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Chapter 2 Matter. Chemistry The study of matter and how it changes The study of matter and how it changes Matter – anything that has mass and takes up.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Matter. Chemistry The study of matter and how it changes The study of matter and how it changes Matter – anything that has mass and takes up."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Matter

2 Chemistry The study of matter and how it changes The study of matter and how it changes Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space Mass – resistance to change in motion Mass – resistance to change in motion Two types of matter- Two types of matter- Substance- Pure Substance- Pure Mixture- more than one substance Mixture- more than one substance

3 Two Kinds of Substances Elements- Simplest kind of matter Elements- Simplest kind of matter Cant be broken down further Cant be broken down further All one kind of atom All one kind of atom 116 kinds of elements 116 kinds of elements Each has a 1 or two letter symbol Each has a 1 or two letter symbol Each behaves differently Each behaves differently Everything else is built of them Everything else is built of them

4 Two Kinds of Substances Compounds- Made of two elements chemically combined Compounds- Made of two elements chemically combined Atoms stick together to make molecules Atoms stick together to make molecules All molecules of a compound are the same All molecules of a compound are the same They mix in the same ratio They mix in the same ratio Compounds behave completely differently from the elements that make them Compounds behave completely differently from the elements that make them

5 Elements and Compounds Element- All one atom

6 Elements and Compounds Molecule- Different atoms stuck together

7 Elements and Compounds Compound- All one molecule

8 Chemical Formulas Tell the type an number of atoms in a molecule Tell the type an number of atoms in a molecule Symbols tell type Symbols tell type Subscripts tell number Subscripts tell number Dont write one as a subscript Dont write one as a subscript

9 Chemical Formulas H2OH2O 2 Hydrogen atoms1 Oxygen atom

10 Chemical Formulas C 12 H 22 O Carbon atoms 22 Hydrogen atoms 11 Oxygen atoms

11 Molecules Most molecules form from different kinds of atoms Most molecules form from different kinds of atoms A few elements form molecules too A few elements form molecules too O 2 O 2 N 2 N 2 H 2 H 2 Cl 2 Cl 2 F 2 F 2 I 2 I 2 S 8 S 8 P 4 P 4

12 Pure Substance Elements and compounds Elements and compounds Only one kind of molecule or atom Only one kind of molecule or atom Compounds have specific amounts of their elements Compounds have specific amounts of their elements Compounds are completely different from their elements Compounds are completely different from their elements

13 Mixture Different substances mixed together Different substances mixed together Can be in any proportion Can be in any proportion Keeps the same properties as the things that make it Keeps the same properties as the things that make it Kool-aid Kool-aid Mix something sweet, something wet and something red Mix something sweet, something wet and something red Get something sweet, wet and red Get something sweet, wet and red

14 Two Types of Mixtures Heterogeneous- Heterogeneous- Different from place to place Different from place to place Not evenly mixed Not evenly mixed Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil Homogeneous- Homogeneous- The same throughout The same throughout Evenly mixed Evenly mixed Kool-aid, sea water, air Kool-aid, sea water, air

15 Liquid Mixtures Miscible- Miscible- Liquids that do dissolve in each other Liquids that do dissolve in each other Homogeneous Homogeneous Gasoline Gasoline Immiscible- Immiscible- Liquids that dont dissolve in each other Liquids that dont dissolve in each other Heterogeneous Heterogeneous Oil and water Oil and water

16 Kinetic Theory Kinetic means motion Kinetic means motion Three main parts of the theory Three main parts of the theory All matter is made of tiny particles All matter is made of tiny particles These particles are in constant motion and the higher the temperature, the faster they move These particles are in constant motion and the higher the temperature, the faster they move At the same temperature, heavier particles move slower. At the same temperature, heavier particles move slower.

17 States of Matter Solid Solid Particles are tightly packed Particles are tightly packed Stuck to each other in a pattern Stuck to each other in a pattern Vibrate in place Vibrate in place Cant flow Cant flow Constant volume Constant volume

18 States of Matter Liquid Liquid Particles are tightly packed Particles are tightly packed Able to slide past each other Able to slide past each other Can flow Can flow Constant volume Constant volume

19 States of Matter Gas Gas Particles are spread out Particles are spread out Flying all over the place Flying all over the place Can flow Can flow Volume of whatever container their in Volume of whatever container their in

20 Gases Fill the available space Fill the available space Particles moving at about 500 m/s Particles moving at about 500 m/s Particles hitting things cause pressure Particles hitting things cause pressure

