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U.S. History Top 100 What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC. Goals 1-12.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History Top 100 What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC. Goals 1-12."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. History Top 100 What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC. Goals 1-12

2 Goal 1: The New Nation ( ) The learner will identify, investigate, and assess the effectiveness of the institutions of the emerging republic.

3 Suffrage during the Federalist Era Who could vote? White males who owned property. Who could not vote? White males who did not own property Women African-Americans Native Americans

4 Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey. The army put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

5 Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796 Would not seek a third term Warned against competing political parties Warned against complicated entanglements of Europe

6 Development of the two-party system Democratic Republicans Led by Thomas Jefferson Thought states should have more power Wanted to base economy on farming Were pro-French Supported a strict construction of the Constitution Federalists Led by Alexander Hamilton Favored a strong central government Wanted to base economy on industry and trade Were pro-British Supported a loose construction of the Constitution

7 XYZ Affair, 1797 Delegates were sent to France to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand. The American delegates were told they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a large bribe. They did not pay the bribe.

8 Alien & Sedition Acts, 1798 These laws were passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams. The Alien Act increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years and the president could deport dangerous aliens. The Sedition Act made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government. It was an attempt to silence opposition. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.

9 Marbury v. Madison, 1803 The case arose out of Jefferson's refusal to deliver the commissions to the judges appointed by Adams' Midnight Appointments. This case established the Supreme Court's right to judicial review.

10 Louisiana Purchase, 1803 The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from France for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it was valuable for trade and shipping and provided room to expand. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.

11 Goal 2: Expansion and Reform ( ) The learner will assess the competing forces of expansionism, nationalism, and sectionalism.

12 Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin The cotton gin was a machine which could separate cotton from its seeds. Whitney’s invention made cotton a profitable crop. It also reinforced slavery in the economy of the South.

13 Missouri Compromise, 1820 Admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Declared that all territory north of 36°30" would become free states, and all territory south of that latitude would become slave states.

14 Monroe Doctrine, 1823 Declared that Europe should not interfere in the Western Hemisphere and any interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until the late 1800s.

15 Tariff of Abominations Tariff of 1828 raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. It protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.

16 Indian Removal, During the winter, troops evicted the Cherokee tribe from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma. Many died on the trail. The journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".

17 Hudson River School of Art In the 1820s, a group of American painters, painted landscapes.

18 Nativism An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.

19 Women’s Reform Movement In the 1800's, women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs. The women's movement was often overshadowed by the anti-slavery movement. Men who had been working with the women's movement worked for the abolition of slavery once it became a major issue.

20 Henry Clay Clay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War.

21 Goal 3: Crisis, Civil War and Reconstruction ( ) The learner will analyze the issues that led to the Civil War, the effects of the war, and the impact of Reconstruction on the nation.

22 Compromise of 1850 Admitted California as a free state Organized Utah and N.M. without restrictions on slavery Adjusted the Texas/N.M. border Abolished slave trade in D.C. Established tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.

23 Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 This act repealed the Missouri Compromise. Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.

24 Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857 A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in free land had made him a free man. The U.S. Supreme Court decided he could not sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.

25 Causes of Secession, 1860 After Lincoln was elected, seven Southern states seceded. They cited as their reason for seceding the election of a President “whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery.”

26 Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 Lincoln freed all slaves in states that had seceded. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.

27 Battle of Gettysburg, ,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won. Considered a turning point of the Civil War.

28 Civil War Amendments 13 th - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery. 14 th - It granted full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants. No state shall deny a person life, liberty, or property without due process of law. 15 th - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.

29 Reconstruction Plans Presidential Plans Lincoln offered the “Ten Percent Plan.” Johnson’s plan was similar to Lincoln’s, but required wealthy planters to request pardons and did not support voting rights for African- Americans. Congressional Plan “Radical Republicans” passed the Wade- Davis Bill. Lincoln pocket vetoed the bill. Established Freedmen’s Bureau and passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866.

