ACCOMMODATION Definition: supports intended to help a student fully access the general-education curriculum without changing the instructional content. Example: Preferential seating, Prompting, Extended time, Supplementing reading with audio book A 504 Plan typically includes accommodations but no modifications
MODIFICATION Definition: change in the expectations of what a student is expected to know or do – typically by lowering the academic expectations against which the student will be evaluated. Examples: reducing number of multiple-choice items on a test, shortened spelling list. Modifications are typically available only through Special Education/EC services
INTERVENTION Definition: a strategy used to teach new skills, build fluency in a skill, or encourage a student to generalize a skill to new situations. It requires a change in instructional approach. When displaying lack of progress=intensify or increase instruction (i.e. duration, frequency) Avert future delays which reduce overall academic attainment, potentially resulting in lack of proficiency and placement into special education Supplemental to core instruction Examples: Paired Reading, Scaffolding, Behavior Plan
INTERVENTION EXAMPLES STUDENT is working with WHO on WHAT WHEN using these strategies HOW… Jose is working with Ms. Baker on Letter Sounds 2 x’s per week for 15 minutes using flashcards and FCRR games. Lauren is working with the classroom teacher 2x’s per week for 20 minutes using Accelerated Math Grade Level 1, Problem Solving. Bethany is self-monitoring her progress on the skills of following directions and raising her hand to ask for help. She will review daily progress with her teacher and color in one marble on her marble jar sheet. One completed row of marbles will earn her 10 minutes of computer time. Henry is going to Title I 3x’s per week for 30 minutes to work on Reading Fluency. Strategies being used include repeated readings, paired readings and activities from FCRR
FINDING THE TARGET -Identify struggling learners through regular universal screenings -Identify target skills and link intervention to skill deficit -Create realistic, reasonable and measurable goals -Determine method to be used for progress monitoring -Set standards for fidelity of implementation (accountability)
“WHAT? I THOUGHT I WAS IMPLEMENTING THE INTERVENTION WITH FIDELITY!!!!”
EVIDENCE-BASED VS. RESEARCH-BASED WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
EVIDENCE BASED Technical Definition: strategies, teaching methodologies and supports that have been shown through one or more valid research studies to help a student improve academic, behavioral/emotional or functional skills. The interventions used prior to determining eligibility for special education and related services must be designed to address the skill deficiency of the particular individual student.
THERE IS A DIFFERENCE! Research-Based: There is a body of research demonstrating that a component of the intervention has been found to be critical in the instruction of a particular skill. For ex., a program includes instruction in phonemic awareness…and research has proven that phonemic awareness is a critical component of reading and reading instruction Evidence-Based: A program or approach has been EVALUATED to determine its’ efficacy. For ex., PATR has been found to increase the phonemic awareness of students in first grade; Direct Instruction in reading has been found to be the most effective remedial intervention approach. We want to use evidence-based practices when possible, followed by research based-practices.
Evidence-based instruction should include the following: Instruction matched to student need with increasingly intensive levels of targeted intervention and instruction for students who do not make satisfactory progress in their levels of performance and/or in their rate of learning to meet age or grade level standards Repeated assessments of student achievement which should include curriculum measures to determine if interventions are resulting in student progress toward age or grade level standards.
TEACHER FAMILIARITY WITH INSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES: EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION According to the National Center for Reading First Technical Assistance (2006), explicit instruction is “instruction that is concrete and visible. The teacher explains new concepts and strategies in clear and concise language. Explicit instruction involves modeling and explaining concepts and skills using many examples. Teachers provide a high level of support as students practice and apply newly learned concepts” (p. 2).
SYSTEMATIC INSTRUCTION Systematic instruction is instruction that is predesigned to follow a particular sequence of steps, providing students with a very high degree of teacher support during early stages of instruction, or during intervention (National Center for Reading First Technical Assistance, 2005).
MODELING OF SKILLS Skill modeling is a process directly linked to the concept of explicit instruction, wherein ambiguity regarding desired outcomes of instruction is reduced through clear demonstration.
OPPORTUNITY FOR REPEATED PRACTICE The provision of opportunities for repeated practice not only allows for greater student application of skill, but for the provision of corrective feedback. In general, more than one opportunity to practice newly learned skills should be presented. Students should be allowed opportunities to practice skills immediately after each step of instruction. The use of choral responding (group responding) is a prominent aspect of repeated practice, increasing the proportion of students who are able to practice and receive corrective feedback (National Center for Reading First Technical Assistance, 2005).
CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK Corrective feedback provision is a multi-step process linked to repeated practice. In general, the provision of corrective feedback entails affirmations, immediate feedback featuring modeling of the correct response, limiting discussion to the task at hand, and checking for mastery of all students before moving to the next task (National Center for Reading First Technical Assistance, 2005).
INCREASING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Engagement in instruction encompasses both independent and whole group activities. Ensuring that all students receive instruction in independent and seat work policies and procedures is a critical first step in enhancing engagement. Further, modeling assignments and monitoring student understanding of assigned tasks, while also encouraging students to independently call upon previously learned strategies while completing assignments, are strong means of managing engagement. The role of task completion with accuracy should be the overall emphasis of procedures to increase student engagement.
PROGRESS MONITORING A scientifically based practice used to assess students academic performance and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction and/or specific interventions. Progress monitoring can be implemented with individual students or an entire class. Examples: -DIBELS; STAR; AIMSWEB -CBM Reading: Words read correct in one minute -CBM Written Expression: Correct word sequences given a story starter, 30 seconds to think, and 3 minutes to write. -CBM Math Applications: mixed math computation and applied problems in 10 minutes
JUST THE FACTS, PLEASE The student’s baseline academic performance. Prior to starting the intervention, the teacher calculates baseline performance by assessing the target student several times with the academic measure that will be used to measure that student’s progress once the intervention begins. Estimate of ‘typical’ peer performance. The teacher has a reliable estimate of expected or typical peer performance on the academic measure that will be used to measure the target student’s progress. Estimate of expected weekly progress. The teacher selects a rate of weekly academic progress that the target student is expected to attain if the intervention is successful.
IS THE HUNT FOR EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS MAKING YOU CRAZY???
RESOURCES Florida Center for Reading Research Texas Reading What Works Clearinghouse Best Evidence Encyclopedia Oregon Reading First (review of contents in reference to Big 5 in reading only) Research: National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD: Assessment/Progress Monitoring: DIBELS (http://dibels.uoregon.edu/)http://dibels.uoregon.edu Skillbuilders – Reading, Spelling, and Math (Sopris West: Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI: Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support: PBISFACTShttp://www.pbis.org/files/FACTS.doc)http://www.pbis.org/files/FACTS.doc Intervention Central (www.interventioncentral.org)www.interventioncentral.org
RESOURCES AIMSWEB (www.aimsweb.com)www.aimsweb.com Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (“ACES” - Harcourt Brace: Academic Intervention Monitoring System (“AIMS” – Harcourt Brace: Data Management: DIBELS (http://dibels.uoregon.edu/)http://dibels.uoregon.edu/ AIMSWEB (www.aimsweb.com)www.aimsweb.com Intervention Central (www.interventioncentral.org)www.interventioncentral.org
RESOURCES Interventions: Intervention Central (www.interventioncentral.org)(www.interventioncentral.org What Works Clearinghouse (US Dept of Education – Research Reviews on Drop-out Prevention, English Language Learners, Character Education and Middle School Math – )http://www.whatworks.ed.gov The Florida Center for Reading Research The Watson Institute (thewatsoninstitute.org\teacher-resources)thewatsoninstitute.org\teacher-resources