Presentation on theme: "IB History Review Paper 2 1.5 1.5 hours (25%) 22 Select 2 questions from 2 topics (different regions) Full essays! Intro, well-developed, organized body."— Presentation transcript:
IB History Review Paper hours (25%) 22 Select 2 questions from 2 topics (different regions) Full essays! Intro, well-developed, organized body (3-4 paragraphs), conclusion, take 5 min. to plan
Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Types of War Guerrilla War Guerrilla War: a war between irregular forces and established armies 20th c Guerrilla Wars: Chinese Civil War ( ), French Indochina War ( , Battle of Dien Bien Phu), Vietnam War ( ), Algerian War (France, ), Afghan Resistance ( , Mujahadeen), Cuban Revolution ( ) Civil Wars: Civil Wars: a war between rival factions within a country Spanish Civil War (Francisco Franco, Comintern, Popular Front rebels, loyalists, republicans, nationalists) Which countries took which sides in the war? Vietnam, Korea, Chinese Civil War, India-Pakistan
Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Types of War Total War: Total War: a conflict of unlimited scope, one side mobilizes all available resources (human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, tech) in order to entirely destroy. In total war, there is no differentiation between soldiers and citizens. WWI, WWII Limited War: Limited War: do not expend all of each of the available resources at their disposal, whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological, or otherwise in a specific conflict. This may be to preserve those resources for other purposes, or because it might be more difficult for specific participants to be able to utilize all of an areas resources rather than part of them. Limited war is an opposite of total war Ex: The Cold War (not using atomic bombs, Truman vs. Gen. MacArthur in Korea) Proxy War Proxy War: a war that results when 2 powers use other parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. (terror groups, mercenaries). These groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war.
Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Other Wars to Study Other Wars to Study: First World War Militarism, deterrence, industrialization, The Alliance system, Imperialism, nationalism, The July Crisis, The Blank Cheque Archduke Franz Ferdinand Kaiser Wilhelm II neo-mercantilism: an economic doctrine that emphasizes the need to decrease imports by moving towards self-sufficiency (increase in colonial holdings to supply raw materials and provide markets for finished goods) Arab-Israeli Conflict Second World War (Europe, Pacific)
Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Other Wars to Study Other Wars to Study: Indo-Pakistan Wars ( , 1971) Religion, decolonization, background causes (GB) Partition, ceasefire, 1965 Kashmir War, Non-Alignment, Indo- Pakistan War 1971 Mukti Bahni: guerilla army raised in East Pakistan to fight for indep. Mohandas Gandhi, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Ali Bhutto, Nehru, Indira Gandhi
Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Vocabulary Collective responsibility: the practice of holding all members of a population responsible for the actions of a few of its members Attrition: weaken the enemy by depleting and destroying their resources, human and material, to the point they surrender or abandon the fight Decolonization: the movement towards indep. for territories that had been ruled by European states (2nd half of 20th century) could be peaceful or violent (Africa, Asia) Privatization: the economic practice of selling government assets to private owners Sovereignty: the ability of a country to act independently of any outside authority
Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Questions For what reasons, and with what results, were “limited” wars a factor in the second half of the 20th century? Compare and contrast the use of naval warfare in two wars each chosen from a different region Assess the importance of war at sea, and war in the air, in one 20th century war Examine the impact of resistance movements in two wars each from a different region Assess the social results of two wars, each from a different region Analyze the political results of wither the Algerian War ( ) or the Chinese Civil War ( ) Assess the impact of technological developments in two wars, each from a different region
Causes, Practices, and Effects of War Questions Ho Chi Minh “You can kill ten of my men for every one of yours I kill, but even at those odds, you will lose and I will win” Is this statement true for all guerilla wars? Why or why not? Describe 2 guerilla wars, each from a different region. How might a war fit into more than 1 category? Give an example. What factors might lead an army to choose guerilla tactics rather than conventional war? What are the disadvantages to guerilla tactics? Analyze the causes of the Iran/Iraq War ( ) or the Malvinas/Falklands War (1982) Discuss the economic causes of one 20th century war “A European rather than a world war.” To what extent to do agree with this judgment of World War One?
Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: USA Movements for Civil Rights, racial segregation: separation of races in society (transportation, movies, education, movie theaters, restaurants), black voting rights (suffrage) Eisenhower, JFK, LBJ, Nixon’s domestic and civil rights policies (Kennedy’s domestic reforms, civil rights movement; President Johnson and the Great Society deficit spending); Nixon, watergate scandal NAACP (National Assoc for the Advancement of Colored People) CORE Congress for Racial Equality End to Jim Crow Laws, Plessy vs Ferguson, Brown vs Board of Education, Rosa Parks
Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: USA Citizenship, multi-party states, constitutions (written, unwritten), electoral systems, proportional representation, coalition governments, role of political parties, role of opposition, role of interest/lobby groups, Supreme Court, Red Scare, left wing, right wing, inflation, separation of powers, congressional elections, Congress, Senate, 5th amendment Attorney General: head of justice dept, most senior legal advisor to President Social Security: insurance against sickness, accidents, unemployment, and old age Enhanced social welfare programs in the 1950s-1960s to help disadvantaged social groups Liberal: USA, democrats, assoc. with Roosevelt’s New Deal reforms, liberal programs give rights and equal opportunities to disadvantaged groups, Pres. Johnson’s Great Society reforms 1960s
Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: USA Secularism: sep. of church and state, Women’s rights, Native American rights Affirmative action: places set aside for ethnic or racial minorities to have access to employment (or education)
Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: South Africa African National Congress (ANC) Nelson Mandela Apartheid (apartness) Trade unions, Freedom Charter, end of apartheid, referendum, bicameral, cabinet, coalition govt, first-past-the-post system, gender, civil service universal suffrage: right to vote in elections, public works: govt funded projects such as roads, schools, hospitals, improving national infrastructure recession: economic growth becomes negative for 6 months Amnesty: involves cancelling the punishment for someone who has broken the law (pardon)
Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: Questions What important issues affected domestic policies in the US between ? Compare and contrast democracy in Japan after 1945 and Australia between “Democratic states have allowed pressure groups to have too much influence on their policies.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? For what reason and with what results did Weimar Germany fail? Analyze the successes and failures of either President Alfonsin of Argentina ( ) or President Nixon ( )?
Democratic States: Challenges & Responses: Questions Compare and contrast the electoral systems in two 20th century democratic states. Discuss gender issues, social welfare, and education in two countries in the Americas. In what ways, and to what extent, did the Civil Rights movement in one democratic state succeed in ending racial discrimination? Analyze the role of Nelson Mandela in South Africa’s transition to majority rule. In what ways and with what results did economic policies improve the standard of living in two democratic states, each from a different region?
Origins and Development of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Rise of single party states, methods used (force?), what conditions produce single-party states (economic fear!) Successes and failures of domestic and foreign policy Form of govt, political ideology (right or left) Totalitarianism, treatment of opposition How do they maintain their regime? Media, Education, Social Issues, Arts, Propaganda, minorities, religions Women in single-party: Communism, Fascism Peron Argentina ; Mao PRC ; Castro Cuba ; Hitler Germany ; Mussolini ; Nasser ; Nyerere Tanzania ; Lenin USSR ; Stalin USSR ; Khmer Rouge, Pol Pot ; Idi Amin, Uganda 1971 – 1979
Roles of Women: Communism Communist Theory: Marx, Engels, 1800s (Marxist Feminism) Origins of Family, Private Property, and the State: Monogamous marriage was the domination of men over women, men have dominated women (just as the capitalist class has dominated workers), dismantling capitalism is a way to liberate women. Private property gives rise to economic inequality, dependence, political confusion and ultimately unhealthy social relations between men and women--the root of women’s oppression. Gender oppression IS class oppression and serves the interests of capital and the ruling class. Stalin (Communism): Roles of women change (1928) emancipation, liberation, women needed in industry, massive entry into workforce, increased educational opportunities, legislation to ensure domestic responsibilities fit with industrial employment, affected social institutions (the family), girls equal education, equal rights in employment, advances in health care (hospitals for birth), increased lifespan, free from fear of typhus, cholera, malaria, raised literacy rates, later outlawed abortion, birth control
PRC & Women Mao improved women’s rights, made women equal Mao improved the lives of women by abolishing prostitution, foot binding, allowing women to initiate divorce, inherit property, stop child marriages, ended women’s opium addiction, birth control, contraceptives, planned parenting (One Child Policy) One Child Policy: a boy is more valuable, allowed to commit infanticide (kill your own child) Mao “Women hold up half the heavens.” Popular slogan during Cultural Revolution “Break the chains, unleash the fury of women as a mighty force for revolution!”
