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IB History Review Paper 3: The Americas 2.5 Hours (35%)

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Presentation on theme: "IB History Review Paper 3: The Americas 2.5 Hours (35%)"— Presentation transcript:

1 IB History Review Paper 3: The Americas 2.5 Hours (35%)
Answer 3 questions, Essay Support with specific examples!


3 Suggested Areas to Study
Articles of Confederations vs. Constitution Enlightenment philosophers and America’s Founders Civil War economic/social issues (years) Native Americans & expansion MLK and Malcolm X Slavery, Abolitionism, Civil Rights, Women’s suffrage Building the railroads Immigration 19th-20th c. Great Depression, Social/welfare programs Castro (Cuba) Latin America, caudillos, Populist movements

4 NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte [TLCAN] Jan. 1, 1994, trilateral trade bloc in N. America created by the governments of USA, Canada, Mexico (supersedes the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement) Combined purchasing power (GDP) of its members--largest in the world (2007) 2 Sub-Groups: N. Amer. Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC); N. Amer. Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC) Diplomatic negotiations began 1991, US Pres. HW Bush, Canadian PM Brain Mulroney, Mexican Pres Carlos Salinas (Before final neg.: Pres Clinton, Kim Campbell in Canada, Jean Chretien became law) Positive Effects: Some argue NAFTA has been positive for Mexico, poverty rates fall, real income rise (lower prices for food). Claim this has not caused trade diversions (except for textiles, apparel) Negative Effects: NAFTA is beneficial to business owners, elites, but has had negative impacts on farmers in Mexico as food prices fell based on cheap imports from U.S. agribusiness, factory workers have not benefited, as wages and incomes have gone down, and pollution has increased. U.S. workers in manufacturing and assembly industries have lost jobs (textiles, apparel). Critics argue NAFTA has contributed to rising levels of inequality in U.S. and Mexico (border crossing). Salmonella outbreaks from in-humane working conditions for Mexican workers Some suggest Mexico must invest more in education and promote innovation in infrastructure and agriculture Maquiladoras (over 18,000 American companies have Mexican factories) These are plants that moved from the USA (15.5% increase since 1994) Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) 2005

5 African-American Civil Rights Movement
Slavery, Dred Scott, Jim Crow Laws, Amendment 13, 14, 15, Booker T. Washington, WEB Dubois NAACP, SNCC, CORE, SCLC 1954 Brown v. Board of Education (Plessy v. Ferguson) Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott 1957 Desegregating Little Rock, 1960 Sit-ins (Greensboro, NC), 1961 Freedom Rides, Voter Registration, Integration of Miss. Universities, Albany Movement, Birmingham campaign, 1963 March on Washington, 1964 Miss. Freedom Summer, Civil Rights Act 1964, 1965 Selma, Voting Rights Act March 29, 1968 Memphis, King assassinated, Poor People’s March Race riots, Black Power Movement

6 “Progressive” US Presidents
A broadly-based reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century. The progressive movement arose as a response to vast changes brought by industrial revolution. They embraced issues such as: women’s suffrage, secret ballot, the environment, social justice (humanity social workers, welfare, charity, Settlement Houses, standard of living, day care, child labor laws) working class, organized labor (unions), trust-busting Theodore Roosevelt ( ): 8 hour workday, improved safety and health conditions in factories, workers compensation, minimum wage laws, unionization (Susan B Anthony Prohibition, 18th Amendment 1919, Repealed by 21st Amendment, 1933) Conservation: 1st National Bird Preserve, beginning of Wildlife Refuge system, national forests, Grand Canyon, Newlands Reclamation Act 1902, The Inland Waterways Commission, 1907 (to control streams and waterways). William Howard Taft ( ) Emphasized trust-busting, civil service reform, strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission, improved the postal service, 16th Amendment (income tax), economic development in Latin America and Asia “Dollar Diplomacy” Woodrow Wilson ( ): progressive policies. 1913, 16th Amendment, income tax Wilson resolved debates over tariffs and antitrust, created the Federal Reserve (a complex business-government partnership that to this day dominates the financial world.)

7 Harry S. Truman 1948 Berlin Blockade, Berlin Airlift
(Dem) USA Foreign Policy: End WWII, Nuclear bombs dropped Founding of UN, NATO, Marshall Plan, Truman Doctrine US Cold War, 1950 French Indochina, Korean War (Truman’s War) Palestine Mandate (recognition of Israel) 1948 Berlin Blockade, Berlin Airlift 1949, PRC, Mao, 1947 Pakistan created Domestic Policy: Economy, sever shortages, strikes, Taft-Hartley Act Whistle Stop Tour, Fair Deal, Corruption in his admin. Desegregated armed services Loyalty checks? Removed communist sympathizers from govt office (1000s) House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) McCarthyism ( ) The buck stops here. If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.” Earned both the highest and the lowest public approval ratings. 1948, built new porch on White House

8 Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953-1961 (Rep) USA Foreign Policy:
US Cold War policy : Containment of communism, nuclear weapons high priority Launched Space Race China Lobby (restore Chiang Kai-Shek); Use Atomic Bomb in Korea? (Gen. McArthur) Cease-Fire Domestic Policy: Balance the budget, lower taxes, curb inflation, enlarged Social Security Program McCarthyism ends ( ) Intestate Highway System (Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956) highways to evacuate in future wars, also as landing strips in war-time emergencies Last WWI veteran to serve as US president, last president born in 19th century Supported 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, segregated schools ruled unconstitutional; Little Rock Nine 1957 (refused to integrate schools) Eisenhower sent National Guard; Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960 High approval rating He warned about unjustified government spending proposals “we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military industrial complex.

