Presentation on theme: "What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC. Goals 1-6"— Presentation transcript:
1What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC. Goals 1-6 U.S. History Top 100What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC.Goals 1-6
2Goal 1: The New Nation (1789-1820) The learner will identify, investigate, and assess the effectiveness of the institutions of the emerging republic.
3Suffrage during the Federalist Era Who could vote?White males who owned property.Who could not vote?White males who did not own propertyWomenAfrican-AmericansNative Americans
4Whiskey Rebellion, 1794Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey. The army put down the rebellion.The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
5Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796 Would not seek a third termWarned against competing political partiesWarned against complicated entanglements of Europe
6Development of the two-party system Democratic RepublicansLed by Thomas JeffersonThought states should have more powerWanted to base economy on farmingWere pro-FrenchSupported a strict construction of the ConstitutionFederalistsLed by Alexander HamiltonFavored a strong central governmentWanted to base economy on industry and tradeWere pro-BritishSupported a loose construction of the Constitution
7XYZ Affair, 1797Delegates were sent to France to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand.The American delegates were told they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a large bribe. They did not pay the bribe.
8Alien & Sedition Acts, 1798These laws were passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams.The Alien Act increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years and the president could deport dangerous aliens.The Sedition Act made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government. It was an attempt to silence opposition.The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
9Marbury v. Madison, 1803The case arose out of Jefferson's refusal to deliver the commissions to the judges appointed by Adams' Midnight Appointments.This case established the Supreme Court's right to judicial review.
10Louisiana Purchase, 1803The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from France for $15 million.Jefferson was interested in the territory because it was valuable for trade and shipping and provided room to expand.The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
11Goal 2: Expansion and Reform (1801-1850) The learner will assess the competing forces of expansionism, nationalism, and sectionalism.
12Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin The cotton gin was a machine which could separate cotton from its seeds. Whitney’s invention made cotton a profitable crop. It also reinforced slavery in the economy of the South.
13Missouri Compromise, 1820Admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Declared that all territory north of 36°30" would become free states, and all territory south of that latitude would become slave states.
14Monroe Doctrine, 1823Declared that Europe should not interfere in the Western Hemisphere and any interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S.Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until the late 1800s.
15Tariff of Abominations Tariff of 1828 raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. It protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
16Indian Removal,During the winter, troops evicted the Cherokee tribe from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma. Many died on the trail. The journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".
17Hudson River School of Art In the 1820s, a group of American painters, painted landscapes.
18NativismAn anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
19Women’s Reform Movement In the 1800's, women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs.The women's movement was often overshadowed by the anti-slavery movement. Men who had been working with the women's movement worked for the abolition of slavery once it became a major issue.
20Henry ClayClay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War.
21Goal 3: Crisis, Civil War and Reconstruction (1848-1877) The learner will analyze the issues that led to the Civil War, the effects of the war, and the impact of Reconstruction on the nation.
22Compromise of 1850 Admitted California as a free state Organized Utah and N.M. without restrictions on slaveryAdjusted the Texas/N.M. borderAbolished slave trade in D.C.Established tougher fugitive slave laws.Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
23Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854This act repealed the Missouri Compromise. Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.
24Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in free land had made him a free man. The U.S. Supreme Court decided he could not sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
25Causes of Secession, 1860After Lincoln was elected, seven Southern states seceded. They cited as their reason for seceding the election of a President “whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery.”
26Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 Lincoln freed all slaves in states that had seceded. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
27Battle of Gettysburg, 186390,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won. Considered a turning point of the Civil War.
28Civil War Amendments 13th - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery. 14th - It granted full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants. No state shall deny a person life, liberty, or property without due process of law.15th - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
29Reconstruction Plans Presidential Plans Lincoln offered the “Ten Percent Plan.”Johnson’s plan was similar to Lincoln’s, but required wealthy planters to request pardons and did not support voting rights for African-Americans.Congressional Plan“Radical Republicans” passed the Wade-Davis Bill. Lincoln pocket vetoed the bill.Established Freedmen’s Bureau and passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
30Civil Rights Act of 1866Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
31Compromise of 1877Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
32Goal 4: The Great West and the Rise of the Debtor (1860-1896) The learner will evaluate the great westward movement and assess the impact of the agricultural revolution on the nation.
33Motivation for Westward Movement Government IncentivesPacific Railway ActsMorrill Land-Grant ActHomestead ActPrivate PropertyMinersCattle ranchersFarmers
34Challenges of Westward Movement Lack of resources; wood and waterSevere weather, bugs, floods, prairie fires, dust storms, droughtConflicts with Native Americans
35Improvements in Agriculture Mechanized reaper – reduced labor forceSteel plow – cut through dense sodBarbed wire – kept cattle off cropsWindmills – powers irrigation systemsHybridization – allowed greater yields
36Transcontinental Railroad, 1869 Union Pacific began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central Pacific went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah.
37Dawes Act, 1887It tried to dissolve Indian tribes by redistributing the land. Designed to forestall growing Indian poverty, it resulted in many Indians losing their lands to speculators.
38Helen Hunt JacksonA muckraker whose book exposed the unjust manner in which the U.S. government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
39Cross of Gold Speech, 1896Given by William Jennings Bryan, he said people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold", referring to the Republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage and adopt a strict gold standard.
40Goal 5: Becoming an Industrial Society (1877-1900) The learner will describe innovations in technology and business practices and assess their impact on economic, political, and social life in America.
41Influence of Big Business Larger pools of capitalWider geographic spanBroader range of operationsRevised role of ownershipNew methods of management
42Laissez-faireA theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.
43Credit Mobilier Scandal, 1872 Union Pacific received a government contract to build the transcontinental railroadIt "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual construction, charging nearly twice the actual cost of the project.The scheme was discovered and the company tried to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the investigation.This was the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history, and led to greater public awareness of government corruption.
44Jane Addams’ Hull House, 1889 Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. She founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
45Social DarwinismApplied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
46Gospel of Wealth, 1889Andrew Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
47Labor PracticesCollective Bargaining - Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions.Labor Unions – organization of workersStrikes – refusal to perform work until demands are met.
48Labor Unions Knights of Labor An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869.American Federation of LaborBegan in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.
49Thomas NastNewspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
50Jacob RiisEarly 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.
51Goal 6: The emergence of the United States in World Affairs (1890-1914) The learner will analyze causes and effects of the United States emergence as a world power.
52Alfred MahanAs Americans increased business overseas it became necessary to protect those investments. In order to protect those investments America built the "great white fleet" that had been requested by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan.
53Josiah StrongOne of the leading proponents of imperialism was Minister Josiah Strong.Strong claimed that America as the leading nation in the world it was our destiny to acquire new lands. This idea sounds a lot like Manifest Destiny because it is the same idea.
54Seward’s Folly, 1867An eager expansionist, Seward was the energetic supporter of the Alaskan purchase and negotiator of the deal often called "Seward's Folly" because Alaska was not fit for settlement or farming.
55Annexation of Hawaii, 1898By the late 1800s, U.S. had exclusive use of Pearl Harbor. In July 1898, Congress made Hawaii a U.S. territory, for the use of the islands as naval ports.
56Causes of Spanish-American War, 1898 An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havana crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.
57Open Door Policy, 1899Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
58Roosevelt Corollary, 1904U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.