30 Civil Rights Act of 1866 Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.

31 Compromise of 1877 Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.

32 Goal 4: The Great West and the Rise of the Debtor ( ) The learner will evaluate the great westward movement and assess the impact of the agricultural revolution on the nation.

33 Motivation for Westward Movement Government Incentives Pacific Railway Acts Morrill Land-Grant Act Homestead Act Private Property Miners Cattle ranchers Farmers

34 Challenges of Westward Movement Lack of resources; wood and water Severe weather, bugs, floods, prairie fires, dust storms, drought Conflicts with Native Americans

35 Improvements in Agriculture Mechanized reaper – reduced labor force Steel plow – cut through dense sod Barbed wire – kept cattle off crops Windmills – powers irrigation systems Hybridization – allowed greater yields

36 Transcontinental Railroad, 1869 Union Pacific began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central Pacific went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah.

37 Dawes Act, 1887 It tried to dissolve Indian tribes by redistributing the land. Designed to forestall growing Indian poverty, it resulted in many Indians losing their lands to speculators.

38 Helen Hunt Jackson A muckraker whose book exposed the unjust manner in which the U.S. government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.

39 Cross of Gold Speech, 1896 Given by William Jennings Bryan, he said people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold", referring to the Republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage and adopt a strict gold standard.

40 Goal 5: Becoming an Industrial Society ( ) The learner will describe innovations in technology and business practices and assess their impact on economic, political, and social life in America.

41 Influence of Big Business Larger pools of capital Wider geographic span Broader range of operations Revised role of ownership New methods of management

42 Laissez-faire A theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.

43 Credit Mobilier Scandal, 1872 Union Pacific received a government contract to build the transcontinental railroad It "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual construction, charging nearly twice the actual cost of the project. The scheme was discovered and the company tried to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the investigation. This was the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history, and led to greater public awareness of government corruption.

44 Jane Addams’ Hull House, 1889 Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. She founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.

45 Social Darwinism Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.

46 Gospel of Wealth, 1889 Andrew Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.

47 Labor Practices Collective Bargaining - Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions. Labor Unions – organization of workers Strikes – refusal to perform work until demands are met.

48 Labor Unions Knights of Labor An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in American Federation of Labor Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.

49 Thomas Nast Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.

50 Jacob Riis Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.

51 Goal 6: The emergence of the United States in World Affairs ( ) The learner will analyze causes and effects of the United States emergence as a world power.

52 Alfred Mahan As Americans increased business overseas it became necessary to protect those investments. In order to protect those investments America built the "great white fleet" that had been requested by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan.

53 Josiah Strong One of the leading proponents of imperialism was Minister Josiah Strong. Strong claimed that America as the leading nation in the world it was our destiny to acquire new lands. This idea sounds a lot like Manifest Destiny because it is the same idea.

54 Seward’s Folly, 1867 An eager expansionist, Seward was the energetic supporter of the Alaskan purchase and negotiator of the deal often called "Seward's Folly" because Alaska was not fit for settlement or farming.

55 Annexation of Hawaii, 1898 By the late 1800s, U.S. had exclusive use of Pearl Harbor. In July 1898, Congress made Hawaii a U.S. territory, for the use of the islands as naval ports.

56 Causes of Spanish-American War, 1898 An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havana crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.

57 Open Door Policy, 1899 Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.

58 Roosevelt Corollary, 1904 U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.

59 Goal 7: The Progressive Movement ( ) The learner will analyze the economic, political, and social reforms of the Progressive Period.

60 Causes of Progressivism Ineffectiveness of government Poor working conditions Emergence of Social Gospel Unequal distribution of wealth Immigration Urban poor Corruption

61 Progressive Party Platform The platform called for women's suffrage, recall of judicial decisions, easier amendment of the U.S. Constitution, social welfare legislation for women and children, workers' compensation, limited injunctions in strikes, farm relief, revision of banking to assure an elastic currency.

62 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911 A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company killed 146 people, mostly women. The doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Highlighted the poor working conditions and led to federal regulations to protect workers.

