2What is a Labor Union?An organization of wage earners formed for the purpose of serving the members' interests with respect to wages and working conditions.
3LABOR UNIONS Labor Union Labor Strike Boycott Scab Worker Workers who organize against their employers to seek better wages and working conditions for wage earners.Labor UnionOne method for having demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very effective form of attack.Labor StrikePeople refuse to buy a company's product until the company meets demands.BoycottNew immigrants who would replace strikers and work for less pay. Often violence would erupt between strikers and scabs who were trying to cross picket lines to work.Scab Worker
4Collective Bargaining A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.LABOR UNIONSClosed ShopList of people disliked by business owners because they were leaders in the Union. Often would lose their jobs, beaten up or even killed.Black ListType of negotiation between an employer and labor union where they sit down face to face and discuss better wages, etc.Collective BargainingA written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the companyYellow Dog Contracts
5LABOR UNIONS Lock Out Cooperatives Owner of industry would “lock out” workers who were trying to form a union and replace them with “scabs”.LABOR UNIONSIndustry or business organization owned by and operated for the benefit of those using its services—non-profitCooperatives
6Large disenfranchised population Labor UnitesIndustrializationUrbanizationImmigrationLeads to…Large disenfranchised populationPopulist Movement: First attempt of the people to reform capital and labor relationship.
7Unionization in 20th Century America An organized association of workers formed to protect and further their rights and interests.In 1900, 1 in 12 workers unionized.Bricklayers Union, PA, 1900
9LABOR UNIONS National Labor Union Knights of Labor William Sylvis, 1866Skilled, unskilled, farmers but excluded Chinese…Cooperatives, 8 hr. work day, against labor strikesFounded a political party in 1872Involved in the Chinese Exclusion Act.Lost election, faded awayReplaced by Knights of Labor.Knights of LaborTerrence PowderlyAll workers except Chinese8 hr. day, cooperatives, prohibition, end child laborSeveral strikes won some wage gains 1885 to 1886Unrealistic and vague goalsLoss of important strikes and failure of cooperativesHaymarket Riot—1886American Federation of Labor or AFLSamuel Gompers, 1881Skilled workers in separate unions.Work within political system for change.Closed shop and collective bargainingOver 1 million workers joined and won several strikesSmall part of work force eligible to join.
10Labor union, sought to organize workers Goals were: Knights of LaborLabor union, sought to organize workersGoals were:end of land grants to the railroadsprohibition of child laborers under 14gender equality in pay
11American Federation of Labor (AFL) Founded by Samuel GompersOrganized skilled workers in a specific trade
12The Growth of Unions American Federation of Labor (AFL) In 1882, on average, 675 laborers were killed in work-related accidents each WEEK!American Federation of Labor (AFL)Samuel GompersIndustrial Workers of the World (IWW)Advocated socialism: government control of business and equal distribution of wealth.
13Pt. 4: Major Labor Conflicts of the 1880s & 1890s
14EUGENE DEBS-Founder of the Socialist Party in the U.S.-Overthrow the existing laissez faire system-Believes in government ownership of business and capital (money, natural resources)-Government controls production, sets wages, prices and distributes the goods. No profit or competition.-Runs for the presidency several times & loses. (won 6% of popular vote at one point)
15Railroad Workers Organize The Great Railroad Strike of 1877Railway workers protested unfair wage cuts and unsafe working conditions.The strike was violent and unorganized.President Hayes sent federal troops to put down the strikes.From then on, employers relied on federal and state troops to repress labor unrest.
16Railroad Workers Organize Debs and the American Railway Union At the time of the 1877 strike, railroad workers mainly organized into various “brotherhoods,” which were basically craft unions.Eugene V. Debs proposed a new industrial union for all railway workers called the American Railway Union (A.R.U.).The A.R.U. would replace all of the brotherhoods and unite all railroad workers, skilled and unskilled.
