Presentation on theme: "IB History Review Paper 2"— Presentation transcript:
1IB History Review Paper 2 1.5 hours (25%)Select 2 questions from 2 topics (different regions)Full essays! Intro, well-developed, organized body (3-4 paragraphs), conclusion, take 5 min. to plan
2Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Types of War Guerrilla War: a war between irregular forces and established armies20th c Guerrilla Wars: Chinese Civil War ( ), French Indochina War ( , Battle of Dien Bien Phu), Vietnam War ( ), Algerian War (France, ), Afghan Resistance ( , Mujahadeen), Cuban Revolution ( )Civil Wars: a war between rival factions within a countrySpanish Civil War (Francisco Franco, Comintern, Popular Front rebels, loyalists, republicans, nationalists)Which countries took which sides in the war?Vietnam, Korea, Chinese Civil War, India-Pakistan
3Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Types of War Total War: a conflict of unlimited scope, one side mobilizes all available resources (human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, tech) in order to entirely destroy. In total war, there is no differentiation between soldiers and citizens. WWI, WWIILimited War: do not expend all of each of the available resources at their disposal, whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological, or otherwise in a specific conflict.This may be to preserve those resources for other purposes, or because it might be more difficult for specific participants to be able to utilize all of an areas resources rather than part of them. Limited war is an opposite of total warEx: The Cold War (not using atomic bombs, Truman vs. Gen. MacArthur in Korea)Proxy War: a war that results when 2 powers use other parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. (terror groups, mercenaries). These groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war.
4Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Other Wars to Study:First World WarMilitarism, deterrence, industrialization, The Alliance system, Imperialism, nationalism, The July Crisis, The Blank ChequeArchduke Franz FerdinandKaiser Wilhelm IIneo-mercantilism: an economic doctrine that emphasizes the need to decrease imports by moving towards self-sufficiency (increase in colonial holdings to supply raw materials and provide markets for finished goods)Arab-Israeli ConflictSecond World War (Europe, Pacific)
5Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Other Wars to Study:Indo-Pakistan Wars ( , 1971)Religion, decolonization, background causes (GB) Partition, ceasefire, 1965 Kashmir War, Non-Alignment, Indo-Pakistan War 1971Mukti Bahni: guerilla army raised in East Pakistan to fight for indep.Mohandas Gandhi, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Ali Bhutto, Nehru, Indira Gandhi
6Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Vocabulary Collective responsibility: the practice of holding all members of a population responsible for the actions of a few of its membersAttrition: weaken the enemy by depleting and destroying their resources, human and material, to the point they surrender or abandon the fightDecolonization: the movement towards indep. for territories that had been ruled by European states (2nd half of 20th century) could be peaceful or violent (Africa, Asia)Privatization: the economic practice of selling government assets to private ownersSovereignty: the ability of a country to act independently of any outside authority
7Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Questions For what reasons, and with what results, were “limited” wars a factor in the second half of the 20th century?Compare and contrast the use of naval warfare in two wars each chosen from a different regionAssess the importance of war at sea, and war in the air, in one 20th century warExamine the impact of resistance movements in two wars each from a different regionAssess the social results of two wars, each from a different regionAnalyze the political results of wither the Algerian War ( ) or the Chinese Civil War ( )Assess the impact of technological developments in two wars, each from a different region
8Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Questions Ho Chi Minh “You can kill ten of my men for every one of yours I kill, but even at those odds, you will lose and I will win” Is this statement true for all guerilla wars? Why or why not?Describe 2 guerilla wars, each from a different region.How might a war fit into more than 1 category? Give an example.What factors might lead an army to choose guerilla tactics rather than conventional war?What are the disadvantages to guerilla tactics?Analyze the causes of the Iran/Iraq War ( ) or the Malvinas/Falklands War (1982)Discuss the economic causes of one 20th century war“A European rather than a world war.” To what extent to do agree with this judgment of World War One?
9Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: USA 1953-1973 Movements for Civil Rights, racial segregation: separation of races in society (transportation, movies, education, movie theaters, restaurants), black voting rights (suffrage)Eisenhower, JFK, LBJ, Nixon’s domestic and civil rights policies (Kennedy’s domestic reforms, civil rights movement; President Johnson and the Great Society deficit spending); Nixon, watergate scandalNAACP (National Assoc for the Advancement of Colored People)CORE Congress for Racial EqualityEnd to Jim Crow Laws, Plessy vs Ferguson, Brown vs Board of Education, Rosa Parks
10Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: USA 1953-1973 Citizenship, multi-party states, constitutions (written, unwritten), electoral systems, proportional representation, coalition governments, role of political parties, role of opposition, role of interest/lobby groups, Supreme Court, Red Scare, left wing, right wing, inflation, separation of powers, congressional elections, Congress, Senate, 5th amendmentAttorney General: head of justice dept, most senior legal advisor to PresidentSocial Security: insurance against sickness, accidents, unemployment, and old ageEnhanced social welfare programs in the 1950s-1960s to help disadvantaged social groupsLiberal: USA, democrats, assoc. with Roosevelt’s New Deal reforms, liberal programs give rights and equal opportunities to disadvantaged groups, Pres. Johnson’s Great Society reforms 1960s
11Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: USA 1953-1973 Secularism: sep. of church and state,Women’s rights, Native American rightsAffirmative action: places set aside for ethnic or racial minorities to have access to employment (or education)
12Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: South Africa 1991-2000 African National Congress (ANC)Nelson MandelaApartheid (apartness)Trade unions, Freedom Charter, end of apartheid, referendum, bicameral, cabinet, coalition govt, first-past-the-post system, gender, civil serviceuniversal suffrage: right to vote in elections,public works: govt funded projects such as roads, schools, hospitals, improving national infrastructure recession: economic growth becomes negative for 6 months Amnesty: involves cancelling the punishment for someone who has broken the law (pardon)
13Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: Questions What important issues affected domestic policies in the US between ?Compare and contrast democracy in Japan after 1945 and Australia between“Democratic states have allowed pressure groups to have too much influence on their policies.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?For what reason and with what results did Weimar Germany fail?Analyze the successes and failures of either President Alfonsin of Argentina ( ) or President Nixon ( )?
14Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: Questions Compare and contrast the electoral systems in two 20th century democratic states.Discuss gender issues, social welfare, and education in two countries in the Americas.In what ways, and to what extent, did the Civil Rights movement in one democratic state succeed in ending racial discrimination?Analyze the role of Nelson Mandela in South Africa’s transition to majority rule.In what ways and with what results did economic policies improve the standard of living in two democratic states, each from a different region?
15Origins and Development of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Rise of single party states, methods used (force?), what conditions produce single-party states (economic fear!)Successes and failures of domestic and foreign policyForm of govt, political ideology (right or left)Totalitarianism, treatment of oppositionHow do they maintain their regime? Media, Education, Social Issues, Arts, Propaganda, minorities, religionsWomen in single-party: Communism, FascismPeron Argentina ; Mao PRC ; Castro Cuba ; Hitler Germany ; Mussolini ; Nasser ; Nyerere Tanzania ; Lenin USSR ; Stalin USSR ; Khmer Rouge, Pol Pot ; Idi Amin, Uganda 1971 – 1979
17Roles of Women: Communism Communist Theory: Marx, Engels, 1800s (Marxist Feminism) Origins of Family, Private Property, and the State:Monogamous marriage was the domination of men over women, men have dominated women (just as the capitalist class has dominated workers), dismantling capitalism is a way to liberate women.Private property gives rise to economic inequality, dependence, political confusion and ultimately unhealthy social relations between men and women--the root of women’s oppression. Gender oppression IS class oppression and serves the interests of capital and the ruling class.Stalin (Communism): Roles of women change (1928) emancipation, liberation, women needed in industry, massive entry into workforce, increased educational opportunities, legislation to ensure domestic responsibilities fit with industrial employment, affected social institutions (the family), girls equal education, equal rights in employment, advances in health care (hospitals for birth), increased lifespan, free from fear of typhus, cholera, malaria, raised literacy rates, later outlawed abortion, birth control
18PRC & Women Mao improved women’s rights, made women equal Mao improved the lives of women by abolishing prostitution, foot binding, allowing women to initiate divorce, inherit property, stop child marriages, ended women’s opium addiction, birth control, contraceptives, planned parenting (One Child Policy)One Child Policy: a boy is more valuable, allowed to commit infanticide (kill your own child)Mao “Women hold up half the heavens.”Popular slogan during Cultural Revolution “Break the chains, unleash the fury of women as a mighty force for revolution!”