63 Muckrakers Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen.

64 Robert LaFollette Political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.

65 Federal Reserve Act, 1913 Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez- faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.

66 Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 The Supreme Court ruled against Plessy, saying that segregated facilities for whites and blacks were legal as long as the facilities were of equal quality.

67 Disenfranchisement The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal.

68 Booker T. Washington Washington believed that African Americans had to achieve economic independence before civil rights. In 1881, he founded the first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.

69 W.E.B. DuBois DuBois believed that black Americans had to demand their social and civil rights or else become permanent victims of racism. Helped found the NAACP. He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's theories.

70 New Marketing Techniques Advertising Mail order catalogs Consumerism

71 Goal 8: The Great War and Its Aftermath ( ) The learner will analyze United States involvement in World War I and the war’s influence on international affairs during the 1920s.

72 U.S. - Neutrality to Involvement May 1915 – U-boats sink the Lusitania Sept – Germany promises not to sink unarmed ships March 1916 – Germany sinks the Sussex May 1916 – Germany promises not to sink unarmed ships Jan – Zimmerman note is intercepted Feb – Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare April 1917 – U.S. declares war on Germany

73 Russian Revolution, 1917 Instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI.

74 Fourteen Points, 1918 Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.

75 League of Nations, 1919 Devised by President Wilson, it comprised of delegates from many countries, the U.S. did not join. It was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.

76 Eugene V. Debs Debs repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act.

77 Schenck v. U.S., 1919 United States Supreme Court decision concerning the question of whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I. During wartime, utterances tolerable in peacetime can be punished.

78 Sacco and Vanzetti Sacco and Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.

79 Goal 9: Prosperity and Depression ( ) The learner will appraise the economic, social, and political changes of the decades of “The Twenties” and “The Thirties.”

80 Assembly Line Arrangement of equipment and workers in which work passes from operation to operation in a direct line until the product is assembled.

81 Impact of Mass Media Radio Marketing Advertising Jazz Silent & “talkie” films “The Jazz Singer” “Fireside Chats”

82 Lost Generation Writer Gertrude Stein told Hemingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. They thought the U.S. was materialistic and they criticized conformity.

83 Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems, stories, essays and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers, musicians, and intellectuals.

84 Flappers, 1920’s Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.

85 Fundamentalism Movement or attitude stressing strict and literal adherence to a set of basic principles.

86 Scopes Trial, 1925 Prosecution of school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.

87 Stock Market Crash, 1929 On October 24, 1929, panic selling occurred as investors realized the stock boom had been an over inflated bubble. Margin investors were being decimated as every stock holder tried to liquidate. Millionaire margin investors became bankrupt instantly, as the stock market crashed on October 28 and 29.

88 Dust Bowl, 1930s A series of catastrophic dust storms caused major ecological and agricultural damage to American prairie lands in the 1930s, caused by decades of inappropriate farming techniques.

89 Bonus Army, 1932 Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans asked Congress to pay their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army.

90 Bank Failures During the first 10 months of 1930, 744 banks failed. In all, 9,000 banks failed during the decade of the 1930s. By 1933, depositors saw $140 billion disappear through bank failures.

91 Causes of Great Depression Much debt, stock prices spiraling up, over- production and under- consuming, the stock market crashed. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures, which spread to the U.S.

92 New Deal Agencies Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Works Progress Administration (WPA) Public Works Administration (PWA) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

93 Long Term Effects of New Deal Programs Expansion of the role of federal government Government responsibility for the welfare of its citizens Expanding government role in the economy Deficit spending

94 U.S. History Top 100 What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC Goal 10

95 Goal 10: World War II and the Beginning of the Cold War (1930s- 1963) The learner will analyze United States involvement in World War II and the war’s influence on international affairs in following decades.

96 Lend-lease Act, 1941 Authorized the president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment to any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U.S. Allowed the U.S. to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies.

97 Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 Surprise attack by Japanese on U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.

