Presentation on theme: "Relationships in Nature. What is symbiosis? Two organisms that live together Temporarily or for a longer time At least one of the organisms benefits from."— Presentation transcript:
Relationships in Nature
What is symbiosis? Two organisms that live together Temporarily or for a longer time At least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship
What are the different kinds of symbiosis? Mutualism Parasitism Commensalism both organisms benefit one organism benefits one organism is unaffected one organism is harmed
Parasitism Causes harm to host The parasite benefits, the host is harmed or in some cases killed.
Zombie Caterpillars -Slave Bodyguard Glyptapanteles is a wasp that lays its eggs in the body of a caterpillar. This is a three layered parasitic infection. –The wasps disable the caterpillar’s immune system, allowing the wasp eggs to survive. –The eggs hatch and feed on the caterpillar, but do not kill it. Instead, the caterpillar stops developing and spends the rest of its life protecting the wasp larva, even going as far as spinning its own cocoon around the wasp pupae. – When the adult wasp emerges from its cocoon, the zombie caterpillar finally tastes the sweet release of death.
Commensalism Only one member benefits –sharing space, defense, shelter, food Neither will die if relationship is ended –Shrimp & sea cucumber starship.com/science new/symbiosis.htm The Shrimp hitch a ride on the large sea cucumbers. The shrimps get transported through a large area of potential food by their host with only a minimal expenditure of energy on their part. They can be observed getting off their host cucumber to feed in productive areas, and back on for a ride to the next spot!
Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected Cattle with cattle egrets Cattle stir up insects as they eat grass Egrets hang around and eat insects
Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected Clown fish with anemone Clown fish gets protection Anemone is unaffected
Cactus Wren & Cholla Cactus Cactus wren –builds its nest in a cholla cactus to protect its young from predators such as raven. There is no harm to the cactus.
Mutualism Both organisms derive mutual benefit Neither can survive without the other Tickbirds and rhinos
Buffalo & Oxpecker Buffalo –Lets the bird eat Oxpecker –Eats ticks and other parasites off skin –Warns buffalo of danger
Honey Bee & the Dandelion Honey bee – gets to eat the pollen from the flower. Dandelion –uses the bee to spread its pollen to another flower
Shark and Remora Fish Shark –Lets the fish eat Remora Fish –Eats parasites –Gets the shark’s leftovers
Crocodile & Bird Nile crocodile –Usually eats animals –Allows bird to walk around its mouth Crocodile bird –Cleans parasites in croc’s teeth –Removes and eats scraps of food –Eats harmful leeches and parasites
Mutualism: both benefit Moray Eel with Cleaner Shrimp Zebra Moray Eel gets a clean mouth Cleaner Shrimp gets a meal
Mutualism: both benefit Antelope with Oxbird Antelope gets rid of parasites Oxbird gets a meal