Presentation on theme: "Jefferson’s Presidency MRS. INGRAM. New Policies When Jefferson took office, his followers preached a ‘republican revolution’ in governmental policies."— Presentation transcript:
New Policies When Jefferson took office, his followers preached a ‘republican revolution’ in governmental policies. This was because of his governmental practices. He was a Democratic-Republican, so the practices of former Federalists were changed. Jefferson’s main goal was to bring down federal debt. He cut the debt from $80 mil to $59 mil.
John Marshall John Marshall became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court when Jefferson took office. In his 35 years, he heard over 1,000 cases and set 4 main precedents that would define his legacy. Power of judicial review – review acts of Congress; Federal laws were superior to state laws; Believed in the implied powers of the Constitution; Believed in limiting the power of state gov to interfere in business contracts.
Marbury v. Madison (1803) First court case to assert the power of judicial review. William Marbury was appointed under John Adams as one of his ‘midnight judges’. His papers were not delivered by Jefferson’s Secretary of State, James Madison. Marbury claimed the Supreme Court had the power to order Madison to deliver his papers under the Judiciary Act of 1789; Marshall disagreed. This is the only time Marshall declared a federal law (Judiciary Act of 1789) unconstitutional.
The Nation Expands Since one of the Democratic-Republican ideals was an economy based on farming, Jefferson saw a need for increased area to grow these crops on. Jefferson sought to expand to the Pacific, first conquering the Louisiana Territory, owned by Spain. However, Napoleon had claimed the land from Spain, making it much more difficult to claim (Jefferson thought). The Haitian rebellion had squashed France’s dreams of establishing a colony in North America. Jefferson purchased the territory from France for $15 million. He then sent two men ( Meriwether Lewis and William Clark ) to explore the new land.
Foreign Problems Jefferson had to send a small navy to northern Africa to stop the Barbary pirates from seizing American ships. The U.S. needed overseas markets to sell their surpluses of goods. The U.S. adopted a policy of re-export, in which American ships would bring French goods from the Caribbean to the U.S. be re-labelled as American, and sent overseas past the British blockade. The U.S. became Britain’s greatest market competition, and aided the French economy.
Foreign Problems (cont’d) Jefferson also faced the problem of British ships seizing U.S. merchants and forcing them to serve in the British military. This was known as impressment. The problems with the British grew, and Jefferson knew the U.S.’ navy was not strong enough to take on Great Britain’s. Jefferson asked Congress for an embargo (a stoppage in trade) on Great Britain. Great Britain was able to start a successful trade with South America, so U.S. merchants suffered most of all.
Gearing Up for War Jefferson ended the embargo just before he left office in 1808. Congress replaced it with the Nonintercourse Act of 1809. Trade would resume with whomever lifted shipping restrictions on the U.S. A year later, Macon’s Bill #2 was passed to further entice trade. Not only would the U.S. resume trade with the country who lifted restrictions, but they would refuse to trade with the opposing country.
Conflict with Native Americans Conflict in the western territories had been growing and the British were still supplying Native Americans with weapons. The Native Americans distrusted the U.S. government because of their broken treaties, so they turned to Britain as an ally. The Native Americans were led by the warrior Tecumseh, who sought to recruit supporters across the U.S. Ultimately, William Henry Harrison emerged as a military leader at the Battle of Tippecanoe. This would be the first major victory of Native Americans.
War Hawks Young politicians who called for war were known as War Hawks. These men wanted to pursue war as a means of regaining national honor lost by impressment. They believed attacking Canada was the best option because it was sparsely populated and it would cut off the weapons supply to Native Americans in the West. Once they had taken Canada, they believed it could be used as leverage to gain greater maritime access.
War Breaks Out Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war in June, 1812. The country was divided over war, though, so it did not have overwhelming support. Support for the war waxed and waned as the U.S. military encountered both successes and failures on the battlefield. Successes defeat over the Native Americans; naval victories (esp. on Lake Erie ) Failures were never able to invade Canada; were forced to surrender Detroit at the beginning of the war; British burned Washington D.C.
Significant Battles Battle of Fort McHenry After the British had burned D.C., they turned their attention to Baltimore (where Fort McHenry was located). They were unable to capture the fort. This is the battle were Francis Scott Key penned the poem which would later become the Star Spangled Banner. Battle of New Orleans Considered the greatest victory of the War of 1812; took place in January of 1815… the war had been over for two weeks. Andrew Jackson became a noted war veteran for the heavy casualties suffered by the British (2,036 to 71).
Treaty of Ghent Both sides’ military failures made it difficult to justify continuing as the war progressed. The two sides decided to revert to prewar boundaries, with each side ‘returning’ territory seized during the war. They also agreed to set up a commission to settle all further boundary disputes. Many Americans saw the Treaty of Ghent as an outright victory because news came so quickly after word of Jackson’s victory at New Orleans.
Hartford Convention During the war, many New England Federalists spoke out openly against the war. They convened in Hartford to discuss whether or not they should secede and make peace with Britain on their own. Instead of secession, they demanded amendments be put in place to strengthen the power of New England states. Their demands were received just as the war ended– making them laughable to the American public. Support for the Federalist Party declined and in a few years, the party no longer existed.
Cause and Effect of the War of 1812 Causes Britain interfered with U.S. shipping British interference in American expansion westward (arming Native Americans) Southerners want Florida (held by Britain’s ally, Spain) War Hawks want Britain completely out of N. America Effects Demonstrated a need for a strong standing army/navy Spurred American nationalism Eventual demise of the Federalist Party Eventual acquisition of Florida
Review Today’s Topics 1) What was Jefferson’s main goal as president? a) To eliminate the threat of Native Americans b) To restore the British monarchy c) To reduce the national debt d) To acquire the Louisiana Territory 2) Why did Jefferson look to acquire the Louisiana Territory? a) To acquire more land for farming b) To acquire more land for Native Americans c) To remove the influence of the Spanish from North America d) To acquire more land for industries 3) Why is the election of 1800 seen as a 'republican revolution'? a) Jefferson was the first Federalist to be elected b) Jefferson focused his policies around a loose interpretation of the Constitution c) Jefferson policies reflected the ideals of his political party d) The election signified the start of the War of 1812
Review Today’s Topics 1) Which of the following is NOT a cause of the War of 1812? a) British impressment b) Southerners' desire to acquire first period c) War Hawks desire to remove the British from North America d) The disbanding of the Federalist Party 2) Which general emerged as a war hero following the Battle of New Orleans? a) William Henry Harrison b) Andrew Jackson c) Tecumseh d) Thomas Jefferson Ticket-out-the-door : Could the War of 1812 be considered a 'second war for independence'? Why or why not?