19Nazis & WomenOpposed women’s feminist movement (Jewish-led) bad for both women, men. Stay at home.Patriarchial society, the “world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home.”Women took vital jobs from men during Great Depression, economically bad for families (women were paid 66% what men earned.) Discouraged women from higher education, universities, colleges. Drop: 128,000 enrolled 1933, 51,000 in 19381933, Hitler appointed Gertrud Scholtz-Klink, Reich Women’s Leader, instructed women their primary role in society was to bear children, be subservient to men, “the mission of woman is to minister in the home and in her profession to the needs of life from the first to last moment of man’s existence.”Jungmadel (Young Girls) section of Hitler Youth for girls , Bund Deutscher Madel (BDM, German Girl’s League) young womenSex: promoted conduct for sex, Church morals dropped, promiscuity increased, unmarried soldiers involved with several women simultaneously, married women in multiple affairs simultaneously, with soldiers, civilians“Some farm wives used sex as a commodity, employing carnal favors as a means of getting a full day’s work from foreign laborers.”1936, women bearing children out of wedlock (Lebensborn) “Fountain of Life” to create racial purity, encouraged German soldiers (SS) to reproduce, offered SS families support services (adoption of racially pure children into suitable SS families), accommodating racially-valuable women, pregnant with SS men’s children, in care homes in Germany, Occupied Europe. Also racially pure children forcibly seized from occupied countries (Poland) with German familiesDespite official restrictions, some women were highly visible, officially praised achievements: aviatrix Hanna Reitsch, film director Leni Riefenstahl
20Roles of Women: Fascism (Mussolini, Italy) Fascism promotes Masculine heroism, militarism, discipline, PatriarchyWomen briefly given right to vote until 1925 (Italian Fascists abolished elections).1920 Mussolini declared that “Fascists do not belong to the crowd of the vain and skeptical who undervalue women’s social and political importance. You will vote!”Women’s primary role: child-bearers (men were warriors) “war is to man what maternity is to the woman.” Women are the “reproducers of the nation.” It was unnatural for women to have more influence in a relationship with a man“Battle for Births” gave financial incentives to women who raised large families, policies designed to reduce women employed to allow larger numbers of children1934, Mussolini declared employment of women was “major aspect of the thorny problem of unemployment”, women working was “incompatible with childbearing.” Solution to unemployment: “exodus of women from the work force.”1920s, Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND) allowed working women to attend entertainment, recreation events (including sports traditionally played by men). Criticized by Roman Catholic Church, causing “masculinization” of women.Mussolini responded by restricting women to only “feminine, womanly” sports.
21Origins and Development of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Kenyatta (Kenya) and Nyerere (Tanzania)Analyze the social and economic policies of HitlerIn what ways and to what extent did the status of women change in two single party states (each from a different region)In 1924 Stalin said “the state is an instrument in the hands of the ruling class, used to break the resistance of the enemies of that class.” How did Stalin carry out this belief?In 1953 Castro declared: “History will absolve me.” To what extent do you agree with this claim?
22Origins and Development of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Examine the conditions that led to two single-party statesCompare and contrast the rise to power of one right-wing and one left-wing leader of a single-party or authoritarian state.Analyze the methods used by either Mao or Peron to maintain power.Discuss the successes and failures of either Stalin or Sukarno.In what ways, and with what results, did one ruler use the following: religion, propaganda, and the arts?
