Presentation on theme: "US History: Goal 6 The Emergence of the United States in World Affairs (1890-1914)"— Presentation transcript:
US History: Goal 6 The Emergence of the United States in World Affairs ( )
Imperialism Policy by which strong nations extend their political, military and economic control over weaker territories/nations. Powers: GB, Portugal, Spain, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, US Powerless: Africa, Asia (Pacific Rim) and South/Latin America
Foundation of US Imperialist Foreign Policy 1.Americans believed that growth of US economy depended on exports. (Economic extraction) 2.US had a right to intervene to keep foreign markets open. 3.Closing an area to US products, citizens or ideas threatens US survival.
Roots of Imperialism Alfred T. Mahan: Admiral Mahan urged the US to strengthen the navy to compete with other nations, would be a key component of US imperialism Josiah Strong: religious missionary, argued that Americans had a responsibility to spread Western values…”Christianize and civilize” Social Darwinism: the belief that life consists of competitive struggles in which only the fittest survive. “White Man’s Burden”: Title of poem by Rudyard Kipling, which essentially says that the white man has the burden of helping others to become civilized Anglo-Saxon superiority: Belief that the Anglo-Saxon people were a superior race and thus could impose its beliefs on others “Jingoism”: Aggressive Nationalism, US Foreign Policy that was backed by its military strength Seward’s “Icebox/Folly”: Name given to Alaska when Seward attempted to purchase it by swaying the House of Representatives. US eventually purchased it and became a key point towards the US being a World Power
The First Steps… Commodore Matthew Perry sails warships into present day Tokyo Bay, setting a precedent for further expansion across the Pacific. –1867 U.S. gained possession of Midway Islands –1875 & 1887 treaties increased trade with Hawaii
Seward Purchases Alaska 1867, Secretary of State William Seward buys Alaska from Russia for $17.2 million Journalists called it “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Icebox” Doubled the U.S. land size, and the “icebox” turned out to be rich with natural resources.
The Annexation of Hawaii Hawaii and the U.S. had been economically linked for a century. –Merchant ships stopped on way to Asia –Missionaries established Christian churches –Americans had established sugarcane plantations.
Annexation of Hawaii 1890s new U.S. Tariff imposed on Hawaiian Sugar –Hawaiian sugar is now more expensive, planters fear sales and profits will decrease. –American Planters and Officials overthrow Queen Liliuokalani (Hawaiian nationalist) with help from the Marines. –New government was led by wealthy planter, Sanford B. Dole –1897 new president William McKinley was in favor of annexation, 1898 Congress proclaimed Hawaii official U.S. territory.
The Spanish American War Cuba was a colony of Spain American planters were investing millions of dollars into sugarcane plantations. Cuba was very unstable, Cubans constantly rebelled against the Spanish rule. In 1895, Jose Marti launched a revolution using guerilla warfare.
The media played a major role in American opinion of the fighting in Cuba (Pulitzer and Hearst) –Yellow Journalism: newspapers that used headlines and exaggerated stories in order to promote readership. President McKinley orders U.S.S. Maine to Havana harbor to protect American citizens in Cuba Enrique Dupuy de Lome- Spanish minister to the U.S. wrote a private letter that described McKinley as a weak and stupid politician. Jingoism: aggressive nationalism “REMEMBER THE MAINE”
The Spanish American War The U.S. naval board found that a mine destroyed the Maine The Yellow Press quickly accused Spain of blowing up the Maine On April 20, Congress declares war on Spain.
Spanish American War (1898) Commodore George Dewey: Defeats the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay and leads to Spain’s surrender of the Philippines. Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders: Famous regiment of former cowboys and college athletes that successfully charged up San Juan Hill. Became immortalized in the newspapers and gained Teddy Roosevelt lots of fame before his presidency. “Splendid Little War”: John Hay’s name for this war and what it did for the US’s power.
After the War Teller Amendment: Passed when war was declared on Spain. Essentially kept the US from taking possession of Cuba but said nothing about the Philippines. Platt Amendment: Amendment to Cuba’s constitution that restricted the rights of the newly formed nation. Cuba could not sign a treaty without US consent. It allowed for US navy base in Cuba (Gitmo). Gave US right to intervene in affairs to keep control. Treaty of Paris (1898): Ends Sp-Am War. Spain gives up Cuba, Puerto Rico and Guam. Sells the Philippines for $20 million
Anti-Imperialist League Group of Americans that opposed US imperialist policies. Included prominent Americans such as Grover Cleveland, Andrew Carnegie, Jane Addams and leading writers like Mark Twain. Group had differing views, but all agreed that “it was wrong to rule others without their consent”
The U.S. and East Asia The Filipinos rebelled against U.S. rule, they thought that the U.S. understood their desire to be independent. Filipino rebels were led by Emilio Aquinaldo –5,000 dead Americans –200,000 dead Filipinos –War cost $400,000,000 (purchased $20 mil.) 1901 William Taft became governor, rebuilt the nation’s infrastructure congress passed the Jones Act, declared over time that the Philippines would eventually gain its independence.