Nazis & Women Opposed women’s feminist movement (Jewish-led) bad for both women, men. Stay at home. Patriarchial society, the “world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home.” Women took vital jobs from men during Great Depression, economically bad for families (women were paid 66% what men earned.) Discouraged women from higher education, universities, colleges. Drop: 128,000 enrolled 1933, 51,000 in 1938 1933, Hitler appointed Gertrud Scholtz-Klink, Reich Women’s Leader, instructed women their primary role in society was to bear children, be subservient to men, “the mission of woman is to minister in the home and in her profession to the needs of life from the first to last moment of man’s existence.” Jungmadel (Young Girls) section of Hitler Youth for girls , Bund Deutscher Madel (BDM, German Girl’s League) young women Sex: promoted conduct for sex, Church morals dropped, promiscuity increased, unmarried soldiers involved with several women simultaneously, married women in multiple affairs simultaneously, with soldiers, civilians “ Some farm wives used sex as a commodity, employing carnal favors as a means of getting a full day’s work from foreign laborers.” 1936, women bearing children out of wedlock (Lebensborn) “Fountain of Life” to create racial purity, encouraged German soldiers (SS) to reproduce, offered SS families support services (adoption of racially pure children into suitable SS families), accommodating racially-valuable women, pregnant with SS men’s children, in care homes in Germany, Occupied Europe. Also racially pure children forcibly seized from occupied countries (Poland) with German families Despite official restrictions, some women were highly visible, officially praised achievements: aviatrix Hanna Reitsch, film director Leni Riefenstahl
Roles of Women: Fascism (Mussolini, Italy) Fascism promotes Masculine heroism, militarism, discipline, Patriarchy Women briefly given right to vote until 1925 (Italian Fascists abolished elections). 1920 Mussolini declared that “Fascists do not belong to the crowd of the vain and skeptical who undervalue women’s social and political importance. You will vote!” Women’s primary role: child-bearers (men were warriors) “war is to man what maternity is to the woman.” Women are the “reproducers of the nation.” It was unnatural for women to have more influence in a relationship with a man “Battle for Births” gave financial incentives to women who raised large families, policies designed to reduce women employed to allow larger numbers of children 1934, Mussolini declared employment of women was “major aspect of the thorny problem of unemployment”, women working was “incompatible with childbearing.” Solution to unemployment: “exodus of women from the work force.” 1920s, Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND) allowed working women to attend entertainment, recreation events (including sports traditionally played by men). Criticized by Roman Catholic Church, causing “masculinization” of women. Mussolini responded by restricting women to only “feminine, womanly” sports.
Origins and Development of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Kenyatta (Kenya) and Nyerere (Tanzania) Analyze the social and economic policies of Hitler In what ways and to what extent did the status of women change in two single party states (each from a different region) In 1924 Stalin said “the state is an instrument in the hands of the ruling class, used to break the resistance of the enemies of that class.” How did Stalin carry out this belief? In 1953 Castro declared: “History will absolve me.” To what extent do you agree with this claim?
Origins and Development of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Examine the conditions that led to two single-party states Compare and contrast the rise to power of one right- wing and one left-wing leader of a single-party or authoritarian state. Analyze the methods used by either Mao or Peron to maintain power. Discuss the successes and failures of either Stalin or Sukarno. In what ways, and with what results, did one ruler use the following: religion, propaganda, and the arts?
