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An Action Research Project By Gary A. Proulx EDU 702.22 - Spring 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "An Action Research Project By Gary A. Proulx EDU 702.22 - Spring 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Action Research Project By Gary A. Proulx EDU Spring 2010

2 Abstract Abstract Introduction Introduction Statement of the Problem 4 Statement of the Problem 4 Review of Related Literature 6 Review of Related Literature 6 Statement of Hypothesis 16 Statement of Hypothesis 16 Method Method Participants 17 Participants 17 Instruments 18 Instruments 18 Experimental Design Experimental Design Procedure Procedure

3 Results Results Discussions Discussions Implications Implications References 19 References 19 Appendices Appendices Appendix A : Consent Form 25 Appendix A : Consent Form 25 Appendix B : Parent Survey 26 Appendix B : Parent Survey 26 Appendix C : Focus Group Agenda 27 Appendix C : Focus Group Agenda 27

4 At P.S. X, a low income, urban elementary school in East New York, when parents are not directly engaged in their child’s education, the student’s level of achievement suffers. At P.S. X, a low income, urban elementary school in East New York, when parents are not directly engaged in their child’s education, the student’s level of achievement suffers.

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6 What does the research say about parent involvement in children’s education in relation to academic success? What does the research say about parent involvement in children’s education in relation to academic success?

7 The earlier in a child’s educational process parent involvement begins, the more powerful the effects. The earlier in a child’s educational process parent involvement begins, the more powerful the effects. (Cooper & Christie, 2005; Hampton, 1998; Hoover-Dempsey, 1995; Overstreet, 2005) The most effective forms of parental involvement are those which engage parents in working directly with their children on learning activities at home. The most effective forms of parental involvement are those which engage parents in working directly with their children on learning activities at home. (Epstein, J., 1991; Hampton, 1998; Laureau, A., 2000; Nettles, S., 1991). (Epstein, J., 1991; Hampton, 1998; Laureau, A., 2000; Nettles, S., 1991).

8 Lack of parental involvement is the biggest problem facing public schools. Lack of parental involvement is the biggest problem facing public schools. ( Desimone, L. 1999; Epstein, J., 1991; Hill, D. 2004; Ladson-Billings, G., 2001). ( Desimone, L. 1999; Epstein, J., 1991; Hill, D. 2004; Ladson-Billings, G., 2001). The more intensely parents are involved the more beneficial the achievement effects. The more intensely parents are involved the more beneficial the achievement effects. ( Krajewski, B. & Sabir, L., 2000; Wong, K., & Alkins, K., 1999 ).

9 Family participation in education was twice as predictive of students’ academic success as family socioeconomic status. Family participation in education was twice as predictive of students’ academic success as family socioeconomic status. (Overstreet, S. 2005). (Overstreet, S. 2005). Research shows that when parents are involved students have higher grades, better attendance, increased levels of self-esteem & motivation, decreased use of drugs & alcohol, and fewer instances of violence. Research shows that when parents are involved students have higher grades, better attendance, increased levels of self-esteem & motivation, decreased use of drugs & alcohol, and fewer instances of violence. (Jeynes, W., 2010) (Jeynes, W., 2010)

10 The most consistent predictors of childrens’ academic achievement and social adjustment are parent expectations of child’s academic attainment & satisfaction with their child’s education at school. The most consistent predictors of childrens’ academic achievement and social adjustment are parent expectations of child’s academic attainment & satisfaction with their child’s education at school. (Levine, D., 1982; Martinez-Pons, M., 2002). (Levine, D., 1982; Martinez-Pons, M., 2002). Parents of high-achieving students set higher standards for their children’s educational activities than parents of low-achieving students. Parents of high-achieving students set higher standards for their children’s educational activities than parents of low-achieving students. (Schoenfeld, A., 1999; Powell-Mikle, A., 2004; Nelson, G., 2008). (Schoenfeld, A., 1999; Powell-Mikle, A., 2004; Nelson, G., 2008).

