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Classical Civilizations

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Presentation on theme: "Classical Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classical Civilizations
Classical Greece Rome Byzantine Empire and Russia

2 Essential Questions How did the location of the Minoan and Mycenaean peoples shape their civilizations? How did war and democracy shape societies in Ancient Greece?

3 Vocabulary Polis Acropolis Agora Helots Hoplites Hubris Democracy
Solon Tyrant Cleisthenes Direct Democracy Archon Phalanx Pericles

4 Polis City-State Basic Political Unit of Greece

5 Acropolis High area of the city Usually housed the temple to the gods

6 Agora Public places in the city such as the marketplace

7 Helots Slaves of the state in Sparta

8 Hoplites Foot soldiers in the Army of Sparta

9 Hubris Great Pride of Heroes in Greek Myths
Often brought them to their end as a lesson to other Greeks not to overstretch their abilities

10 Democracy Government of Athens where government was run by the people

11 Solon Allowed all of the men of Athens to participate in the Assembly as members of juries Only the wealthy could be elected to office

12 Tyrant Strong man that seizes power by force

13 Cleisthenes Reformed the government of Athens by dividing it into 10 districts that elected representatives

14 Direct Democracy All citizens vote directly on an issue

15 Archon Elected Official that served as the Chief of State of Athens for a period of one year

16 Phalanx Tight rectangle formation of troops

17 Pericles Most influential leader of Athens for many years

18 Map of Ancient Greece Ionian Sea Aegean Sea Black Sea Sparta Messene
Argos Olympia Peloponnesus Corinth Megara Athens Delphi Thebes Delos Macedonia Knossos Sardis Ephesus Byzantium

19 Early Greece Location Government Ruler Minos Mycenaea Corinth Athens
What were the gods of Greek Mythology like? Why did the Ancient Greeks create myths? Why did the Greeks create stories about heroes?

20 The Classical Age Rulers Problems Solutions Draco Solon Peisistratus

21 Quiz 1 Pick 5 Polis Acropolis Agora Helots Hoplites Hubris Democracy
Solon Tyrant Cleisthenes Direct Democracy Archon Phalanx Pericles

22 Essential Questions What were the major achievements in philosophy, literature, art and architecture of the Classical Age of Ancient Greece? What were the achievements and legacy of Alexander the Great

23 Socrates First of the Great Athenian philosophers

24 Plato Student of Socrates Left behind a series of writings

25 Aristotle Student of the Academy
Concerned with the nature of the world around him

26 Reason Clear and ordered thinking

27 Logic The process of making inferences

28 Homer Wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey

29 Lyric Poem Poems that deal with emotions and desires

30 Herodotus First major writer of Greek history

31 Thucydides Wrote about the Peloponnesian Wars

32 Alexander the Great King of Macedonia
Built the largest Empire in the world up to that point

33 Hellenistic Greek like civilization
Spread of culture across the empire of Alexander the Great

34 Euclid Formulated many of the ideas we have about Geometry today

35 Eratosthenes Calculated the circumference of the globe

36 Archimedes Developed a compound pulley system and the lever

37 Quiz Choose 5 Socrates Plato Aristotle Reason/Logic Homer Herodotus
Thucydides Alexander the Great Hellenistic

38 Ancient Rome Essential Questions:
How did Rome grow from a small town to the center of an empire spanning the entire Mediterranean area? What led to the end of the Roman Republic and the creation of a new form of government? What social and cultural factors influenced life in Rome, and what was the cultural legacy of Rome?

39 Map of Rome (Page 175) Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Atlantic Ocean
Spain Gaul Britain Greece Africa Egypt Carthage Rome Roman Republic 100BC Republic at Caesar’s death Empire at Augustus Death Empire 117AD

40 Republic A new type of government where elected officials governed the state

41 Patrician Heads of the Aristocratic families of Rome

42 Plebeians Common people of Rome

43 Veto To ban a law that seemed unjust or harmful to the plebeians

44 Forum The central square of Rome where the Twelve Tables of law were posted

45 Constitution Political structure of the Roman Republic

46 Senate Body of 300 members that advised elected officials, controlled public finances and handled all foreign policy decisions

47 Consuls Two magistrates elected to 1 year terms as Chief Executive and Commanders of the Army

48 Dictator An office holder that was given unlimited power in times of crisis in Rome Only 6 months

49 Quiz Choose 5 Republic Patricians Plebeians Veto Forum Constitution
Senate Consuls Dictator Punic wars Scipio Hannibal

50 Gracchi Two reform minded brothers who served as tribunes around 133 BC

51 Gaius Marius Improved recruitment in the armies by allowing poor people to join

52 Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Consul of Rome in 88 BC Led his army into Rome sparking a Civil War

53 Julius Caesar Helped bring an end to the republic
Defeated Pompey to become dictator for life

54 Triumvirate Rule of thee men
1st triumvirate- Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, Licinius Crassus 2nd triumvirate- Marc Anthony, Octavian, Lepidus Triumvirate

55 Augustus Octavian’s name after he was named the head of state of Rome

56 Pax Romana Period of stable government, strong legal system, widespread trade and peace in Rome

57 Vocabulary Villa Circuses Paterfamilias Augurs Galen Ptolemy Aqueducts
Latin Civil Law

58 Villa Country home for the wealthy

59 Circuses Place where Chariot races took place

60 Paterfamilias The head of the family was the family father

61 Augurs Priests who interpreted the signs from the gods

62 Galen Roman physician that wrote medical volumes summarizing the medical knowledge of the day

63 Ptolemy Recorded information and knowledge of astrnomy

64 Aqueducts Man made channels used to bring water to the cities.

65 Latin The language of Rome

66 Civil Law Form of law based upon a formal written code of laws

67 Fall of Rome/Byzantine Empire
Essential Questions: What led to the weakening and eventual collapse of the Roman Empire in the west? How did the eastern half of the Roman Empire maintain its strength for centuries after the west half of the empire declined?

68 Inflation Dramatic rise in prices

69 Diocletian Changed the empire into and absolute monarchy
Divided the empire into two parts/ eastern and western Rome

70 Attila The leader of the Huns Attacked Rome around 450 AD

71 Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire Constantinople was the capital

72 Justinian I Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 527 to 565 AD

73 Theodora Wife of Justinian I Served as co-ruler of the empire

74 Belisarius Top General of Justinian I
Recaptured North Africa and parts of Italy for the Roman Empire

75 Mosaics Pictures created using colored tiles of glass, stone or clay

76 Icons Painting or sculptures of sacred figures

77 Clergy Church Officials

78 Orthodox Church Eastern Roman Church

79 Rus Northern Europeans that helped the Slavs

80 Yaroslav the Wise Grand Prince of Kiev from

81 Cyril and Methodius Monks also brothers sent to convert the Slavs to Christianity

82 Cyrillic Alphabet Written Slavonic language

83 Vladimir I Was baptized a Christian and became the Grand Duke of Kiev
Made Christianity the official state religion of Kievan Russia

84 Alexander Nevsky Alexander Prince of Novgorod led Russian armies vs. invasion from the North and West Hero of early Russia

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