nuclear divisionEnds with two diploid cells (2N)Asexual reproductionProduces body cellsMeiosisStarts with diploid cellTwo nuclear divisionsEnds with four haploid cells (N)Sexual reproductionProduces gametes
24Mendelian GeneticsPunnett squares- used to show probability in genetic crossesProbability – chance of an event happeningSimple traits governed by two allelesAlleles – alternate forms of a gene (AKA: LETTERS)Dominant allele= CAPITAL LETTERSRecessive allele= lowercase letters(Dominant masks recessive)Genotype – genetic make up (letters)Homozygous – same alleles (AA)Heterozygous – different alleles (Aa)Phenotype – organism’s physical appearance (looks)EXAMPLE: Brown Hair or Blue EyesTest Cross: Always homozygous recessive
25Monohybrid Cross (one set of traits) In guinea pigs, black fur is dominant to white fur.Cross two heterozygous Black guinea pigs.Parents: Bb x BbGenotypic Ratio:1 BB: 2 Bb: 1 bbPhenotypic Ratio:3 black: 1 whitebBBBBbBbbbBb
26Remember!! NOT ALL traits follow Mendel’s Law of dominance. These are complex inheritance patterns.Incomplete dominanceCodominanceMultiple allelesPolygenic Inheritance
27Incomplete Dominance (BOTH genes BLEND) Four O'clock flowersIn Four O'clock PlantsOne allele is not completely dominant over the otherBoth alleles are partially expressedProduces a 3rd phenotype (Pink)Remember: Capital letters only, NO recessive lettersAlleles: Key:R = Red RR = RedW = White RW = PinkWW = WhiteImage from:
28Cross two pink-flowered plants Incomplete DominanceCross two pink-flowered plantsParents: RW X RWRWGenotypic Ratio:1 RR: 2 RW: 1 WWPhenotypic Ratio:1 Red: 2 Pink: 1 WhiteRRRWRRWWWW
29Codominance Both traits are expressed at the same time (NO BLENDING) Both alleles are completely expressedResults in a 3rd phenotype (checkered)In chickens:Black and White alleles are both dominantIn blood groups:Alleles IA and IB are codominantRemember: Capital letters only, NO recessive lettersImage from:
30Cross a black chicken (B) with a white chicken (W) CodominanceCross a black chicken (B) with a white chicken (W)Parents: BB X WWBBGenotype:4 BWWBWBWPhenotype:4 Checkered ChickensWBWBW
31Multiple Alleles Types A, B, AB, O Type A: Four Human Blood GroupsTypes A, B, AB, OType A:IA IA (homozygous dominant) orIAi (heterozygous dominant)Type B:IB IB (homozygous dominant) orIBi (heterozygous dominant)Type AB:IA IB (Codominant)Type O:ii (only recessive blood group)Image from:Determined by three alleles (IA, IB, & i)
32Multiple Alleles: Cross a heterozygous type A person (IAi) with a heterozygous type B (IBi) person Parents: IAi X IBiIAiGenotypic Ratio:1 IAIB1 IAi1 IBi1 iiPhenotypic Ratio:1 Type AB1 Type A1 Type B1 Type OIAIBIBiIBIAiiii
33Multiple Alleles: Cross a male type O person (ii) with a female type AB (IAIB) person Parents: ii X IA IBiiGenotypic Ratio:2 IAi2 IBiPhenotypic Ratio:2 Type A2 Type BIAiIAiIAIBiIBiIB
34Polygenic Inheritance Determined by more than one gene (A, B, C, D)Results in a broad range of phenotypesAABBCCDD – darkest (dominant)AaBbCcDd – intermediateaabbccdd – lightest (recessive)Examples:Skin color, eye color, heightForms bell shape when graphedIntermediates are more common
36Human Chromosomes (one chromosome from mom and one from dad) Karyotype – A picture of a person’s chromosomesShows genetic disordersShows genderIn humans1st -22nd pairs are called autosomes23rd pair are called sex chromosomesSex chromosomes areXY – males (BOY)(one large, one small)XX – females(two matching large)Image from:
38Pedigree (used to trace traits) Look at the Pedigree and see if you can find the pictures that are represented on the KeyImage from:KeyWho are siblings?Who is married?Who is affected with a trait?Who is unaffected?-Sara, Joe, and Jim-Tim and Lori-Tom and Sue-Jim and KaySue, Joe, Jim and TimTom, Sara, Jeri, Lori, and Kay
39Autosomal Recessive Alleles “Defect on chromosomes 1-22” Lack an enzymenecessary tobreak downPhenylalanineLack of pigmentAccumulation of mucus inthe lungsAlbinism, Cystic Fibrosis, PKU, and Tay SachsNervous tissuedeterioration
40Dominant Alleles disorder “one dominant allele needed to be expressed” Deterioration of brain and nervoussystemHeads and limbsnot proportionalto body torsoAchondroplasia and Huntington's Disease