11 Major factors of parental involvement in the education of their children include: Major factors of parental involvement in the education of their children include: Parent’s beliefs about what is important, necessary, and permissible for them to do with and on behalf of their children. Parent’s beliefs about what is important, necessary, and permissible for them to do with and on behalf of their children. The extent to which parents believe that they can have a positive influence on their children’s education. The extent to which parents believe that they can have a positive influence on their children’s education. Parents’ perceptions that their children and school want them to be involved. Parents’ perceptions that their children and school want them to be involved. (Abdul-Adil, 2006)

12 When parents come to school regularly, it reinforces the view in the child’s mind that school and home are connected. When parents come to school regularly, it reinforces the view in the child’s mind that school and home are connected. (Horvat, E., Weininger, E., & Lareau, A., 2003; Levine, D. 1982)

13 Teachers often think that low-income parents & single parents will not spend as much time helping their children at home. Teachers often think that low-income parents & single parents will not spend as much time helping their children at home. (Barton, A., Corey, D., Perez, J., St. Louis, K., & George, M., 2004).

14 “There are many reasons for developing school, family, and community partnerships…the main reason is to help all youngsters succeed in school and in later life “There are many reasons for developing school, family, and community partnerships…the main reason is to help all youngsters succeed in school and in later life -Joyce Epstein -Joyce Epstein

15 Joyce Epstein, Ph.D., of Johns Hopkins University, has developed a framework for defining six different types of parent involvement: Joyce Epstein, Ph.D., of Johns Hopkins University, has developed a framework for defining six different types of parent involvement: 1. Parenting 2. Communicating 3. Volunteering 4. Learning at Home 5. Decision Making 6. Collaborating with Community (Epstein, J., 1991).

16 HR1: This researcher will investigate the common characteristics of highly engaged parents from P.S. X, a low income urban school, to better understand what inspires their participation. This will be done by surveying and conducting a focus group with these parents. HR1: This researcher will investigate the common characteristics of highly engaged parents from P.S. X, a low income urban school, to better understand what inspires their participation. This will be done by surveying and conducting a focus group with these parents.

17 A group of parents from P.S. X, a low income school in East New York. A group of parents from P.S. X, a low income school in East New York. These will be parents that have shown exemplary participation in their child’s education, and whose children are in the gifted class. These will be parents that have shown exemplary participation in their child’s education, and whose children are in the gifted class.

18 Survey Survey To gather preliminary, anonymous data from the P.S. X parent group about what inspires their involvement in their child’s education. To gather preliminary, anonymous data from the P.S. X parent group about what inspires their involvement in their child’s education. Focus Group Focus Group Researcher will facilitate and record a conversation with the P.S. X parent group to gain further insight into the characteristics of highly engaged parents. Researcher will facilitate and record a conversation with the P.S. X parent group to gain further insight into the characteristics of highly engaged parents.

19 Abdul-Adil, J. & Farmer, A. (2006). Inner-City African American Parental Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting Beyond Urban Legends of Apathy. School Psychology Quarterly, 21 (1), Retrieved March 14, 2010, from JSTOR database. Abdul-Adil, J. & Farmer, A. (2006). Inner-City African American Parental Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting Beyond Urban Legends of Apathy. School Psychology Quarterly, 21 (1), Retrieved March 14, 2010, from JSTOR database. Barton, A., Drake, C., Perez, J., St. Louis, K, & George, M. (2004). Ecologies of Parental Engagement in Urban Education. Educational Researcher, 33 (4), Retrieved March 14, 2010, from JSTOR database. Barton, A., Drake, C., Perez, J., St. Louis, K, & George, M. (2004). Ecologies of Parental Engagement in Urban Education. Educational Researcher, 33 (4), Retrieved March 14, 2010, from JSTOR database. Cooper, C. & Christie, C. (2005). Evaluating Parent Empowerment: A Look at the Potential of Social Justice Evaluation in Education. Teachers College Record, 107 (10), Retrieved March 8, 2010, from Wilson Web. Cooper, C. & Christie, C. (2005). Evaluating Parent Empowerment: A Look at the Potential of Social Justice Evaluation in Education. Teachers College Record, 107 (10), Retrieved March 8, 2010, from Wilson Web. Desimone, Laura (1999). Linking Parent Involvement with Student Achievement: Do Race and Income Matter? The Journal of Educational Research, 93 (1), Retrieved March 13, 2010, from JSTOR database. Desimone, Laura (1999). Linking Parent Involvement with Student Achievement: Do Race and Income Matter? The Journal of Educational Research, 93 (1), Retrieved March 13, 2010, from JSTOR database. Epstein, Joyce L., & Dauber, Susan L. (1991). School Programs and Teacher Practices of Parent Involvement in Inner-City Elementary and Middle Schools. The Elementary School Journal, 91(3), Retrieved March 29, 2010, from JSTOR database. Epstein, Joyce L., & Dauber, Susan L. (1991). School Programs and Teacher Practices of Parent Involvement in Inner-City Elementary and Middle Schools. The Elementary School Journal, 91(3), Retrieved March 29, 2010, from JSTOR database.

