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Relationships in Nature

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Presentation on theme: "Relationships in Nature"— Presentation transcript:

1 Relationships in Nature
Notes: Relationships can be found throughout nature: Dependent and Independent Beneficial and Harmful Hosts and Parasites Questions: This rhino is in a variety of relationships some obvious and some less visible. 1) Can you name any of these partnerships? 2) What the purpose of the relationship? 3) Who does it harm or help?

2 What is symbiosis? Two organisms that live together
Temporarily or for a longer time At least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship

3 What are the different kinds of symbiosis?
Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism both organisms benefit one organism benefits one organism benefits one organism is unaffected one organism is harmed

4 Parasitism Causes harm to host
The parasite benefits, the host is harmed or in some cases killed.


6 Zombie Caterpillars -Slave Bodyguard
Glyptapanteles is a wasp that lays its eggs in the body of a caterpillar. This is a three layered parasitic infection. The wasps disable the caterpillar’s immune system, allowing the wasp eggs to survive. The eggs hatch and feed on the caterpillar, but do not kill it. Instead, the caterpillar stops developing and spends the rest of its life protecting the wasp larva, even going as far as spinning its own cocoon around the wasp pupae. When the adult wasp emerges from its cocoon, the zombie caterpillar finally tastes the sweet release of death.

7 Commensalism Only one member benefits
sharing space, defense, shelter, food Neither will die if relationship is ended Shrimp & sea cucumber The Shrimp hitch a ride on the large sea cucumbers. The shrimps get transported through a large area of potential food by their host with only a minimal expenditure of energy on their part. They can be observed getting off their host cucumber to feed in productive areas, and back on for a ride to the next spot!

8 Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected
Cattle with cattle egrets Cattle stir up insects as they eat grass Egrets hang around and eat insects Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected

9 Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected
Clown fish with anemone Clown fish gets protection Anemone is unaffected Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected

10 Cactus Wren & Cholla Cactus
builds its nest in a cholla cactus to protect its young from predators such as raven. There is no harm to the cactus.

11 Mutualism Both organisms derive mutual benefit
Neither can survive without the other Tickbirds and rhinos

12 Buffalo & Oxpecker Buffalo Oxpecker Lets the bird eat
Eats ticks and other parasites off skin Warns buffalo of danger

13 Honey Bee & the Dandelion
gets to eat the pollen from the flower. Dandelion uses the bee to spread its pollen to another flower

14 Shark and Remora Fish Shark Remora Fish Lets the fish eat
Eats parasites Gets the shark’s leftovers

15 Hermit Crab & Sea Anemone
protects the crab Sea anemone Gets leftover food

16 Crocodile & Bird Nile crocodile Crocodile bird Usually eats animals
Allows bird to walk around its mouth Crocodile bird Cleans parasites in croc’s teeth Removes and eats scraps of food Eats harmful leeches and parasites Notes: Mammal - Bird relationships are common. Questions: Can you think of other animal-bird symbiotic relationships? Why and how do you think this relationship evolved? What special adaptations might have developed for this relationship?

17 Mutualism: both benefit
Moray Eel with Cleaner Shrimp Zebra Moray Eel gets a clean mouth Cleaner Shrimp gets a meal Mutualism: both benefit

18 Mutualism: both benefit
Antelope with Oxbird Antelope gets rid of parasites Oxbird gets a meal Mutualism: both benefit

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