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WORLD WAR II “Germany must either be a world power or there will be no Germany” Adolph Hitler 'Mein Kampf'

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II “Germany must either be a world power or there will be no Germany” Adolph Hitler 'Mein Kampf'"— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR II “Germany must either be a world power or there will be no Germany” Adolph Hitler 'Mein Kampf'

2 World War II: Causes

3 The Treaty of Versailles: ▫Never fully enforced by countries that signed the treaty. ▫Weak peace in Europe.

4 World War II: Causes The Treaty of Versailles: ▫Never fully enforced by countries that signed the treaty. ▫Weak peace in Europe. The League of Nations: ▫U.S. didn’t join

5 World War II: Causes The Treaty of Versailles: ▫Never fully enforced by countries that signed the treaty. ▫Weak peace in Europe. The League of Nations: ▫U.S. didn’t join Economic Depression in Europe: ▫People lost their jobs and stores had very little to sell. ▫People very scared about their future.

6 Germany’s role:

7 The Nazi Party promised jobs, increased services, and military might.

8 Germany’s role: The Nazi Party promised jobs, increased services, and military might. January 30, 1933: Adolf Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany

9 Germany’s role: The Nazi Party promised jobs, increased services, and military might. January 30, 1933: Adolf Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany ▫3/23/33: Enabling Act is passed: gives Hitler absolute power for 4 years. ▫Blames Jews and Gypsies for all of Germany’s problems. ▫Germany needed “Lebensraum” (living space)

10 Germany’s role: 1934

11 6/30/34: Night of the Long Knives: Hitler’s personal guard, the SS, kills about 1,000 people who have “plotted against Hitler”.

12 Germany’s role: /30/34: Night of the Long Knives: Hitler’s personal guard, the SS, kills about 1,000 people who have “plotted against Hitler”. Creates the Gestapo: Secret police.

13 Germany’s role: /30/34: Night of the Long Knives: Hitler’s personal guard, the SS, kills about 1,000 people who have “plotted against Hitler”. Creates the Gestapo: Secret police. Permanent labor camps are built.

14 Germany’s role: 1935

15 January 1935: Saar plebiscite: Saar valley “vote” on whether to be French or German ….. Germany wins the election.

16 Germany’s role: 1935 January 1935: Saar plebiscite: Saar valley “vote” on whether to be French or German ….. Germany wins the election. Treaty of Versailles said this should happen!!

17 Germany’s role: 1936

18 3/7/36: Hitler sends troops into the Rhineland.

19 Germany’s role: /7/36: Hitler sends troops into the Rhineland. ▫Goes against the Treaty of Versailles!

20 Germany’s role: 1938

21 3/11/38: Hitler threatens the Austrian government

22 Germany’s role: /11/38: Hitler threatens the Austrian government 3/13/38: The Anschluss: Hitler annexes Austria

23 Germany’s role: /11/38: Hitler threatens the Austrian government 3/13/38: The Anschluss: Hitler annexes Austria ▫Goes against the Treaty of Versailles.

24 Germany’s role: /11/38: Hitler threatens the Austrian government 3/13/38: The Anschluss: Hitler annexes Austria ▫Goes against the Treaty of Versailles. 9/29/38: Munich conference (Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France) allows Germany to occupy the Sudetenland (was Czechoslovakia) ▫Policy of appeasement:

25 Germany’s role: 1939

26 March 1939: All of Czechoslovakia is occupied by German forces.

27 Germany’s role: 1939 March 1939: All of Czechoslovakia is occupied by German forces. 3/31/39: France and Great Britain guarantee to support Poland.

28 Germany’s role: /39: All of Czechoslovakia is occupied by German forces. 3/31/39: France and Great Britain guarantee to support Poland. 4/7/39: Italy invades and annexes Albania. 8/23/39: Molotov – von Ribbentrop Pact is signed (Soviet Union and Germany non- aggression pact)

29 World War II: /1/39: Germany invades Poland.

30 World War II: /1/39: Germany invades Poland. 9/3/39: Great Britain and France declare war on Germany.

31 World War II: /1/39: Germany invades Poland. 9/3/39: Great Britain and France declare war on Germany. 9/17/39: Soviet Union sends troops to Poland.

32 World War II: /1/39: Germany invades Poland. 9/3/39: Great Britain and France declare war on Germany. 9/17/39: Soviet Union sends troops to Poland. 9/28/39: Poland surrenders to Germany.

