Presentation on theme: "Relationships in Nature"— Presentation transcript:
1 Relationships in Nature Notes:Relationships can be found throughout nature:Dependent and IndependentBeneficial and HarmfulHosts and ParasitesQuestions:This rhino is in a variety of relationships some obvious and some less visible.1) Can you name any of these partnerships?2) What the purpose of the relationship?3) Who does it harm or help?
2 What is symbiosis? Two organisms that live together Temporarily or for a longer timeAt least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship
3 What are the different kinds of symbiosis? MutualismCommensalismParasitismboth organisms benefitone organism benefitsone organism benefitsone organism is unaffectedone organism is harmed
4 Parasitism Causes harm to host The parasite benefits, the host is harmed or in some cases killed.
6 Zombie Caterpillars -Slave Bodyguard Glyptapanteles is a wasp that lays its eggs in the body of a caterpillar.This is a three layered parasitic infection.The wasps disable the caterpillar’s immune system, allowing the wasp eggs to survive.The eggs hatch and feed on the caterpillar, but do not kill it. Instead, the caterpillar stops developing and spends the rest of its life protecting the wasp larva, even going as far as spinning its own cocoon around the wasp pupae.When the adult wasp emerges from its cocoon, the zombie caterpillar finally tastes the sweet release of death.
7 Commensalism Only one member benefits sharing space, defense, shelter, foodNeither will die if relationship is endedShrimp & sea cucumberThe Shrimp hitch a ride on the large sea cucumbers. The shrimps get transported through a large area of potential food by their host with only a minimal expenditure of energy on their part. They can be observed getting off their host cucumber to feed in productive areas, and back on for a ride to the next spot!
8 Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected Cattle with cattle egretsCattle stir up insects as they eat grass Egrets hang around and eat insectsCommensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected
9 Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected Clown fish with anemoneClown fish gets protection Anemone is unaffectedCommensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected
10 Cactus Wren & Cholla Cactus builds its nest in a cholla cactus to protect its young from predators such as raven. There is no harm to the cactus.
11 Mutualism Both organisms derive mutual benefit Neither can survive without the otherTickbirds and rhinos
12 Buffalo & Oxpecker Buffalo Oxpecker Lets the bird eat Eats ticks and other parasites off skinWarns buffalo of danger
13 Honey Bee & the Dandelion gets to eat the pollen from the flower.Dandelionuses the bee to spread its pollen to another flower
14 Shark and Remora Fish Shark Remora Fish Lets the fish eat Eats parasitesGets the shark’s leftovers
16 Crocodile & Bird Nile crocodile Crocodile bird Usually eats animals Allows bird to walk around its mouthCrocodile birdCleans parasites in croc’s teethRemoves and eats scraps of foodEats harmful leeches and parasitesNotes:Mammal - Bird relationships are common.Questions:Can you think of other animal-bird symbiotic relationships?Why and how do you think this relationship evolved?What special adaptations might have developed for this relationship?
17 Mutualism: both benefit Moray Eel with Cleaner ShrimpZebra Moray Eel gets a clean mouthCleaner Shrimp gets a mealMutualism: both benefit
18 Mutualism: both benefit Antelope with OxbirdAntelope gets rid of parasites Oxbird gets a mealMutualism: both benefit