20 Foster, Michelle L., & Peele, Tryphenia B. (2001). Ring my Bell: Contextualizing Home and School in an African American Community. Classroom Diversity: Connecting Curriculum to Students’ Lives. Portsmouth: Heinemann Foster, Michelle L., & Peele, Tryphenia B. (2001). Ring my Bell: Contextualizing Home and School in an African American Community. Classroom Diversity: Connecting Curriculum to Students’ Lives. Portsmouth: Heinemann Hampton, F., Mumford, D., & Bond, L. (1998). Parent Involvement in the Inner-City Schools: The Project FAST Extended Family Approach to Success. Urban Education, 33(3), Retrieved from ERIC database EJ Hampton, F., Mumford, D., & Bond, L. (1998). Parent Involvement in the Inner-City Schools: The Project FAST Extended Family Approach to Success. Urban Education, 33(3), Retrieved from ERIC database EJ Herbert, T. (2001). If I Had a Notebook, I Know Things Would Change: Bright Underachieving Young Men in Urban Classrooms. Gifted Quarterly, 4, Retrieved on February 25, 2010, from SAGE database. Herbert, T. (2001). If I Had a Notebook, I Know Things Would Change: Bright Underachieving Young Men in Urban Classrooms. Gifted Quarterly, 4, Retrieved on February 25, 2010, from SAGE database. Huang G., & Mason, K. (2008). Motivations of Parental Involvement in Children’s Learning: Voices from Urban African American Families of Preschoolers. Multicultural Education, 15(3), Retrieved March 7, 2010, from Wilson Web. Huang G., & Mason, K. (2008). Motivations of Parental Involvement in Children’s Learning: Voices from Urban African American Families of Preschoolers. Multicultural Education, 15(3), Retrieved March 7, 2010, from Wilson Web. Hill, Dale. (2004). The Boy and the Rose. Gifted Child Today, 22 (24), 64. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from SAGE database. Hill, Dale. (2004). The Boy and the Rose. Gifted Child Today, 22 (24), 64. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from SAGE database. Hoover-Dempsey, K, Bassler, O., & Burow, R. (1995). Parents’ Reported Involvement in Students’ Homework: Strategies and Practices. The Elementary School Journal, 95 (5), Retrieved March 14, 2010, from JSTOR database. Hoover-Dempsey, K, Bassler, O., & Burow, R. (1995). Parents’ Reported Involvement in Students’ Homework: Strategies and Practices. The Elementary School Journal, 95 (5), Retrieved March 14, 2010, from JSTOR database.

21 Jeynes, William H. (2010). The Salience of the Subtle Aspects of Parental Involvement and Encouraging That Involvement: Implications for School-Based Programs. Teachers College Record, 112 (3), Retrieved on April 12, Jeynes, William H. (2010). The Salience of the Subtle Aspects of Parental Involvement and Encouraging That Involvement: Implications for School-Based Programs. Teachers College Record, 112 (3), Retrieved on April 12, Krajewski, B, & Sabir, L. (2002). Every Child a Success: Reaching for a Vision. Principal, 79 (4), Retrieved from ERIC database (EJ601237) Krajewski, B, & Sabir, L. (2002). Every Child a Success: Reaching for a Vision. Principal, 79 (4), Retrieved from ERIC database (EJ601237) Ladson-Billings, Gloria (2001). Can Anybody Teach These Children? Crossing over to Canaan. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Ladson-Billings, Gloria (2001). Can Anybody Teach These Children? Crossing over to Canaan. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Laureau, Annette (2000). Social Class and Parent Involvement in Schooling. Home Advantage: Social Class and Parental Intervention in Elementary Education. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. Laureau, Annette (2000). Social Class and Parent Involvement in Schooling. Home Advantage: Social Class and Parental Intervention in Elementary Education. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. Laureau, Annette (2000). What Do Teachers Want From Parents? Home Advantage: Social Class and Parental Intervention in Elementary Education. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. Laureau, Annette (2000). What Do Teachers Want From Parents? Home Advantage: Social Class and Parental Intervention in Elementary Education. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. Levine, Daniel U. (1982). Successful Approaches for Improving Academic Achievement in Inner-City Elementary Schools. The Phi Delta Kappan, 63 (8), Retrieved on March 21, 2010, from the JSTOR database. Levine, Daniel U. (1982). Successful Approaches for Improving Academic Achievement in Inner-City Elementary Schools. The Phi Delta Kappan, 63 (8), Retrieved on March 21, 2010, from the JSTOR database.