33 World War II: /1/39: Germany invades Poland. 9/3/39: Great Britain and France declare war on Germany. 9/17/39: Soviet Union sends troops to Poland. 9/28/39: Poland surrenders to Germany. 11/30/39 Soviet Union invades Finland.

34 World War II: 1940

35 4/9/40: Germany invades Denmark and Norway. ▫Denmark surrenders on 4/9 and Norway on 6/9.

36 World War II: /9/40: Germany invades Denmark and Norway. ▫Denmark surrenders on 4/9 and Norway on 6/9. 5/10/40: Germany attacks France, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium. ▫Luxembourg surrenders on 5/10, The Netherlands on 5/14, and Belgium 5/28.

37 World War II: /9/40: Germany invades Denmark and Norway. ▫Denmark surrenders on 4/9 and Norway on 6/9. 5/10/40: Germany attacks France, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium. ▫Luxembourg surrenders on 5/10, The Netherlands on 5/14, and Belgium 5/28. 6/10/40: Italy invades Southern France.

38 World War II: /22/40: France surrenders. ▫Same railroad car is used that was used to have Germany sign their surrender ending WWI.

39 World War II: /22/40: France surrenders. ▫Same railroad car is used that was used to have Germany sign their surrender ending WWI.

40 World War II: /22/40: France surrenders. ▫Same railroad car is used that was used to have Germany sign their surrender ending WWI. 7/10 to 10/31: Battle of Britain: Ends in German “defeat”.

41 World War II: /22/40: France surrenders. ▫Same railroad car is used that was used to have Germany sign their surrender ending WWI. 7/10 to 10/31: Battle of Britain: Ends in German “defeat”. 9/13/40: Italy invades Egypt.

42 World War II: /22/40: France surrenders. ▫Same railroad car is used that was used to have Germany sign their surrender ending WWI. 7/10 to 10/31: Battle of Britain: Ends in German “defeat”. 9/13/40: Italy invades Egypt. 9/27/40: Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact.

43 World War II: /22/40: France surrenders. ▫Same railroad car is used that was used to have Germany sign their surrender ending WWI. 7/10 to 10/31: Battle of Britain: Ends in German “defeat”. 9/13/40: Italy invades Egypt. 9/27/40: Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact. 10/28/40: Italy invades Greece.

44 World War II: /22/40: France surrenders. ▫Same railroad car is used that was used to have Germany sign their surrender ending WWI. 7/10 to 10/31: Battle of Britain: Ends in German “defeat”. 9/13/40: Italy invades Egypt. 9/27/40: Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact. 10/28/40: Italy invades Greece. 11/40: Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania join the Axis.

45 World War II: 1941

46 3/1/41: Bulgaria joins the Axis.

47 World War II: /1/41: Bulgaria joins the Axis. 4/6/41: Germany, Hungary, and Italy invade Yugoslavia and Greece.

48 World War II: /22/41: Operation Barbarosa begins at 3:30 A.M.

49 World War II: /22/41: Operation Barbarosa begins at 3:30 A.M. ▫Germany invades the Soviet Union with  3 million troops  3,500 tanks  More than 7,000 artillery  More than 2,000 aircraft

50 World War II: /22/41: Operation Barbarosa begins at 3:30 A.M. ▫Germany invades the Soviet Union with  3 million troops  3,500 tanks  More than 7,000 artillery  More than 2,000 aircraft ▫Goal is Lebensraum (living space)  Agricultural areas  Mineral resources  Established industry

51 World War II: /22/41: Operation Barbarosa begins at 3:30 A.M. ▫Day 1: 1,600 Soviet planes destroyed. ▫Panzer units (tanks) move 50 miles per day.

52 World War II: /22/41: Operation Barbarosa begins at 3:30 A.M. ▫Day 1: 1,600 Soviet planes destroyed. ▫Panzer units (tanks) move 50 miles per day. By early December: ▫German loses = 740,000 ▫Soviet loses = 3,000,000 and 3,500,000 captured.

53 World War II: /7/41: Japan attacks the U.S. at Pearl Harbor Hawaii.

54 World War II: /7/41: Japan attacks the U.S. at Pearl Harbor Hawaii. 12/8/41: U.S. declares war on Japan

55 World War II: /7/41: Japan attacks the U.S. at Pearl Harbor Hawaii. 12/8/41: U.S. declares war on Japan 12/11/41: All axis powers declare war on U.S.