9 JFK Won Pulitzer Prize, Only Catholic President
(Dem) USA Assassinated Nov 22, 1963 Dallas, Texas Foreign Policy: Secretary of Defense McNamara US Cold War, Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961, Cuban Missile Crisis 1962, Berlin Wall, Space Race Early Vietnam (plans to withdraw) Partial Test Ban Treaty, 1963 Domestic Policy: The New Frontier Won Pulitzer Prize, Only Catholic President Promised to end racial discrimination, Freedom Riders, Civil Rights Act of 1964 Presidential Commission of the Status of Women, 1961 Immigration & Nationality Act, 1965 Created Peace Corps Funding for education, medical care for elderly, govt intervention to halt recession 1963 tax cuts, highest budget $100 billion, loose fiscal policy, led the country’s 1st non-war, non-recession deficit

10 Lyndon Baines Johnson 1963-1969 (Dem) USA
Foreign Policy: Secretary of Defense McNamara US Cold War, escalated American involvement in Vietnam from 16,000 (1963) to 500,000 (1968) Space Race, NASA Domino Theory, Containment, “If we allow Vietnam to fall, tomorrow we’ll be fighting in Hawaii, and next week in San Francisco.” Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Tet Offensive 1968, My Lai Masacre Domestic Policy: The Great Society Civil Rights laws, 1964 Mississippi Freedom Voting, 1964 Civil Rights Act, Black Panthers, Assassination of Malcolm X, MLK, RFK 1967 Thurgood Marshall 1st African-American Supreme Court Justice appointed 1965: Medicare (government-funded health care for the elderly), Medicaid government-funded health care for the poor) The Great Society: Education, War on Poverty, attack disease, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, development of depressed regions Higher Education Act 1965, National Endowment for the Arts, Public Broadcasting Credibility Gap, Protests, “Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?” 1968 Democratic National Convention

11 Nixon 1969-1974 (Rep) USA Foreign Policy:
US Cold War, Vietnam, escalated the conflict, secret bombing campaigns, arranged ceasefire with N. Vietnam, Vietnamization Opened relations with PRC, Ping-Pong Diplomacy Visits 1972; USSR (détente), SALT I Treaties Brezhnev Space race; Apollo 11 moon walk Indo-Pakistani War 1971, Yom Kippur War, 1973 oil crisis Domestic Policy: New economic policies, wage and price control, removed the gold standard 1972 Equal Rights Amendment, Affirmative Action stock market crash Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Occupational Safety and Health Admin (OSHA), 1972 Consumer Product Safety Commission, 1970 Clean Air Act Watergate scandal, resigned Aug 9, 1974 (before impeached)

12 Ford 1974-1977 (Rep) USA Foreign Policy:
Helsinki Accords, détente Cold War Domestic Policy: Worst economy since Great Depression, inflation, recession Granted presidential pardon to Nixon for Watergate scandal

13 Carter 1977-1981 (Dem) USA Foreign Policy: Cold War, SALT II Treaties
Peace in Middle East (Camp David Accords) Panama Canal Treaties Human Rights, Latin America 1979 Iran Hostage Crisis 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Domestic Policy: 2 new cabinet positions: Dept of Energy, Dept of Education National Energy Policy: conservation, price control, new tech (solar) Today: the Carter Center, Nobel Peace prize, Habitat for Humanity

14 Reagan 1981-1989 (Rep) USA Foreign Policy:
Cold War heightened tension, Gorbachev, tear down this wall, bombing of Korean jet by USSR, Berlin Wall came down, USSR fell apart Bombing of Libya, hostages in Iran released 20 min. after taking office Iran-Contra Affair, Contras-Sandanistas in Nicaragua Ordered military actions in Grenada 1983 Domestic Policy: Supply-side economics “Reaganomics”, deregulation, substantial tax cuts Survived assassination attempt Hard line against org. labor (Air Traffic Controllers Strike) Brady gun laws, War on Drugs Savings and Loan Crisis, Stock Market Crash 1987 Immigration Reform and Control Act 1986

15 HW Bush (Rep) USA Foreign Policy: Secretary of Defense, Dick Cheney “New World Order” Operations in Panama (Manuel Noriega) Persian Gulf (Saddam Hussein) 1991, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) Started NAFTA agreements Domestic Policy: “1000 Points of Light” Promised no new taxes, increased taxes by 2% Economic recession Americans with Disabililities Act, 1990, Clean Air Act Last WWII veteran to serve as president (last veteran to have served)