23Decolonization and Independence movements in Africa and Asia Vietminh, French colonialism, First Indochina War , Geneva Accords, Ho Chi Minh, divided Vietnam, National Liberation Front (NLF), Viet Cong, Emp Bao Dai, Ngo Dinh Diem, Second Indochina War , Ho Chi Minh Trail, SEATO, Le Duc Tho, Cambodia, LaosThe Socialist Republic of Vietnam
24Leaders in ASIA Emp. Hirohito, Japan (1926-1989) Chiang Kai-shek: Nationalist, China, fled to TaiwanMao Zedong: People’s Rep of China (PRC)1949 (loved Stalinism, Communist)14th Dalai Llama (Tenzin Gyatso) TibetDethroned by PRC invasion, 1950-presentHo Chi Minh: Demo. Rep. of Vietnam (N)1945 – 1969 (Communist)Ngo Dinh Diem: Rep of Vietnam (S)1955 – 1963 (Democratic? Assassinated by CIA)
25Decolonization and Independence movements in Africa and Asia Jinnah, PakistanIndia, Nehru (Gandhi)Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana (CPP), Angola (1975, Antonio Neto), Rhodesia, Zimbabwe Robert MugabeDecolonization: the process by which European colonies become fully developed indep. States (often by war)Artificial boundaries, ethnic conflict, impact of cold war, socialism vs capitalism, social problems, role of women, urbanizationThe ethics of colonization, is there moral justification for imperialism?
26African Studies: Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana (1) 1948 called for self-govt (from GB)1949, Convention People’s Party (CPP).1950, “People’s Assembly” with CPP members, youth, trade unionists, cocoa farmers, and veterans, women’s suffrage. “Positive Action” campaign, civil disobedience, non-coop, boycotts, strikes, arrested 3 yrsBritish left the Gold Coast, 1st election: Feb, 1951Nkrumah 1st leader of indep. Ghana (1957)1963 Ghana, became charter member of Org. of African Unity, Pan-Africanism
27Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana (2)Nkrumah adopted socialistic policies: welfare, community programs, schools, construction of roads, bridges for commerce and communication, improved public health in villages, tap water systems installed, concrete drains for latrines constructed.Industrial development at any cost, rapidly industrialize economy, escape colonial trade system by reducing dep. on foreign capital, tech, material goods; become indep. Hurt the country’s cocoa sector, many economic projects unsuccessful, or delayed benefits.1966, The Akosombo Dam (borrowed $$ from USA, debt, raised taxes on farmers) expensive, but today produces most of Ghana’s hydroelectric power.
28Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana (3)Striking workers, The Detention Act (laws to arrest innocent people for political gain), clinics ran out of medicine, no one notified him, Police resented their role. Ghana had fallen from one of the richest countries in Africa, to one of the poorest.Nkrumah had a justifiable fear of assassination.1964, Nkrumah made constitutional amendment, CPP the only legal party, President for life (99% vote-fraud), now single-party state, dictatorship1966, Nkrumah visited Vietnam, his govt was overthrown in a military coup (CIA backed)Today, Nkrumah is one of the most respected leaders in African history.2000, BCC voted Africa’s man of the millennium.Never returned to Ghana (Guinea), pushed for African unity, still frightened of western intelligence agencies (CIA), his cook died, he feared poison, began hoarding food in his room. He suspected that foreign agents were going through his mail, and lived in constant fear of abduction and assassination. Died in Romania, medical treatments (skin cancer, 1972)
29Decolonization and Independence Movements in Africa and Asia Analyze three factors that fostered the growth of independence movements in either Africa or AsiaWhat is the exact sexual reproduction cycle of a shark?Examine the role and importance of leaders, in independence movements, in either Africa or Asia.In what ways and with what results were either Jinnah or Kwame Nkrumah important in obtaining independence for his country?In 1942 Ghandi said: “India will have an assembly with powers to draft a constitution after the war is over.” To what extent were Ghandi’s actions and the Second World War responsible for Indian independence?