56 World War II: 1942

57 8/19/42 to 1/31/43: Siege of Stalingrad:

58 World War II: /19/42 to 1/31/43: Siege of Stalingrad: ▫Stalin refuses to allow retreat (draws a line in the sand) ▫City doesn’t fall.

59 World War II: /19/42 to 1/31/43: Siege of Stalingrad: ▫Stalin refuses to allow retreat (draws a line in the sand) ▫City doesn’t fall. ▫11/23/42: Soviet troops encircle the German Sixth Army.

60 World War II: /19/42 to 1/31/43: Siege of Stalingrad: ▫Stalin refuses to allow retreat (draws a line in the sand) ▫City doesn’t fall. ▫11/23/42: Soviet troops encircle the German Sixth Army. ▫11/25/42: German general (Von Paulus) pleads with Hitler to allow negotiations with Stalin.

61 World War II: /19/42 to 1/31/43: Siege of Stalingrad: ▫Stalin refuses to allow retreat (draws a line in the sand) ▫City doesn’t fall. ▫11/23/42: Soviet troops encircle the German Sixth Army. ▫11/25/42: German general (Von Paulus) pleads with Hitler to allow negotiations with Stalin. ▫1/30/43: Hitler promotes General von Paulus.

62 World War II: /19/42 to 1/31/43: Siege of Stalingrad: ▫Stalin refuses to allow retreat (draws a line in the sand) ▫City doesn’t fall. ▫11/23/42: Soviet troops encircle the German Sixth Army. ▫11/25/42: German general (Von Paulus) pleads with Hitler to allow negotiations with Stalin. ▫1/30/43: Hitler promotes General von Paulus. ▫1/31/43: von Paulus surrenders himself, 22 other generals, and 91,000 troops (5,000 live to go home)

63 World War II: /19/42 to 1/31/43: Siege of Stalingrad: ▫Stalin refuses to allow retreat (draws a line in the sand) ▫City doesn’t fall. ▫11/23/42: Soviet troops encircle the German Sixth Army. ▫11/25/42: German general (Von Paulus) pleads with Hitler to allow negotiations with Stalin. ▫1/30/43: Hitler promotes General von Paulus. ▫1/31/43: von Paulus surrenders himself, 22 other generals, and 91,000 troops (5,000 live to go home) ▫1,700,000 to 2,000,000 dead on both sides.

64 World War II: 1943

65 5/13/43: Axis forces in Tunisia surrender (ends war in Africa).

66 World War II: /13/43: Axis forces in Tunisia surrender (ends war in Africa). 7/5/43: Massive German offensive in Kursk, Soviet Union. ▫7/12/43: Largest tank battle ever.

67 World War II: /13/43: Axis forces in Tunisia surrender (ends war in Africa). 7/5/43: Massive German offensive in Kursk, Soviet Union. ▫7/12/43: Largest tank battle ever. Fall of 1943 Germany is in full retreat on the Eastern front.

68 World War II: /13/43: Axis forces in Tunisia surrender (ends war in Africa). 7/5/43: Massive German offensive in Kursk, Soviet Union. ▫7/12/43: Largest tank battle ever. Fall of 1943 Germany is in full retreat on the Eastern front. 7/25/43: Italian dictator Mussolini overthrown.

69 World War II: /13/43: Axis forces in Tunisia surrender (ends war in Africa). 7/5/43: Massive German offensive in Kursk, Soviet Union. ▫7/12/43: Largest tank battle ever. Fall of 1943 Germany is in full retreat on the Eastern front. 7/25/43: Italian dictator Mussolini overthrown. 9/8/43: Italy surrenders to the Allies. ▫Germany immediately sends in troops, frees Mussolini, and puts him back in charge

70 World War II: /13/43: Axis forces in Tunisia surrender (ends war in Africa). 7/5/43: Massive German offensive in Kursk, Soviet Union. ▫7/12/43: Largest tank battle ever. Fall of 1943 Germany is in full retreat on the Eastern front. 7/25/43: Italian dictator Mussolini overthrown. 9/8/43: Italy surrenders to the Allies. ▫Germany immediately sends in troops, frees Mussolini, and puts him back in charge 9/9/43: U.S. troops land in Salerno, Italy (near Naples).