Decolonization and Independence movements in Africa and Asia Vietminh, French colonialism, First Indochina War , Geneva Accords, Ho Chi Minh, divided Vietnam, National Liberation Front (NLF), Viet Cong, Emp Bao Dai, Ngo Dinh Diem, Second Indochina War , Ho Chi Minh Trail, SEATO, Le Duc Tho, Cambodia, Laos The Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Leaders in ASIA Emp. Hirohito, Japan ( ) Chiang Kai-shek: Nationalist, China , fled to Taiwan Mao Zedong: People’s Rep of China (PRC) (loved Stalinism, Communist) 14 th Dalai Llama (Tenzin Gyatso) Tibet Dethroned by PRC invasion, 1950-present Ho Chi Minh: Demo. Rep. of Vietnam (N) 1945 – 1969 (Communist) Ngo Dinh Diem: Rep of Vietnam (S) 1955 – 1963 (Democratic? Assassinated by CIA)
Decolonization and Independence movements in Africa and Asia Jinnah, Pakistan India, Nehru (Gandhi) Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana (CPP), Angola (1975, Antonio Neto), Rhodesia, Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe Decolonization: the process by which European colonies become fully developed indep. States (often by war) Artificial boundaries, ethnic conflict, impact of cold war, socialism vs capitalism, social problems, role of women, urbanization The ethics of colonization, is there moral justification for imperialism?
Kwame Nkrumah ( ) Ghana 1948 called for self-govt (from GB) 1949, Convention People’s Party (CPP). 1950, “People’s Assembly” with CPP members, youth, trade unionists, cocoa farmers, and veterans, women’s suffrage. “Positive Action” campaign, civil disobedience, non-coop, boycotts, strikes, arrested 3 yrs British left the Gold Coast, 1 st election: Feb, 1951 Nkrumah 1 st leader of indep. Ghana (1957) 1963 Ghana, became charter member of Org. of African Unity, Pan-Africanism African Studies: Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana (1)
Nkrumah adopted socialistic policies: welfare, community programs, schools, construction of roads, bridges for commerce and communication, improved public health in villages, tap water systems installed, concrete drains for latrines constructed. Industrial development at any cost, rapidly industrialize economy, escape colonial trade system by reducing dep. on foreign capital, tech, material goods; become indep. Hurt the country’s cocoa sector, many economic projects unsuccessful, or delayed benefits. 1966, The Akosombo Dam (borrowed $$ from USA, debt, raised taxes on farmers) expensive, but today produces most of Ghana’s hydroelectric power. Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana (2)
Striking workers, The Detention Act (laws to arrest innocent people for political gain), clinics ran out of medicine, no one notified him, Police resented their role. Ghana had fallen from one of the richest countries in Africa, to one of the poorest. Nkrumah had a justifiable fear of assassination. 1964, Nkrumah made constitutional amendment, CPP the only legal party, President for life (99% vote-fraud), now single-party state, dictatorship 1966, Nkrumah visited Vietnam, his govt was overthrown in a military coup (CIA backed) Today, Nkrumah is one of the most respected leaders in African history. 2000, BCC voted Africa’s man of the millennium. Never returned to Ghana (Guinea), pushed for African unity, still frightened of western intelligence agencies (CIA), his cook died, he feared poison, began hoarding food in his room. He suspected that foreign agents were going through his mail, and lived in constant fear of abduction and assassination. Died in Romania, medical treatments (skin cancer, 1972) Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana (3)
Decolonization and Independence Movements in Africa and Asia Analyze three factors that fostered the growth of independence movements in either Africa or Asia What is the exact sexual reproduction cycle of a shark? Examine the role and importance of leaders, in independence movements, in either Africa or Asia. In what ways and with what results were either Jinnah or Kwame Nkrumah important in obtaining independence for his country? In 1942 Ghandi said: “India will have an assembly with powers to draft a constitution after the war is over.” To what extent were Ghandi’s actions and the Second World War responsible for Indian independence?