U.S. and China 1899 the once mighty China had fallen into political, economic, and military disarray. Powerful world nations were looking to profit from Chinese resources and trade. “Rather than compete for Chinese trade, Britain, France, Germany, and Russia carved China into spheres of influence.
In China, Boxer Rebellion occurs, as the Boxers wanted to dispel all “foreign devils,” but the rebellion is put down. Open Door Policy- American statement that the government did not want colonies in China, but favored free trade there.
U.S. & Latin America Puerto Rico Foraker Act (1900)- established a civil government, the President of the U.S. could appoint a governor and part of the legislature. The citizens would vote on the rest in a general election. Cuba Though independent, U.S. army did not withdraw until Upon withdrawal, the U.S. required Cuba to include the Platt Amendment to its constitution. 1.prevented Cuba from signing a treaty with another nation without American approval. 2.Lease naval stations to the U.S. 3.Gave the U.S. the “right to intervene” to preserve order in Cuba.
Group Activity Define the following: Military Diplomacy (a.k.a. Gunboat or “Big Stick” diplomacy), Dollar Diplomacy and Moral/Missionary Diplomacy. 4 different groups will create a chart of the following 4 presidents: McKinley ( ), Roosevelt ( ), Taft ( ) and Wilson ( ). On your chart, list what kind of diplomacy they used (can be more than one), where they used it and what were the results of the use of diplomacy including treaties, amendments, intervention, etc. Your charts should be very detailed as you are working in a group and you are only doing 1 president each.
Diplomacies Military (“Big Stick”/Gunboat): use of military force to achieve political and economic foreign policy goals Dollar: use of investment of US dollars in a country to achieve foreign policy goals Moral/Missionary: use of integrity, morals and protection of rights to promote foreign policy goals
McKinley ( ) Military Diplomacy and also “Open Door Policy” (notes John Hay sent to powers in China to “share” equally in the rich trade there) Used it in Hawaii (Marine intervention in overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani) and in the Spanish-American War (in Cuba and the Philippines). “Open Door” used in China so US would not get shut out of China’s market. Results: US annexes HI. The Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam are gained after the Spanish American War. The US also protects over Cuba as a result of the war.
Roosevelt ( ) Big Stick Diplomacy and Dollar Diplomacy (also assisted in Treaty of Portsmouth, which ended Russo-Japanese War) Used “Big Stick” Diplomacy in Columbia to assist Panamanian Revolution to insure Panama Canal would be built, Used “Big Stick” in the Filipino-American War to put down Filipino Revolution Used Dollar Diplomacy in areas of Latin America by referencing the Monroe Doctrine with the Roosevelt Corollary (US would intervene and “police” Latin America upon Europe’s behalf to ensure repayment of debts). Results: Panama Canal is constructed and US leases Panama Canal Zone. Philippines is annexed and controlled. Latin America is watched over by the Roosevelt Corollary.
Taft ( ) Dollar Diplomacy but also had to use Military Used first in Nicaragua and later other parts of Caribbean. Meant to keep these nations out of debt to Europe, but made the US intervene when they couldn’t pay their bills Results: Created resentment in Latin America because US is now heavily meddling into their affairs
Wilson ( ) Moral/Missionary Diplomacy and Military Diplomacy Used in Mexico. Mexico had series of revolutions. Revolutions were not in best interests of US business interests there. Wilson sent troops to Mexico to support a Mexican gov’t favorable to US business. Pancho Villa rebels against this action and begins guerilla raids into US. John J. Pershing is sent to stop Villa. Pershing eventually recalled by Wilson for use in WWI and Mexico eventually writes new Constitution with limited foreign investment allowed. Tried to improve relations elsewhere in Latin America by attempting to use moral diplomacy. Results: US showed that it would take far reaching steps to ensure it got what it wanted politically and economically. Leads to much resentment in the LA and Caribbean because of constant US intervention.
Impact of Imperialism The race of the world powers for control of colonies leads to growing resentment The growing resentment leads to mistrust The mistrust leads to a build of military power to protect interests Military build up leads to secret alliances between nations Eventually this will spill over and cause WWI.