71 World War II: 1944

72 1/22/44: U.S. troops land at Anzio, Italy (Rome)

73 World War II: /22/44: U.S. troops land at Anzio, Italy (Rome) 6/6/44: D-Day – British and U.S. troops land at Normandy, France with 5,000 ships, 11,ooo aircraft, and 2,000,000 troops.

74 World War II: /22/44: U.S. troops land at Anzio, Italy (Rome) 6/6/44: D-Day – British and U.S. troops land at Normandy, France with 5,000 ships, 11,ooo aircraft, and 2,000,000 troops. 7/25/44: Normandy is under allies control. ▫Starts the race to Paris.

75 World War II: /22/44: U.S. troops land at Anzio, Italy (Rome) 6/6/44: D-Day – British and U.S. troops land at Normandy, France with 5,000 ships, 11,ooo aircraft, and 2,000,000 troops. 7/25/44: Normandy is under allies control. ▫Starts the race to Paris. 8/25/44: Paris is liberated.

76 World War II: /22/44: U.S. troops land at Anzio, Italy (Rome) 6/6/44: D-Day – British and U.S. troops land at Normandy, France with 5,000 ships, 11,ooo aircraft, and 2,000,000 troops. 7/25/44: Normandy is under allies control. ▫Starts the race to Paris. 8/25/44: Paris is liberated. 12/16/44: Germans launch their final offensive in the West.

77 World War II: /22/44: U.S. troops land at Anzio, Italy (Rome) 6/6/44: D-Day – British and U.S. troops land at Normandy, France with 5,000 ships, 11,ooo aircraft, and 2,000,000 troops. 7/25/44: Normandy is under allies control. ▫Starts the race to Paris. 8/25/44: Paris is liberated. 12/16/44: Germans launch their final offensive in the West. ▫Battle of the Bulge. ▫Germany loses and retreats again.

78 World War II: 1945

79 4/16/45: Soviet troops encircle Berlin.

80 World War II: /16/45: Soviet troops encircle Berlin. 4/30/45: Hitler commits suicide.

81 World War II: /16/45: Soviet troops encircle Berlin. 4/30/45: Hitler commits suicide. 5/7/45: Germany surrenders to the Western Allies.

82 World War II: /16/45: Soviet troops encircle Berlin. 4/30/45: Hitler commits suicide. 5/7/45: Germany surrenders to the Western Allies. 5/9/45: Germany surrenders to the Soviets.

83 World War II: /16/45: Soviet troops encircle Berlin. 4/30/45: Hitler commits suicide. 5/7/45: Germany surrenders to the Western Allies. 5/9/45: Germany surrenders to the Soviets. 8/6/45: U.S. drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan (population 255,000). ▫75,000 people dead that day. ▫75,000 more dead within 4 months. 8/9/45: U.S. drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan (population 240,000). ▫35,000 people dead that day ▫35,000 more dead within 4 months. 8/14/45: Japan surrenders ending WWII.

84

85

86 Counting our losses: AlliesMobilizedMilitary Dead Civilian Dead Total 1940 Population USSR20,000,0008,700,00016,900,000190,000,000 U.S.A.16,400,000292,000132,000,000 France5,000,000250,000170,00039,000,000 Great Britain4,700,000240,00065,00048,000,000 Axis: Germany10,800,0003,250,0002,000,00070,700,000 Totals: Allies:14,170,00035,597,000 Axis:5,680,0003,757,000

87 The Holocaust

88 The “End” of the Jewish religion: 4/1/33: Boycott on Jewish run businesses. 9/15/35: Nuremberg laws: Begins to exclude Jews from public life. 11/9&10/38: Night of the Broken Glass. Ghettos: All Jews were forced to live in certain areas of cities. ▫Warsaw ghetto = 445,000 Jews in 1941.

89 The “End” of the Jewish religion: Concentration Camps: ▫Medical experiments on prisoners  Babies taken from their mother to see how long they would survive without milk. ▫Dachau: opened 3/20/33 ▫Over 1,000 were constructed. ▫Treblinka: over 870,000 dead, 100 known survivors, 150 German staff

90 The “End” of the Jewish religion: Death Camps: ▫Chelmno ▫Belzec ▫Sobibor ▫Treblinka ▫Auschwitz: over 1,250,000 prisoners killed  Soviet troops found 15,400 pounds of human hair. ▫Majdanek


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