30Decolonization and Independence Movements in Africa and Asia Discuss the importance of two of the following challenges to new states: conflicts with neighbors; social and religious issues; separatist movements.“Neo-colonialism was a term coined by Nkrumah to describe the ability of Western capitalist powers to retain economic and political control over former colonies.” To what extent did Neo-Colonialism hinder independence and economic progress in former colonies?To what extent did the Cold War affect independence movements and new states either in Africa and Asia or post 1945 Central & Eastern European States?
31Nationalist/Indep. Movements in Post-1945 C. & E. Euro Nationalist/Indep. Movements in Post-1945 C.& E. Euro. States-Poland & CzechPoland: Curzon Line, show trials, Lech Walesa, SolidarityYugo: Josip Broz TitoCzech: Marshall Aid, De-Stalinization ( ), politburo, Soviet satellite states of Europe, Praque SpringBrezhnev Doctrine, normalization, Third Way, Charter 77, Vaclav Havel, Dubcek, martial law, the Velvet Revolution 1989
32Leaders in Europe: Cold War Josip Broz Tito, Socialist Fed Rep of YugoslaviaStood up to Stalin…and lived! (True Socialism)Alexander Dubcek, Communist Party of CzechJan 5-Aug 21, 1968Prague Spring Revolt against USSR, revolt haltedLech Walesa, Rep. of PolandLed “Solidarity” movement against USSR
33Nationalist/Indep. Movements in Post-1945 C. & E. Euro Nationalist/Indep. Movements in Post-1945 C.& E. Euro. States-Poland & CzechAssess the reasons for the growth of movements challenging Soviet control in two Central or Eastern European statesAnalyze the role and success of either Vaclav Havel or Lech Walesa in freeing their countries from Soviet controlFor what reasons and in what ways did either Hungary or Poland challenge Soviet control.To what extent did the Cold War affect independence movements and new states either in Africa and Asia or in post-1945 Central and Eastern Europe?
34The Cold WarYalta, Potsdam, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Comecon, NATO, Warsaw Pact, Korean War, Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), Suez Crisis, Hungarian uprising, Cuban Missile Crisis, Congo Crisis, Vietnam War, China’s relations with USA/USSR, arms control, détente, end Cold WarProxy Wars, Lend-Lease, Percentages Agreement, Atlantic Charter, Pearl Harbor, Manhattan Project, Est. of UN, Containment, Truman Doctrine (Truman), George Keenan, Marshall Plan, ERP, Berlin Airlift, NATO, Division of Germany (FRG/GDR), Atomic weapons, Korean War ( ) Kim Il-Sung, Pan-Arabism, Nasser, revisionism, death of Stalin, Eisenhower Doctrine, Mubutu Mobuto, Congo, Brinkmanship, MAD, Deterrence, Domino Theory, Ngo Diem, Kennedy, Johnson, hawks and doves, Nixon, vietnamization, Cultural Revolution, arms race, proliferation, Reagan, Brezhnev Doctrine, social, cultural implications of Cold War, Russification, ideological differences, Monroe Doctrine
35The Cold WarBerlin Crisis 1961; Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) was JFK successful? Vietnam War ( )Test Ban Treaty 1963, Outer Space Treaty 1967, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 19681969, USA: defense costs 39.7 billion, 7% national income; USSR: 42 billion, 15% national incomeStrategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) Nov 17, May 1972; Nixon & Brezhnev in Moscow (sign the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which did not include MIRVs); SALT II, June 18, 1979, Carter & Brezhnev, ViennaSuccess, failures of nuclear disarmament 1970s?