41Down Syndrome, Turners, and Kleinfleters Chromosomal disorders “caused by nondisjunctions; chromosomes fail to separate”Male has an extra XchromosomeExtra 21st chromosomeFemale missingone X chromosomeDown Syndrome, Turners, and Kleinfleters
42Chromosomal Disorders Karyotype Down SyndromeKleinfleters SyndromeTurners Syndrome
43Sickle-Cell Disease (Both alleles are equally expressed) Caused by codominant allelesS - sickle bloodN – normal bloodMore common in African AmericansHeterozygotes(NS) in Africaare immune to MalariaClumping of blood cellsNSNNNNSSNSSS
44Sex-linked Genes More often expressed in males than females Example: Found on sex chromosomes(Only on the X chromosome)More often expressed in males than females**Why? Because males inherit the X chromosome from their motherExample:ColorblindnessHemophiliaImage from:
45Sex-Linked Genes Color blindness Hemophilia Individuals have a hard time distinguishingbetween colorsIndividuals lack clotting factor in blood
46Biology – Second Quarter Review NC DPISample EOC Questions
47Cellular respiration is carried out by which of the following? A. all living organisms all of the timeB. animals but not plantsC. animals all of the time but plants only at nightD. heterotrophs but not autotrophs
482. Two students set up the following apparatus in a lab. A pipette was filled with a mixture of yeast and apple juice and inverted in a test tubefilled with warm water. The students observed bubbles being releasedfrom the end of the pipette.Which of the following most likely represents the gas being released?A. carbon dioxideB. hydrogen peroxideC. oxygenD. nitrogen
493. Which of the following processes 3. Which of the following processes releases the most ATP per molecule of glucose for immediate cell use?A. aerobic respirationB. anaerobic respirationC. chemosynthesisD. photosynthesis
504. Which statement is true regarding asexual reproduction as a method of producing offspring?A. common among mammalsB. not a method used by plantsC. produces offspring that are genetically identicalD. limited to unicellular organisms
515. Which process is responsible for the diversity of plants within a species? A. cross-pollinationB. transpirationC. self-fertilizationD. photosynthesis
526. Which of the following demonstrates the most significant difference between asexual and sexual reproduction?A. The chromosome number is reduced during asexual reproduction.B. The number of chromosomes is reduced during sexual reproduction.C. The appearance of the organism is changed as a result of asexual reproduction.D. There is genetic variation as a result of sexual reproduction.
537. What is true about any two normal gametes from a human male parent?A. Each has a diploid number of chromosomes.B. They can combine to form a new organism.C. Their chromosomes are exactly the same.D. They have the same number of chromosomes.
548. A cell has undergone a meiotic division cycle 8. A cell has undergone a meiotic division cycle. In order for the cell to achieve a diploid state, what must occur?A. cleavageB. fertilizationC. meiosisD. mitosis
559. A human skin cell contains 46 chromosomes 9. A human skin cell contains 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are present in a human sperm cell?A. 23B. 46C. 92D. 138
5610. Some traits are determined by more than two alleles. If aabbcc iscrossed with AABBCC, what would be the genotype of the offspring?A. AaBbCcB. AABBCCC. aabbccD. aaAAbbBBccCC
5711. In a genetics laboratory, two heterozygous tall plants are crossed. If tall is dominant over short, what are the expected phenotypic results?A. 100% tallB. 75% tall, 25% shortC. 50% tall, 50% shortD. 25% tall, 75% short
5812. Mr. Jones has blood type A and Mrs. Jones has blood type AB. What is theprobability that they will have a child with blood type A if both of Mr. Jones’s parents were AB?A. 0%B. 25%C. 50%D. 100%
5913. Color blindness is a sex-linked recessive trait 13. Color blindness is a sex-linked recessive trait. A mother with normal color vision and a color blind father have a color blind daughter. Which of the following statements is correct?A. All of their daughters will be color blind.B. The mother is a carrier of the color blindness geneC. All of their sons will have normal color vision.D. All of their sons will be color blind.