98 D-Day, June 6, 1944 Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

99 War Posters The radio, print, and film industries reminded Americans that they were in a struggle between dictatorship and democracy.

100 Rosie the Riveter Women found jobs, especially in heavy industry, that fell outside the traditional realm of women’s work.

101 Korematsu v. U.S., 1944 Upheld the U.S. government's decision to put Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II.

102 G.I. Bill, 1944 Servicemen's Readjustment Act, also called the G.I. Bill of Rights. Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society.

103 Marshall Plan, 1947 Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall, he proposed massive economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.

104 Korean War, 1950 On June 25, 1950, the Communist North invaded the Democratic South. The United Nations created an international army, lead by the U.S. to fight for the South and China joined the war on the side of North Korea. This was the first time the United Nations had intervened militarily.

105 Post-war Organizations United Nations, Founded after WWII by victorious Allied Powers to intervene in conflicts between nations and avoid war. NATO, The member nations agreed to fight for each other if attacked. It is an international military force. SEATO, Alliance of non-Communist Asian nations modeled after NATO. Unlike NATO, it didn't establish a military force.

106 Containment, George F. Keenan A member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.

107 Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 After discovering the Russians were building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, the U.S. announced a quarantine of Cuba. After six days of confrontation that almost led to nuclear war, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the launch sites.

108 U.S. History Top 100 What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC Goal 11

109 Goal 11: Recovery, Prosperity, and Turmoil ( ) The learner will trace economic, political, and social developments and assess their significance for the lives of Americans during this time period.

110 McCarthyism, Senator who began sensational campaign by asserting that the U.S. State Department had been infiltrated by Communists. He accused the Army of covering up foreign espionage. The Army-McCarthy Hearings made McCarthy look so foolish that further investigations were halted.

111 Domino Theory, 1957 It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect.

112 Sputnik, 1957 The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.

113 Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.

114 Martin Luther King, Jr. The leader of the Civil Rights Movement and President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, promoted non- violent protest.

115 Malcolm X Malcolm X expressed the feelings of many African American activists who had grown impatient with King’s nonviolent methods. Malcolm X preached a message of self-reliance and self- determination.

116 Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan, 1963 Depicted how difficult a woman's life is because she doesn't think about herself, only her family. It said that middle-class society stifled women and didn't let them use their talents. Attacked the "cult of domesticity."

117 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964 After a U.S. Navy ship reportedly was fired on, Congress passed this resolution which gave the president power to send troops to Vietnam to protect against further North Vietnamese aggression.

118 My Lai Incident, 1968 An American unit destroyed the village of My Lai, killing many women and children. The incident was not revealed to the public until 20 months later.

119 War Powers Act, 1973 Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.

120 Détente A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union and China. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget.

121 Watergate Scandal, In 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee's executive quarters in the Watergate Hotel. Nixon admitted to complicity in the burglary. In 1974, as Nixon's impeachment began, he resigned.

122 Cesar Chavez Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike against fruit and vegetable growers. Unionized Mexican-American farm workers.

123 U.S. History Top 100 What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC Goal 12

124 Goal 12: The United States since the Vietnam War (1973-present) The learner will identify and analyze trends in domestic and foreign affairs of the United States during this time period.

125 Camp David Accords, 1978 Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter.

126 Title IX, 1972 "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."

127 Affirmative Action Policy that gives special consideration to women and minorities to make up for past discrimination.

128 Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 1978 Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to admit.

129 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 1992 The North American Free Trade Area is the trade bloc created by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), whose members are Canada, Mexico and the United States.

130 Election of 2000 In the presidential election of 2000 Republican George W. Bush was elected over Democrat Al Gore in one of the closest and most controversial presidential elections in the history of the United States.

131 September 11, 2001 The September 11, 2001 attacks consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist suicide attacks by Islamic extremists on the United States on September 11, 2001.

132 No Child Left Behind, 2002 President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act. The law helps schools improve by focusing on accountability for results, freedom for states and communities, proven education methods, and choices for parents.


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