16 US Presidents: Cold War
Truman (Dem) Eisenhower (Rep) JFK (Dem) Assassinated Johnson (Dem) Nixon (Rep) Ford (Rep) Carter (Dem) Reagan (Rep) Bush Sr

17 Questions from Paper 3 (2008)
Analyze the effects of colonial rule on native American societies in two areas of the region. (Hint: Canada, USA, Meso-America) To what extent were the ideas of the Enlightenment a cause of independence movements in either the USA or Latin America? In what ways did the Declaration of Indep. (1776) justify the USA separating from Britain? (Hint: the Bill of Rights) Using examples from at least 1 country, explain why the caudillos emerged in Latin America in the 19th century. Analyze the internal and external factors that led to the est. of the Canadian Confederacy.

18 Questions from Paper 3 (2009)
For what reasons, and with what results, were European mercantilist policies applied in British North America and Spanish Latin America? Compare and contrast the role of leadership in 2 independence movements of the region? “The debates over the ratification of the constitution contributed to the formation of national parties in the US during the 1790s.” To what extent to do agree? With reference to at least 2 examples of slave rebellions, analyze the reaction to the rebellions in 1 country of the region. (Hint: Brazil, Haiti, USA) “The Civil War in the US was caused by political disagreements.” To what extent to you agree?

19 Questions from Paper 3 (2009)
In what ways did the Civil War change the economy and racial relations in the South? Compare and contrast the impact of territorial expansion on the development of 2 countries of the region between Analyze the successes and failures of Woodrow Wilson’s ( ) domestic and foreign policies. Analyze the impact of economic development on the indigenous peoples of one country of the region from mid-19th c. to 1919. Analyze the aims of educational reforms in 1 country of the region in the period from

20 Questions from Paper 3 (2009)
To what extent were the US policies toward Latin America between motivated by economic reasons? Support your answer with examples of 2 specific policies introduced by the USA. “At times a rebel against injustice, at times an undirected destructive force, but Pancho Villa was always a national hero.” To what extent do you agree? In what ways, and with what success, did the government of 1 country in the region try to solve the problems of the Great Depression? Analyze the experiences of 2 Canadian minorities in the 20th c. For what reasons, and with what success, was there opposition to the Vargas regime between ?

21 Questions from Paper 3 (2009)
Assess the impact of the Second World War on the economy of one country of the region. Examine the foreign policy of either Canada or one Latin American country between Assess the successes and failures of the domestic policies of Lyndon Johnson ( ) Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Richard Nixon ( ) and Jimmy Carter ( ). How successful was the supreme court in challenging segregation in the USA during the 1950s-1960s.

22 Questions from Paper 3 (2009)
“Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X had similar philosophies but used different methods to campaign for civil rights.” To what extent do you agree? Assess the reasons for the long survival of Fidel Castro’s regime in Cuba. Analyze the political or social developments in Canada between For what reasons, and with what results, were women’s movements active between the 1960s-1980s? Use 1 specific country. Assess the achievements of 2 regional trade agreements.

23 Questions from Paper 3 (2008)
For what reason, and with what impact, did Abolitionism develop in the north of the USA? Why was compromise no longer possible between the north and the south in the US by 1860? In what ways did the building of the railroads stimulate economic activity in one country of the Americas (end of 19th century) Analyze the domestic and foreign policies of 1 leader in 1 country ( ) (Hint: WWI) Assess the significance of Booker T Washington in the advancement of African-American rights.

24 Questions from Paper 3 (2008)
Evaluate the influence of intellectuals on society in 1 country of the region during the period (Hint: WWI) Define what the Monroe Doctrine was and analyze how it was applied in the late 19th c. and early 20th c. Compare and contrast the aims of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata in the Mexican Revolution ( ) “The Great Depression changed governments’ views of their role and responsibility.” With reference to 2 countries of the region, to what extent do you agree with this statement? Analyze the short and long-term effects of the First World War of the economics and political developments of one country in the region.

25 Questions from Paper 3 (2008)
For what reason, and with what results, did Populist movements emerge in Latin America in the early 20th c? Give 1 specific country as an example. To what extent were attempts at “hemispheric cooperation” successful before and during the Second World War? (OAS after WWII) To what extent did either Canada or one Latin America country develop a foreign policy independent of the US after 1945? Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Jimmy Carter ( ) and Ronald Reagan ( ) Analyze the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Richard Nixon ( ) or George HW Bush ( )

26 Questions from Paper 3 (2008)
With reference to 2 US presidencies between , assess the role of the US Federal Government in the achievement of African-American civil rights. “Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba because of the weaknesses of Batista’s regime.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Compare and contrast the successes and failures of the domestic policies of 2 Canadian prime ministers from Why did the Native American movement emerge in 1 country of the region in the 1960s? Analyze the aims and impact of the NAFTA agreements.

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