22 Martinez-Pons, Manuel. (2002). Parental Influences on Children’s Academic Self-Regulatory Development. Theory into Practice, 41 (2), Retrieved on March 21, 2010, from JSTOR database. Martinez-Pons, Manuel. (2002). Parental Influences on Children’s Academic Self-Regulatory Development. Theory into Practice, 41 (2), Retrieved on March 21, 2010, from JSTOR database. McNamara, E., Weininger E., & Lareau, A. (2003). From Social Ties to Social Capital: Class Differences in the Relations Between Schools and Parent Networks. American Educational Research Journal, 40 (2), Retrieved March 14, 2010, from JSTOR database. McNamara, E., Weininger E., & Lareau, A. (2003). From Social Ties to Social Capital: Class Differences in the Relations Between Schools and Parent Networks. American Educational Research Journal, 40 (2), Retrieved March 14, 2010, from JSTOR database. Menard-Warwick, J. (2007). Biliteracy and Schooling in an Extended-Family Nicaraguan Immigrant Household: The Sociohistorical Construction of Parental Involvement. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 38 (2), Retrieved on March 3, 2010, from Wilson Web. Menard-Warwick, J. (2007). Biliteracy and Schooling in an Extended-Family Nicaraguan Immigrant Household: The Sociohistorical Construction of Parental Involvement. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 38 (2), Retrieved on March 3, 2010, from Wilson Web. Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D. & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of Knowledge for Teaching: Using a Qualitative Approach to Connect Homes and Classrooms. Theory Into Practice, 31, Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D. & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of Knowledge for Teaching: Using a Qualitative Approach to Connect Homes and Classrooms. Theory Into Practice, 31, Moore, J., Ford, D., & Milner, R. (2005). Recruitment is Not Enough: Retaining African American Students in Gifted Education. Gifted Quarterly, 49, Retrieved on February 25, 2010, from SAGE database. Moore, J., Ford, D., & Milner, R. (2005). Recruitment is Not Enough: Retaining African American Students in Gifted Education. Gifted Quarterly, 49, Retrieved on February 25, 2010, from SAGE database.

23 Nelson, Greg. (2008). Ways with Community Knowledge. Pen128, 3, Retrieved on February 21, 2010, from SAGE database. Nelson, Greg. (2008). Ways with Community Knowledge. Pen128, 3, Retrieved on February 21, 2010, from SAGE database. Nettles, S. (1991). Community Involvement and Disadvantaged Students: A Review. Review of Educational Research, 61(3), Retrieved on March14, 2010, from JSTOR database. Nettles, S. (1991). Community Involvement and Disadvantaged Students: A Review. Review of Educational Research, 61(3), Retrieved on March14, 2010, from JSTOR database. Overstreet, S., Devine, J., Bevans, K., & Efreom, Y. (2005). Predicting Parental Involvement in Children’s Schooling Within an Economically Disadvantaged African American Sample. Psychology in the Schools, 42(1), Retrieved March 2, 2010, from Wiley InterScience, Overstreet, S., Devine, J., Bevans, K., & Efreom, Y. (2005). Predicting Parental Involvement in Children’s Schooling Within an Economically Disadvantaged African American Sample. Psychology in the Schools, 42(1), Retrieved March 2, 2010, from Wiley InterScience, Powell-Mikle, A, & Patton, M. (2004). Meaningful Learning with African American Families: The Freedom Quilt Fun Packs. Childhood Education, 80(4), Retrieved February 25, 2010, from Wilson Web. Powell-Mikle, A, & Patton, M. (2004). Meaningful Learning with African American Families: The Freedom Quilt Fun Packs. Childhood Education, 80(4), Retrieved February 25, 2010, from Wilson Web. Reed, Wayne (2009). The Bridge is Built: The Role of Local Teachers in an Urban Elementary School. The School Community Journal, 19(1). Reed, Wayne (2009). The Bridge is Built: The Role of Local Teachers in an Urban Elementary School. The School Community Journal, 19(1).

