Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN IMPERIALISM AND FOREIGN POLICY Late 19 th – Early 20 th c."— Presentation transcript:
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM AND FOREIGN POLICY Late 19 th – Early 20 th c.
DEFINITIONS! Imperialism (a.k.a. COLONIALISM) = quest to build territorial empire Control by powerful nation(s) over a less advanced or less “civilized” area Powerful Nation = Advanced (industrial) economy Strong Government Considerable military strength “Less Advanced” Nation/Area = Primitive (pre-Industrial) economy Underdeveloped natural resources Weak government Limited military power
BACKGROUND! Why U.S. Imperialism? Response to European Imperialism Why? INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Industrialized Nations = Colonies. Why? Cheap raw materials Market Large profits w/ minimum risk on investment of surplus capital.
BACKGROUND! NATIONALIST arguments for Imperialism (aka Empire Buildingi) Gain Glory Secure essential military bases & war materials Provide outlet for surplus pop. Provide safety (Christian missionaries) Bring “blessings of civilized culture” (aka the West [Europe & USA]) to the “backward” areas*
THE “WHITE MAN’S BURDEN” Title comes from poem by Rudyard Kipling “Take up the White Man’s burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go send your sons to exile To serve your captives' need To wait in heavy harness On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half devil and half child Take up the White Man’s burden In patience to abide To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple An hundred times made plain To seek another’s profit And work another’s gain Take up the White Man’s burden— And reap his old reward: The blame of those ye better The hate of those ye guard— The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah slowly) to the light: "Why brought ye us from bondage, “Our loved Egyptian night?” Take up the White Man’s burden- Have done with childish days- The lightly proffered laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise. Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years, Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers!
REASONS FOR U.S. IMPERIALISM Industrial Revolution Closing of the Frontier Imperialist Examples American Nationalism
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) Builds American Nationalism Causes 1. Despotic Spanish rule of Cuba Spain denied civil liberties & political rights Levied heavy taxes & restricted foreign trade Ruthlessly suppressed rebellions Finally abolished slavery in 1886 Economic depression brings another Cuban revolt for Independence
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) 2. American Humanitarianism & sympathy Sympathy 200,000+ Cubans died in concentration camps
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) 3. Economic Interests American trade w/ Cuba = +$100 mil/year Investors place $50 mil in sugar & tobacco plantations
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) 4. “Yellow Journalism” William Randolph Hearst (NY Journal) & Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) Sensationalized new stories Hearst’s Journal printed the Delome Letter (the Spanish Ambassador called President McKinley “weak” – America outraged)
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) 5. Sinking of the Maine (Feb 1898) 260 Americans killed Cause: (most likely) fire in a coal bin American public blames SPAIN Battle Cry “Remember the Maine, to HELL with Spain!”
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) POTUS McKinley demands Spain end camps & negotiate w/ rebels April 11, 1898: McKinley > Congress > Cuba Congress approves 4-20, recognizes Cuba’s independence from Spain Congress adopts the Teller Amendment (1898) Made before the Span-Am War! U.S. could not annex Cuba U.S. must “leave control of island to its People”
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) (John Hay – Open Door Policy) “a splendid little war.” Several Months long #1 killer of U.S. Troops = Disease, Bad Food End Result = U.S. has global “empire”
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) Major Military Events Commodore George Dewey destroys one Spanish fleet in Manila Bay (Philippines) on June 1 st, 1898 Manila (capital) captured 2 days later (Despite losing thousands to malaria & other diseases) American & Cuban forces wear down Spanish San Jan Hill (most famous land battle) made popular by charge of Rough Riders on Spanish forces, led by Theodore Roosevelt Fighting ends on July 3 w/ destruction of Spanish fleet @ Santiago Bay
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) U.S. annexes Hawaii Treaty of Paris 1898 ends Span-Am War. Terms: Cuba Independent Puerto Rico & Guam “given” to U.S. Philippines sold to U.S. for $20 mil.
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) Platt Amendment (supersedes the Teller Amendment) – Post War Cuba must accept P.A. for the U.S. to withdraw Cuba could not allow foreign powers to control it U.S. could lease land for naval base, Guantanamo Bay
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898) Cuba = protectorate of the US
PHILIPPINES PRO-AnnexationANTI-Annexation Educate Filipinos “Uplift” Filipinos “Civilize” Filipinos Violated the D.o.I Denied Self-Government to new territories Introduced more racial tension
PHILIPPINES Filipinos - guerilla war for independence The “Bolo War” The Filipino Rebellion Philippine-American War Lasts 3 years. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Philippines independence not recognized by U.S. until Treaty of Manila in 1946.
PANAMA Isthmus Originally part of Colombia, U.S. naval help Canal Permission Original canal site: Nicaragua French attempt (bankruptcy)
PANAMA Why build canal? Reduced NY—San Francisco trip by over 50% 13,000 mi to 5,200 mi
PANAMA Canal Stats.: 51 mi. long Avg. width 492 ft 6 locks Canal Zone: 10 mi 27,500 workers died (mostly from disease)
ROOSEVELT COROLLARY Attempted to put some “teeth” in the Monroe Doctrine U.S. will use military to enforce the Monroe Doctrine To “police” the W. Hemisphere
TWO TYPES OF DIPLOMACY Gunboat Diplomacy Dollar Diplomacy AKA “Big Stick” Diplomacy Pursuit of nation’s interests with implied use of force Using nation’s economic power to influence other countries Associated with Taft & subsequent presidents
U.S. INTERVENTIONS IN LATIN AMERICA Cuba – occupied from 1898-1902, intervened again militarily in 1906, 1909, 1917, and 1961 Dominican Republic – occupied from 1916-1924, U.S. protectorate from 1905-1940. U.S. later sent troops to D.R. in 1965. Nicaragua – military & political interventions in 1909, 1912-1925, 1927-1933, and in the 1970s & 1980s Mexico – military interventions during the Mexican Civil War (1916) Colombia – 1903, est. secessionist movement in N.W. Colombia (Panama), which came under U.S. control (later: site of Panama Canal)
WILSON’S FOREIGN POLICIES Panama Canals Tolls Act of 1912: U.S. ships use Panama Canal toll-free. Wilson convinced Congress to repeal Act Nationalists (like Roosevelt) angered British approved Jones Act of 1916: Provided for eventual Filipino independence Philippines a full-fledged U.S. territory Universal male suffrage Jones Act of 1917: Citizenship rights to all Puerto Ricans Democratic improvement to P.R. legislative system