Decolonization and Independence Movements in Africa and Asia Discuss the importance of two of the following challenges to new states: conflicts with neighbors; social and religious issues; separatist movements. “Neo-colonialism was a term coined by Nkrumah to describe the ability of Western capitalist powers to retain economic and political control over former colonies.” To what extent did Neo-Colonialism hinder independence and economic progress in former colonies? To what extent did the Cold War affect independence movements and new states either in Africa and Asia or post 1945 Central & Eastern European States?
Nationalist/Indep. Movements in Post C.& E. Euro. States-Poland & Czech Poland: Curzon Line, show trials, Lech Walesa, Solidarity Yugo: Josip Broz Tito Czech: Marshall Aid, De-Stalinization ( ), politburo, Soviet satellite states of Europe, Praque Spring Brezhnev Doctrine, normalization, Third Way, Charter 77, Vaclav Havel, Dubcek, martial law, the Velvet Revolution 1989
Leaders in Europe: Cold War Josip Broz Tito, Socialist Fed Rep of Yugoslavia Stood up to Stalin…and lived! (True Socialism) Alexander Dubcek, Communist Party of Czech Jan 5-Aug 21, 1968 Prague Spring Revolt against USSR, revolt halted Lech Walesa, Rep. of Poland Led “Solidarity” movement against USSR
Nationalist/Indep. Movements in Post C.& E. Euro. States-Poland & Czech Assess the reasons for the growth of movements challenging Soviet control in two Central or Eastern European states Analyze the role and success of either Vaclav Havel or Lech Walesa in freeing their countries from Soviet control For what reasons and in what ways did either Hungary or Poland challenge Soviet control. To what extent did the Cold War affect independence movements and new states either in Africa and Asia or in post-1945 Central and Eastern Europe?
The Cold War Yalta, Potsdam, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Comecon, NATO, Warsaw Pact, Korean War, Non- Aligned Movement (NAM), Suez Crisis, Hungarian uprising, Cuban Missile Crisis, Congo Crisis, Vietnam War, China’s relations with USA/USSR, arms control, détente, end Cold War Proxy Wars, Lend-Lease, Percentages Agreement, Atlantic Charter, Pearl Harbor, Manhattan Project, Est. of UN, Containment, Truman Doctrine (Truman), George Keenan, Marshall Plan, ERP, Berlin Airlift, NATO, Division of Germany (FRG/GDR), Atomic weapons, Korean War ( ) Kim Il-Sung, Pan-Arabism, Nasser, revisionism, death of Stalin, Eisenhower Doctrine, Mubutu Mobuto, Congo, Brinkmanship, MAD, Deterrence, Domino Theory, Ngo Diem, Kennedy, Johnson, hawks and doves, Nixon, vietnamization, Cultural Revolution, arms race, proliferation, Reagan, Brezhnev Doctrine, social, cultural implications of Cold War, Russification, ideological differences, Monroe Doctrine
The Cold War Berlin Crisis 1961; Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) was JFK successful? Vietnam War ( ) Test Ban Treaty 1963, Outer Space Treaty 1967, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968 1969, USA: defense costs 39.7 billion, 7% national income; USSR: 42 billion, 15% national income Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) Nov 17, May 1972; Nixon & Brezhnev in Moscow (sign the Anti- Ballistic Missile Treaty, which did not include MIRVs); SALT II, June 18, 1979, Carter & Brezhnev, Vienna Success, failures of nuclear disarmament 1970s?
