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End Show Slide 1 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "End Show Slide 1 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 End Show Slide 1 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology

2 End Show Slide 2 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

3 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 3 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Eukaryotic Cell Structures Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform important cellular functions are known as organelles. Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic cell into two major parts: the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The Cytoplasm is the portion of the cell outside the nucleus.

4 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 4 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Eukaryotic Cell Structures Plant Cell Nuclear envelope Ribosome (free) Ribosome (attached) Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus Vacuole Nucleolus Nucleus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Cell wall Cell membrane Chloroplast

5 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 5 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Eukaryotic Cell Structures Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome (free) Ribosome (attached) Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Rough endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane Nucleus Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Centrioles Animal Cell

6 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 6 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nucleus What is the function of the nucleus?

7 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 7 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nucleus The nucleus is the control center of the cell. The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules.

8 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 8 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Nucleus The Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Nuclear pores Chromatin

9 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 9 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ribosomes What is the function of the ribosomes?

10 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 10 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ribosomes One of the most important jobs carried out in the cell is making proteins. Proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Ribosomes are small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm.

11 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 11 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Endoplasmic Reticulum What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?

12 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 12 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum There are two types of ER—rough and smooth.

13 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 13 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Golgi Apparatus What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?

14 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 14 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Golgi Apparatus The Golgi apparatus appears as a stack of closely apposed membranes.

15 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 15 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Golgi Apparatus What is the function of lysosomes?

16 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 16 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vacuoles What is the function of vacuoles?

17 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 17 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vacuoles In many plant cells there is a single, large central vacuole filled with liquid. Vacuole

18 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 18 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vacuoles Vacuoles are also found in some unicellular organisms and in some animals. The paramecium contains a contractile vacuole that pumps excess water out of the cell. Contractile vacuole

19 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 19 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitochondria and Chloroplasts What is the function of the mitochondria?

20 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 20 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Mitochondrion Mitochondria Nearly all eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria. Mitochondria convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.

21 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 21 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitochondria and Chloroplasts What is the function of chloroplasts?

22 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 22 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Chloroplast Chloroplasts Plants and some other organisms contain chloroplasts. Chloroplasts capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.

23 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 23 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cytoskeleton What are the functions of the cytoskeleton?

24 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 24 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. The cytoskeleton is also involved in movement. The cytoskeleton is made up of: microfilaments microtubules

25 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 25 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cytoskeleton Ribosomes Mitochondrion Endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane Microtubule Microfilament

26 End Show 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Slide 26 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cytoskeleton Centrioles are located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division. Cell Organelle Interactive Plant and Animal Model Interactive

27 End Show - or - Continue to: Click to Launch: Slide 27 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 7-2

28 End Show Slide 28 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 7-2 In the nucleus of a cell, the DNA is usually visible as a.a dense region called the nucleolus. b.the nuclear envelope. c.granular material called chromatin. d.condensed bodies called chloroplasts.

29 End Show Slide 29 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 7-2 Two functions of vacuoles are storing materials and helping to a.break down organelles. b.assemble proteins. c.maintain homeostasis. d.make new organelles.

30 End Show Slide 30 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 7-2 Chloroplasts are found in the cells of a.plants only. b.plants and some other organisms. c.all eukaryotes. d.most prokaryotes.

31 End Show Slide 31 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 7-2 Which of the following is NOT a function of the Golgi apparatus? a.synthesize proteins. b.modify proteins. c.sort proteins. d.package proteins.

32 End Show Slide 32 of 49 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 7-2 Which of the following is a function of the cytoskeleton? a.manufactures new cell organelles b.assists in movement of some cells from one place to another c.releases energy in cells d.modifies, sorts, and packages proteins

33 END OF SECTION


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