24 Rosenberry, A., McIntyre E., & Gonzalez, N. (2001). Connecting Students’ Cultures to Instruction. Classroom Diversity: Connecting Curriculum to Students’ Lives. Portsmouth: Heinemann Rosenberry, A., McIntyre E., & Gonzalez, N. (2001). Connecting Students’ Cultures to Instruction. Classroom Diversity: Connecting Curriculum to Students’ Lives. Portsmouth: Heinemann Schoenfeld, Alan H. (1999). Looking Toward the 21 st Century: Challenges of Educational Theory and Practice. Educational Researcher, 28(7),4-14. Retrieved on March 21, 2010, from aera.net. Schoenfeld, Alan H. (1999). Looking Toward the 21 st Century: Challenges of Educational Theory and Practice. Educational Researcher, 28(7),4-14. Retrieved on March 21, 2010, from aera.net. Stewart, E., Stewart, E., & Simons, R. (2007). The Effect of Neighborhood Context on the College Aspirations of African American Adolescents. American Educational Research Journal, 44(4), Retrieved on March14, 2010, from SAGE database. Stewart, E., Stewart, E., & Simons, R. (2007). The Effect of Neighborhood Context on the College Aspirations of African American Adolescents. American Educational Research Journal, 44(4), Retrieved on March14, 2010, from SAGE database. Wong, K., & Alkins, K. (1999). Toward Systemic Reform in High- Poverty Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Two Large School Districts. The Elementary School Journal, 4(38), Retrieved on February 25, 2010, from Wilson Web. Wong, K., & Alkins, K. (1999). Toward Systemic Reform in High- Poverty Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Two Large School Districts. The Elementary School Journal, 4(38), Retrieved on February 25, 2010, from Wilson Web.

25 Dear Principal, I am completing my graduate program in the Childhood Education Department at Brooklyn College. I am conducting an action research project on the effects and impact of parental involvement. The research will require me to survey parents, as well as, conduct a focus group with highly engaged parents, in order to gather information for my research. All results will be reported as a group study and to respect their privacy, the names of the participants will remain anonymous. This research will assist me in my goal to bring more parents to the school and to get more parents involved in their child’s education. I am asking for your consent to carry out this project during the months of September – December, Thank you in advance for your support and cooperation. Please contact me if you have any questions. Sincerely, Gary A. Proulx

26 Directions: Please select one of the numbers below that best answers the questions and place your response on the space provided to the right. Thank you for your cooperation. 1: Strongly Agree 2: Agree 3: Disagree 4: Strongly Disagree 1. I help my child with his/her homework every night._____ 2. I have a good relationship with my child’s teacher._____ 3. I am currently a member of the Parent-Teacher Association._____ 4. I assist my child with his/her homework at least 3 nights a week._____ 5. My child does well in school because of my help._____ 6. I assist my child with school only when asked._____ 7. I am satisfied when my child does his best in school._____ 8. I read to my child every night._____ 9. I always attend functions such as Open House at my child’s school._____ 10. I read to my child at least 3 nights a week._____

27 The purpose of this focus group is to gather information from highly engaged parents. The moderator will be the action researcher and he will conduct a round table discussion by asking questions and inciting a dialogue amongst the parents who have shown by their behavior to be highly engaged in their child’s academic success. In hopes to gain a better understanding of the characteristics that these parents share and perhaps can influence other parents to become more engaged. Below is a sample list of questions: 1. How often do you help your child with his/her homework? 2. How would you describe your relationship with your child’s teacher? 3. Are you currently a member of the Parent-Teacher Association? 4. Do you think your child does well in school because of your help? 5. Were your parents as engaged with your teachers/school as you are? 6. What was your experience with school like? 7. Does the school communicate with you enough? 8. How often do you attend functions such as Open House at your child’s school? 9. How often do you review your child’s homework assignments? 10. How often did you read to your child when they were younger? 11. Were you read to as a child? 12. How far in school did you attend? 13. How often do you speak with other parents? 14. What are some things that we can do to increase parental involvement? 15. What inspires you to be so involved in your child’s education? 16. Who or what has encouraged and/or influenced you to be involved in your child’s education?

28 Thank-you for listening. See you in September! -Gary


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