2The AtmosphereThe atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet, such as Earth.Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases are all parts of this mixture.Gases can be added to and removed from the atmosphere through living organisms. For example, animals remove oxygen when they breathe in and add carbon dioxide when they breathe out.
3The Atmosphere The atmosphere insulates Earth’s surface. This insulation slows the rate at which the Earth’s surface loses heat and keeps Earth temperature at which living things can survive.
4Composition of the Atmosphere Nitrogen makes up 78 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere, and enters the atmosphere when volcanoes erupt and when dead plants and animals decay.Oxygen is the second most abundant gas in the atmosphere and is primarily produced by plants.In addition to gases, the atmosphere contains many types of tiny, solid particles, or atmospheric dust.
5Layers of The Atmosphere The atmosphere is divided into four layers based on temperature changes that occur at different distances above the Earth’s surface.The TroposphereThe StratosphereThe MesosphereThe Thermosphere
6The TroposphereThe troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere in which temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases.This is the part of the atmosphere where weather conditions exist.The troposphere is Earth’s densest atmospheric layer and extends to 18 km above Earth’s surface.
7The StratosphereThe stratosphere is the layer of the atmosphere that lies immediately above the troposphere and extends from about 10 to 50 km above the Earth’s surface increases.Temperature rises as altitude increases because ozone in the stratosphere absorbs the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) energy and warms the air.
8Ozone Ozone is a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms. Almost all of the ozone in the atmosphere is concentrated in the stratosphere.Because ozone absorbs UV radiation, it reduces amount of UV radiation that reaches the Earth. UV radiation that does reach Earth can damage living cells.
9The Mesosphere The layer above the stratosphere is the mesosphere. This layer extends to an altitude of about 80 km.This is the coldest layer of the atmosphere where temperatures have been measured as low as –93ºC.
10The ThermosphereThe atmospheric layer located farthest from Earth’s surface is the thermosphere.Here, nitrogen and oxygen absorb solar radiation resulting in temperatures measuring above 2,000 ºC.The air in the thermosphere is so thin that air particles rarely collide, so little heat is transferred, and would therefore not feel hot to us.
12Heating of the Atmosphere About half of the solar energy that enters the atmosphere passes through it and reaches the Earth’s surface, while the rest of the energy is absorbed or reflected in the atmosphere by clouds, gases, and dust or it is reflected by Earth’s surface.The Earth does not continue to get warmer because the oceans and the land radiate the absorbed energy back into the atmosphere.Because the ocean both absorbs and releases heat slower than land, the temperature of the atmosphere changes more slowly.
13Movement of Air in the Atmosphere As a current of air, warmed by Earth’s surface, rises into the atmosphere, it begins to cool, and eventually becomes more dense the air around it and sinks. This current then moves back toward the Earth until heated and less dense and then begins to rise again.The continual process of warm air rising and cool air sinking moves air in a circular motion is called a convection current.
15WeatherTemporary behavior of atmosphere (what’s going on at any certain time)Small geographic areaCan change rapidly15
16Climate Long-term behavior of atmosphere (100+ years) Large geographic areaVery slow to change16
17Air Masses Body of air with a certain temperature and moisture level As it moves, the characteristics of an air mass change and so does the weather.Can be warm(T) or cold(P)Can contain a lot of moisture(m) or not a lot of moisture(c)Named according to their source region.Ex: cP, mT17
19Fronts places where air masses meet 4 Types: Warm, Cold, Occluded, StationaryEach kind can bring different kinds of weather19
20FrontsWarm Front – warm air moves into an area occupied by cooler air, Brings warmer temperatures and precipitation,Cold Front – cold, dense air moves into a region occupied by warmer air, leads to heavy downpours and gusty winds20
21FrontsStationary Front – flow of air is neither toward cold or warm air massOccluded Front – an active cold front takes overtakes a warm front; complex weather patternStationary FrontOccluded Front21
22How does Air Pressure affect weather? Pressure exerted by weight of air above it. Exerted in ALL directionsMeasured with a BAROMETERIf it CHANGES, then new weather is on the way:Falling Air Pressure = stormy weather comingRising Air Pressure = fair weather comingSteady Air Pressure = no change is coming22
23Winds = horizontal movement of air created from differences in air pressure Moves from areas of HIGH to LOW pressureGreater the difference in pressure, the FASTER the wind blowsLabeled from which direction they blow23
25Pressure Centers and Winds Cyclones – centers of low pressure; pressure decreases from outer isobars toward the center.Anticyclones – centers of high pressure; pressure increases from outside toward center25
26Severe StormsThunderstorms – form when warm, humid air rises in an unstable environment; produce gusty winds and heavy precipitationTornadoes – violent windstorms that take the form of a rotating column of air called a vortex. Vortex extends downward from a cumulonimbus cloud.U.S per year; most form in association with severe thunderstormsHurricane – a whirling tropical cyclone that produces wind of at least 119 km/h; most powerful severe storm; develops when water temps. are warm enough to provide the necessary heat and moisture in the air26
27Humidity Humidity – amount of water vapor in the air Controlled by temperature1. Warm air holds more moisture than cool air (more space for water vapor between air molecules)2. As air warms, relative humidity decreases3. As air cools, relative humidity increases27
28Relative HumidityMeasure of the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air could holdHow “full” of water the air isExpressed as %100% relative humidity = saturated air28
29Dew PointDew point is the temperature the moisture in the air will condense to liquid water.Higher dew point= more humid.29
30Dew point and human comfort Dew point F°Human ComfortOver 80Severely high. Even deadly for asthma related illnesses75-79Extremely uncomfortable70-74Quite uncomfortable65-69Somewhat uncomfortable60-64Ok, but feels humid55-59Comfortable50-54Very comfortableLess than 49Dry
31Human Impact on the Atmosphere Air pollution Global warmingAcid rain Ozone DamageSmog
32Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Human Impact on the Environment Air pollutionHuman activity produces two main types of air pollutant:noxious gases – Include carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).particulates – Tiny particles suspended in air (e.g. smoke) and are usually produced by the combustion of fossil fuels.Air pollution has been a major problem since the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th Century, and has been made worse by humans’ reliance on burning fossil fuels for energy.Air pollution, global warming, acid rain, damage to the ozone layer and smog. Each of these has serious implications for the environment and human health.32
33Greenhouse EffectThe greenhouse effect is the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation.Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth would be too cold for life to exist.
34Greenhouse EffectThe gases in the atmosphere that trap and radiate heat are called greenhouse gases.The most abundant greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, although none exist in high concentrations.The quantities of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere vary considerable as a result of natural and industrial processes.
35Global warming and greenhouse gases Boardworks GCSE Science: BiologyHuman Impact on the EnvironmentGlobal warming and greenhouse gasesOne of the greatest threats caused by air pollution is global warming. Global warming is caused by a build-up of greenhouses gases, which leads to an increase in the Earth’s temperature. Other effects include bizarre weather patterns, and melting of polar ice capsKey greenhouses gases include:carbon dioxidemethanewater vapournitrous oxide35
36Acid PrecipitationCaused by the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide from factoriesEffects include soil erosion, death of animals and vegetation, erosion of buildings
37Ozone Depletion Caused by the use of coolants and aerosol cans Effects include increased UV radiation, skin cancer and eye disorders