17THE GREAT RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877 The great Railroad Strike of 1877 began on July 16, when railroad workers for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad staged a spontaneous strike after yet another wage cut. After President Rutherford Hayes sent federal troops to West Virginia to save the nation from “insurrection,” the strike spread across the nation.A picture of burned railroad cars during the mass strike
18Haymarket Square: Chicago 1886 workers from McCormick Harvesting Machine Company struck for an 8 hour day (They wanted a reduction in the amount of hours they worked in a given day). However, the Knights of Labor (union) did not support their actions.police came - four strikers killed and several wounded.next day at a rally in Haymarket Square- anarchists spoke up against police & treatment of workers.Thousands protest the killings and during the rally the police break up the meeting - someone threw a bomb at police - 7 police die. In response the police spray the crowd with bullets and 10 more workers die with another 50 injured.Result: Anti-Labor feelings sweep the nation and membership in the Knights of Labor Union fell drastically!
19Haymarket Riot1886: Chicago, IllinoisWorkers went on strike for an 8-hour workdayAction of Industry?Tried to break the strikes, fights eventually broke out between strikers & strikebreakers
20Action of government?Police intervention, some tried for murderEffect?Americans become wary of labor unionsKnights of Labor blamed
21Homestead Steel Strike: Workers went on strike for higher wages Homestead Steel Strike: Workers went on strike for higher wages. Management refused to negotiate and locked out the workers, however the workers broke in and took control of the mill. Management hired the Pinkerton Police, which is a private security force, to take control back. 300 Pinkertons arrived by barge and were greeted by the workers. For 12 hours a battle ensued. The end result was the Pinkertons surrendered.
22Carnegie then requested help from the Pennsylvania National Guard to restore control over the strikers after the Pinkertons had failed. Carnegie replaced 1700 strikers with new workers called strike breakers (scabs).
23Homestead Strike1892, in PennsylvaniaWages of steelworkers cutAction of Labor Union?Calls for a strikeAction of Industry?Police force called the “Pinkertons” brought in to break up the strike
24Action of Government?Troops & local militia sent in to calm the situationEffect?Steelworkers lose power after calling off the strike
25Carnegie successfully broke up the attempt to organize a union. HOMESTEAD STRIKECarnegie successfully broke up the attempt to organize a union.No labor unions in steel industry until the 1920’s.Carnegie would be remembered for events at Homestead.His public image suffered
26Pullman Strike1893, in ChicagoWages of employees cut without a decrease in living costs in the company townAction of Labor Union?Called Eugene V. Debs & the American Railway Union (ARU)Nationwide strike, halting railroad traffic
27Strikes Rock the Nation Pullman, 1893Eugene Debs instructed strikers not to interfere with the nation’s mail.Railway owners turned to the government for help. The judge cited the Sherman Antitrust Act and won a court order forbidding all union activity that halted railroad traffic.Court orders against unions continued, limiting union gains for the next 30 years.
28Actions of Industry?Argued that the labor union was destroying free tradeActions of Government?President Grover Cleveland sends in federal troops; Eugene V. Debs is arrestedEffect?Use of courtsystem andmilitary to limit power of labor unions
29The Supreme Court Upholds Laissez-faire Lochner v. New York – 1905New York state passed the “Bakeshop Act” limiting the hours a bakery employee could work in one week to 60.Lochner, a bakery owner, was fined for allowing employees to exceed limitation.He sued protesting the constitutionality of the law under the 14th Amendment and his liberty of contract.Supreme Court overturned his conviction stating:…this law interfered "with the right of contract between the employer and employees.“ To the Court, the right to buy and sell labor through contract was a "liberty of the individual" protected under the 14th amendment .
30Reaction of Employers -European influences of socialism Employers hated & feared unions. Why?-European influences of socialism-Labor strikes always tended to be violent.Some took steps to stop unions, such as:-forbidding union meetings-firing union organizers-forcing new employees to sign “yellow dog” contracts, making them promise never to join a union or participate in a strike-refusing to bargain collectively when strikes did occur-refusing to recognize unions as their workers’ legitimate representatives