36The Cold WarKorean War ( ); Berlin Crisis (1961); Cuban Missile Crisis (1962); Vietnam War ( )USA: Eisenhower (Rep), JFK (Dem), Johnson (Dem), Nixon (Rep), Ford (Rep), Carter (Dem)Dean Acheson, Secretary of State, Robert McNamara, Secretary of Defense (JFK, Johnson)USSR: Khrushchev ; BrezhnevEastern Bloc, Soviet Socialist Republics, Satellite states, Warsaw Pact, Communist revolutionary movementsWest: containment, NATO, détente, massive retaliation, brinkmanshipSuperpowers, Space Race, conventional arms, nuclear arms race, proxy wars (hot spots), MAD, arms limitations, Strategic Rocket Forces, ICBM, MIRV (Multiple Independently Targeted Re-entry Vehicles), Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABMs)
37The Cold WarNon-Alignment Movement (NAM) 1955, states not formally aligned with or against any major superpower (Nasser, Egypt; Nehru, India; Tito, Yugoslavia) usually developing, third worldBerlin Blockade ( ); Korean War ( ); Berlin Crisis 1961; Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), Space Race, Vietnam War ( ); Soviet War in Afghanistan ( ) Korean flight shot down by USSR 1983; Berlin Wall Falls 1989Operation Condor, 1975 Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, PeruFall of Wall, Reagan, Gorbachev (glasnost) openness (perestrokia) restructuring, (demokratizatsiya) democratization, (uskorenive) acceleration of economic development, arms limitation, communist regimes rebelling (Poland, Prague Spring, Czech, Tito, Yugo)
38The Cold WarWWII Wartime conferences: Yalta (Feb 1945) US (FDR), GB (Churchill), USSR (Stalin); Potsdam (July-Aug 1945) US (Truman), GB (Churchill, Attlee), USSR (Stalin)Why did wartime allies become post-war enemies?USA policies: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, containment, brinkmanship, non-alignment, détente, peaceful coexistence, arms race, arms control, mutual distrustUSSR policies: COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance), Warsaw PactIdeological opposition (USSR/USA), superpowers, spheres of influence, arms race
39USSR Leaders: Cold War Stalin 1922-1953 (poisoned) KhrushchevBrezhnevYuri AndropovChernenko (13 mo)Mikhail Gorbechevopenness (glasnost ) removed censorshipreform (perestroika)END of USSR . . .Boris Yeltsin , 1st Pres. of Russia Fed.Vladimir Putin 1999-still in politics
40Cuba Independence from Spain 1898. Became rich (sugar plantations, hotels, casinos, beach resorts, playtime paradise for American tourists, businessmen, mafia money)Agriculture, factory workers very poor, did not share wealth of upper class.Series of harsh dictators, 1950s Batista took over (corrupt regime)Fidel Castro, young lawyer, led rebel groups succeeded. Cuban govt nationalized, took over all private business and land. Could only print pro-Castro info. Anyone who disagreed sent to jail. Upper class fled Cuba, settled in Miami renamed the area “Little Havana.”By 1960s-1970s literacy rates improved, 97% read, write, govt provides all basic healthcare (helped by Che Guevara)US viewed communist Cuba as threat to America, period of tension between USA and USSR (Cold War) no “hot” military actionUSSR sent money, military support, supplies to Cuba (missiles 1962), USSR falls1994, 20,000 Cubans fled on boats, homemade rafts, left the struggling economy, not enough to eat, clothing medicine, not allowed to speak freely
41Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Intl org. of states not formally aligned with or against any major power blocFounded April 1955; 2007 has 118 membersThe Initiative of Five:Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslavia,Jawaharlal Nehru, India,Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt,Sukarno, Indonesia,Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana,Developing & 3rd World countries, national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, security of non-aligned countries in their struggle against imperialism, colonialism, racism, foreign aggression, occupation, domination (2/3 UN, 55% world pop)
42The Cold War QuestionsHow important was mutual suspicion and fear in the origin of the Cold War?“Ideology played a small part in the origin of the Cold War.” To what extent to you agree with this assertion?Assess the importance of two of the following Soviet policies in the origin and development of the Cold War: Sovietization of Eastern and Central Europe; Comecon; Warsaw Pact;Compare and contrast the parts played by Korea and Vietnam in the Cold War.
43The Cold War QuestionsIn what ways and to what extent did containment affect the development of the Cold War (up to 1970)?Analyze the part played by either Kennedy or Reagan in the Cold War.“The non-aligned movement had little impact on Cold War policies ad development.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion?Discuss the impact of the UN on the Cold WarEvaluate the impact of the arms race on East-West relationsExplain the role and importance of: internal problems, external pressures in causing the break-up of the Soviet Union