The Cold War Korean War ( ); Berlin Crisis (1961); Cuban Missile Crisis (1962); Vietnam War ( ) USA: Eisenhower (Rep), JFK (Dem), Johnson (Dem), Nixon (Rep), Ford (Rep), Carter (Dem) Dean Acheson, Secretary of State, Robert McNamara, Secretary of Defense (JFK, Johnson) USSR: Khrushchev ; Brezhnev Eastern Bloc, Soviet Socialist Republics, Satellite states, Warsaw Pact, Communist revolutionary movements West: containment, NATO, détente, massive retaliation, brinkmanship Superpowers, Space Race, conventional arms, nuclear arms race, proxy wars (hot spots), MAD, arms limitations, Strategic Rocket Forces, ICBM, MIRV (Multiple Independently Targeted Re-entry Vehicles), Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABMs)
The Cold War Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) 1955, states not formally aligned with or against any major superpower (Nasser, Egypt; Nehru, India; Tito, Yugoslavia) usually developing, third world Berlin Blockade ( ); Korean War ( ); Berlin Crisis 1961; Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), Space Race, Vietnam War ( ); Soviet War in Afghanistan ( ) Korean flight shot down by USSR 1983; Berlin Wall Falls 1989 Operation Condor, 1975 Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru Fall of Wall, Reagan, Gorbachev (glasnost) openness (perestrokia) restructuring, (demokratizatsiya) democratization, (uskorenive) acceleration of economic development, arms limitation, communist regimes rebelling (Poland, Prague Spring, Czech, Tito, Yugo)
The Cold War WWII Wartime conferences: Yalta (Feb 1945) US (FDR), GB (Churchill), USSR (Stalin); Potsdam (July-Aug 1945) US (Truman), GB (Churchill, Attlee), USSR (Stalin) Why did wartime allies become post-war enemies? USA policies: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, containment, brinkmanship, non-alignment, détente, peaceful coexistence, arms race, arms control, mutual distrust USSR policies: COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance), Warsaw Pact Ideological opposition (USSR/USA), superpowers, spheres of influence, arms race
USSR Leaders: Cold War Stalin (poisoned) Khrushchev Brezhnev Yuri Andropov Chernenko (13 mo) Mikhail Gorbechev openness (glasnost ) removed censorship reform (perestroika) END of USSR... Boris Yeltsin , 1 st Pres. of Russia Fed. Vladimir Putin 1999-still in politics
Cuba Independence from Spain Became rich (sugar plantations, hotels, casinos, beach resorts, playtime paradise for American tourists, businessmen, mafia money) Agriculture, factory workers very poor, did not share wealth of upper class. Series of harsh dictators, 1950s Batista took over (corrupt regime) Fidel Castro, young lawyer, led rebel groups succeeded. Cuban govt nationalized, took over all private business and land. Could only print pro-Castro info. Anyone who disagreed sent to jail. Upper class fled Cuba, settled in Miami renamed the area “Little Havana.” By 1960s-1970s literacy rates improved, 97% read, write, govt provides all basic healthcare (helped by Che Guevara) US viewed communist Cuba as threat to America, period of tension between USA and USSR (Cold War) no “hot” military action USSR sent money, military support, supplies to Cuba (missiles 1962), USSR falls 1994, 20,000 Cubans fled on boats, homemade rafts, left the struggling economy, not enough to eat, clothing medicine, not allowed to speak freely
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Intl org. of states not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc Founded April 1955; 2007 has 118 members The Initiative of Five: Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslavia, Jawaharlal Nehru, India, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt, Sukarno, Indonesia, Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana, Developing & 3 rd World countries, national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, security of non-aligned countries in their struggle against imperialism, colonialism, racism, foreign aggression, occupation, domination (2/3 UN, 55% world pop)
The Cold War Questions How important was mutual suspicion and fear in the origin of the Cold War? “Ideology played a small part in the origin of the Cold War.” To what extent to you agree with this assertion? Assess the importance of two of the following Soviet policies in the origin and development of the Cold War: Sovietization of Eastern and Central Europe; Comecon; Warsaw Pact; Compare and contrast the parts played by Korea and Vietnam in the Cold War.
The Cold War Questions In what ways and to what extent did containment affect the development of the Cold War (up to 1970)? Analyze the part played by either Kennedy or Reagan in the Cold War. “The non-aligned movement had little impact on Cold War policies ad development.” To what extent do you agree with this assertion? Discuss the impact of the UN on the Cold War Evaluate the impact of the arms race on East-West relations Explain the role and importance of: internal problems, external pressures in causing the break-up of the Soviet Union