6014. In sickle cell anemia, the heterozygous condition results in resistance to malaria. If two heterozygous parents have a child, what are the chances of that child being resistant to malaria but not having sickle cell anemia?A. 25%B. 50%C. 75%D. 100%
6115. In guinea pigs, the allele for rough coat (R) is dominant to the allele forsmooth coat (r). A rough coat male and a smooth coat female mate. They produce several litters, of which 50% are rough coat and 50% are smooth coat. What were the genotypes of the parents?A. RR × rrB. Rr × rrC. RR × RrD. Rr × Rr
6216. Which genotype is used in a test cross?A. homozygous dominantB. heterozygous dominantC. homozygous recessiveD. heterozygous recessive
6317. After performing amniocentesis, which analysis is most often used to determine the chromosomal condition of a developing fetus?A. blood typeB. DNA sequenceC. genetic markerD. karyotype
6418. When viewing a karyotype to detect genetic disorders, which of the following would be a concern? A. different chromosomes of different lengthsB. two X chromosomesC. twenty-three pairs of chromosomesD. three chromosomes in any one set
6519. Albinism is a genetic mutation that results in some animals being born without theenzyme that produces the pigment for skinand eye color. Which of the following bestexplains this mutation?A. The DNA failed to replicate.B. The deoxyribose sugar became separated from the DNA.C. The genetic code change caused the wrong protein to form.D. The RNA necessary to produce proteins was not present.
6620. A student has cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition caused by the presence of a homozygous recessive gene. What could be her parent’s genotypes for the cystic fibrosis trait?A. Her father is homozygous dominant; her mother is homozygous recessive.B. Her father is heterozygous; her mother is homozygous dominant.C. Her father is homozygous dominant; her mother is homozygous dominant.D. Her father is heterozygous; her mother is homozygous recessive.
6721. The bacteria that cause tetanus can survive in a puncture wound that has healed on the outer surface of the skin. Through what process do these bacteria acquire the energy they needto survive?A. aerobic respirationB. anaerobic respirationC. chemosynthesisD. photosynthesis
6822. In terms of ATP production, which process results in the most stored energy? A. aerobic respirationB. anaerobic respirationC. fermentationD. photosynthesis
6923. Which statement best distinguishes aerobic from anaerobic respiration?A. Only aerobic respiration involvesfermentation.B. Only anaerobic respiration occursin the mitochondria.C. Only aerobic respiration requiresoxygen.D. Only anaerobic respiration producescarbon dioxide.
7024. Which most accurately describes the difference in ATP production between aerobic respiration and anaerobicrespiration?A. Aerobic respiration produces more ATP thananaerobic respiration.B. Anaerobic respiration produces more ATP thanaerobic respiration.C. Only anaerobic respiration produces measurableamounts of ATP.D. Anaerobic and aerobic respiration produce thesame amount of ATP.
7125. Before a cell goes through either mitosis or meiosis, which processmust be carried out by the DNA inthe nucleus?A. replicationB. nondisjunctionC. transcriptionD. translation
7226. Sexual reproduction provides for what to occur?A. cloningB. buddingC. genetic stabilityD. genetic variation
7327. Which term best describes the type of cell division in which parent cellsproduce daughter cells with the samenumber of chromosomes as theparent cells?A. mitosisB. meiosisC. spermatogenesisD. oogenesis
7428. What is the primary cause of variation in the offspring ofsexually reproducing organisms?A. cytoplasmic divisionB. environmental changesC. mutationD. recombination of alleles
7529. Which is responsible for most genotypic and phenotypic variationamong humans?A. meiosisB. buddingC. mitosisD. regeneration
7630. In genetics research, what is the purpose of a test cross?A. to determine the phenotypes ofthe parentsB. to determine the genotypes of theparentsC. to determine whether or not twoparents could produce viableoffspringD. to determine how many offspringcan be produced by two parents
7731. Most sex-linked, recessive traits–including hemophilia and colorblindness–appear in males. This phenomenonis best explained by which statement?A. Males have an X chromosome with dominant genes.B. Most of the genes on the X and Y chromosomes of males are recessive.C. In males, the recessive sex-linked genes appear only on the Y chromosome.D. In males, the Y chromosome lacks the genes needed to mask the recessive genes on the X chromosome.
7832. A karyotype of a human female shows that she has only one sex chromosome. Which genotype would represent her genetic condition?A. XOB. XXXC. XYD. XYY