21 Liquids Spread out on their own Spread out on their own Fluids- gases and liquids both flow Fluids- gases and liquids both flow Viscosity- the resistance to flow Viscosity- the resistance to flow The better the molecules stick to each other, the more resistance The better the molecules stick to each other, the more resistance

22 Energy The ability change or move matter The ability change or move matter As you add energy to a liquid, the temperature goes up As you add energy to a liquid, the temperature goes up The molecules move faster The molecules move faster Eventually they will move fast enough to break free and become a gas Eventually they will move fast enough to break free and become a gas This is evaporation- the change from a liquid to gas This is evaporation- the change from a liquid to gas

23 Phases Changes If you change rapidly enough, the gas will form below the surface an boil If you change rapidly enough, the gas will form below the surface an boil Condensation- Change from gas to liquid Condensation- Change from gas to liquid As you cool a gas the molecules slow down As you cool a gas the molecules slow down As gas molecules slow down they stick together As gas molecules slow down they stick together

24 Phases Changes Molecules and atoms dont change during a phase change Molecules and atoms dont change during a phase change the composition doesnt change the composition doesnt change The mass doesnt change The mass doesnt change The volume does change The volume does change Only the attractions and motion change Only the attractions and motion change

25 Law of Conservation of Mass In all changes, mass cannot be created or destroyed In all changes, mass cannot be created or destroyed All the mass you start with you end with All the mass you start with you end with It might be hard to count It might be hard to count

26 Law of Conservation of Energy In all changes, energy cannot be created or destroyed In all changes, energy cannot be created or destroyed All the energy you put in, you get out All the energy you put in, you get out It might be hard to count It might be hard to count

27 Properties A property is a something that describes matter A property is a something that describes matter An adjective An adjective Used to identify the matter Used to identify the matter Used to distinguish between different types Used to distinguish between different types

28 Chemical Properties Used to describe how substance reacts Used to describe how substance reacts How it changes How it changes By combining with other substances By combining with other substances Or breaking apart Or breaking apart Reactivity how a substance combines with other substances Reactivity how a substance combines with other substances Things like flammability, rusting, etc. Things like flammability, rusting, etc.

29 Physical Properties Can be observed or measured without changing the composition Can be observed or measured without changing the composition Melting point, boiling point, hardness, odor, ability to conduct electricity and heat Melting point, boiling point, hardness, odor, ability to conduct electricity and heat Density – how heavy something is for its size Density – how heavy something is for its size Ratio of mass to volume Ratio of mass to volume If the density of substance is less than its surroundings, it floats If the density of substance is less than its surroundings, it floats

30 Density Found by dividing the mass by volume Found by dividing the mass by volume D = m V D = m V Units of g/mL or g/cm 3 Units of g/mL or g/cm 3 Water has a density of 1 g/mL Water has a density of 1 g/mL

31 Density D M V Cover up the one you are looking for to find the formula for the missing piece

32 A piece of wood has a mass of 12 g and a volume of 16 cm 3 What is its density? A piece of wood has a mass of 12 g and a volume of 16 cm 3 What is its density? Steel has a density of 7.8 g/cm 3. How much would 56 cm 3 of steel weigh? Steel has a density of 7.8 g/cm 3. How much would 56 cm 3 of steel weigh? What would the volume of the same mass of water be? What would the volume of the same mass of water be? Density M VD

33 Allow us to identify substances Allow us to identify substances Allow us to separate substances Allow us to separate substances Determine uses Determine uses Properties

34 Two types- Two types- Physical Changes- no new type of matter is made Physical Changes- no new type of matter is made All the molecules stay the same All the molecules stay the same Chemical Change- a new type of matter is made Chemical Change- a new type of matter is made Atoms rearrange to make new elements or compounds Atoms rearrange to make new elements or compounds Changes

35 Completely new properties Completely new properties Products are not at all like the reactants Products are not at all like the reactants Makes new odor, color, etc. Makes new odor, color, etc. Chemical Changes

36 Might look a little different Might look a little different Keeps original properties Keeps original properties Changing phases Changing phases Making a mixture Making a mixture Cutting Cutting Grinding Grinding Dissolving Dissolving Physical Changes

37 Water molecules break apart and surround sugar molecules Water molecules break apart and surround sugar molecules All the original molecules are still there All the original molecules are still there Sugar gets so spread out that they dont block light Sugar gets so spread out that they dont block light Dissolving Sugar


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