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NC Final Review World History (Standards 2-8) World History Providence High School.

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1 NC Final Review World History (Standards 2-8) World History Providence High School

2 Standard 2 Analyze ancient civilizations and empires in terms of their development, growth, and lasting impact. 2.1 Compare how different geographic issues of the ancient period influenced settlement, trading networks, and the sustainability of various ancient civilizations (eg, flooding, fertile crescent, confluence, limited fertile lands, etc.). 2.2 Analyze the governments of ancient civilizations in terms of their development, structure, and function within various societies (eg theocracy, democracy, oligarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, etc.) 2.3 Explain how codifying laws met the needs of ancient societies (eg, Hammurabi, Draco, Justinian, Theodosius, etc.) 2.4 Analyze the rise and spread of various empires in terms of influence, achievements, and lasting impact (eg Mongol, Mughal, Ottoman, Ming, esoamerica, Inca, Imperial States in Africa, etc.)

3 Standard Analyze the development and growth of major Eastern and Western religions (eg Including but not limited to Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Shintoism, etc.) 2.6 Analyze the interaction between the Islamic world and Europe and Asia in terms of increased trade, enhanced technology innovation, and an impact on scientific thought and the arts 2.7 Analyze the relationship between trade routes and the development and decline of major empires (eg Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Greece, Rome, China, Mughal, Mongol, Mesoamerica, Inca, etc) 2.8 Compare the conditions, racial composition, and status of social classes, casts, and slaves in ancient societies and analyze changes in those elements. 2.9 Evaluate the achievements of ancient civilizations in terms of their enduring cultural impact.

4 Standard 2.1 What was an important influence of Egyptian civilization on the Roman Empire? A. The major seaports of Egypt improved the Roman economy B. The Roman Empire adopted the Egyptian form of government C. The Egyptians emigrated in large numbers to Roman territories D. The Egyptian military added authority to the Roman Empire. Answer: A

5 Standard 2.1 During the Neolithic Revolution, the advent of farming led to dramatic increases in population, and as resource staples were accumulated in surplus, a sedentary life for some. These developments were only possible as advancements were made in agricultural efficiency. What was one of these developments? A. the beginning of spoken language B. the creation of weapons for hunting C. the origin of religious doctrines D. the establishment of a class of specialists Answer: D

6 Standard 2.1 How did these rivers first facilitate the development of early civilizations? Nile Tigris and Euphrates Huang He Indus and Ganges A. Water sources enabled the migration of hunter-gatherers B. Waterways increased trade among distant peoples C. Fertile soil allowed humans to develop agriculture D. Governments were created to control fertile land. Answer: C

7 Standard 2.2 Based on this table, which early civilization was a theocracy? A. Assyria B. China C. Persia D. Sumer Assyria Empire with a centralized government China Strong central government led by dynasties Persia Empire with a decentralized government Sumer City states organized by temple leaders Answer: D

8 Standard 2.2 “Such then are the powers of each of the parts of government both to oppose one another and to work in conjunction. In unison they are a match for any and all emergencies…” - Poylbius Which principle of government best demonstrates the influence of the ancient Roman Republic? A. the election of a president B. the system of checks and balances C. the separation of church and state D. the protection of equal rights Answer: B

9 Standard 2.2 Which characteristic of civilization is most shared by these empires? Historical Empires ●Aztec ●Egyptian ●Roman A. a centralized form of government B. the construction of domed buildings C. a monotheistic religion D. the development of sea travel Answer: A

10 Standard 2.3 Selections from the Code of Hammurabi ●If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows… in public. ●If a free-born man strike the body of another free-born man or equal rank, he shall pay one gold mina. These provisions reflect which aspect of many ancient systems of law? A. commitment to equal protection B. pursuit of economic justice C. protection of social hierarchy D. civil resolution of disputes Answer: C

11 Standard 2.3 Which statement best supports these excerpts? 48. If any one owe a debt for a loan, and… the harvest fail, or the grain does not grow for lack of water, in that year he need not give his creditor any grain… 55. If any one open his ditches to water his crop, but is careless, and the water flood the field of his neighbor, then he shall pay his neighbor corn for his loss. -Hammurabi’s Code of Laws, ca BC A. Increased complexity of society led to more sophisticated forms of government B. Early civilizations relied on religious texts to resolve private disputes C. Increased population enabled conquests to expand economic opportunities D. Slavery developed as an institution due to the agricultural needs of society Answer: A

12 Standard 2.3 Based on this table, which statement describes a similarity between Judeo- Christian and Greco-Roman views of laws? A. Laws helped defend national boundaries B. Laws granted power to governing authorities C. Laws justified a leadership structure D. Laws regulated a monetary system Judeo-ChristianGreco- Roman Laws- drawn from religious writings, lawsLaws- written and enforced by an established enabled rulers to reinforce belief systemruler, laws exist to preserve order Answer: B

13 Standard 2.4 How were the Mayan and Incan economies similar to earlier Latin American civilizations? A. They relied on the trade of precious metals B. They were influenced by foreign markets C. They focused on manufactured goods D. They were based on agricultural trade Answer: D

14 Standard 2.4 Why did the Tang Dynasty use the examination system to choose government officials? A. to promote greater cultural diversity B. to ensure the influence of noble families C. to provide the civil service with qualified leaders D. to measure the effectiveness of the imperial education system Answer: C

15 Standard 2.4 Which outcome is a direct result of these developments? The Ancient Kingdom of Mali ●Gold from West Africa was exchanged for salt from the Sahara ●Long distance trade routes connected North and West Africa ●Islam influenced the Kingdom of Mali A. The soil in Mali was dry and produced very few crops B. Muslim explorers conquered the region C. Bantu migrations to the southern continent began D. Mali became a major center for commerce and culture Answer: D

16 Standard 2.4 Which cause contributed to the collapse of both the Han Dynasty in China and ancient Rome? A. Territory became too large to govern effectively B. Citizens suffered from poor internal transportation systems C. Cities were vulnerable to invasions by sea D. Economies suffered due to lack of common currency Answer: A

17 Standard 2.5 Which action is an example of one of the Five Pillars of Islam? A. taking a vow of poverty B. acceptance of suffering as part of life C. annually donating a percentage of wealth to charity D. maintaining a vegetarian diet as an expression of nonviolence Answer: C

18 Standard 2.5 This diagram best describes the spread of which religion? A. Buddhism B. Confucianism C. Hinduism D. Sikhism India China Japan Answer: A

19 Standard 2.5 Use the list below to answer the question. ●Christianity ●Islam ●Judaism What do these religions have in common? A. They originated in the Arabian Peninsula B. They observe the Five Pillars C. They began during the Roman Empire D. The are monotheistic faiths Answer: D

20 Standard 2.6 Which factors were most responsible for aiding the early spread of Islam? A. religious missionaries B. trade routes C. political events D. alliance systems Answer: B

21 Standard 2.6 What is the main reason the economy prospered during the Tang Dynasty? A. The construction of the great Wall increased military readiness B. The revival of the Silk Road increased foreign trade C. The influence of Confucius increased intellectual activities D. The spread of Buddhism increased religious devotion Answer: B

22 Standard 2.7 The early trade between West Africa and the Mediterranean region resulted in A. democratic governments in Sub-Saharan Africa B. large Muslim populations in North Africa C. establishment of free-trade zones in the Sahel D. industrial economies in West Africa Answer: C

23 Standard 2.7 What was one result of European merchants trading along the Silk Road? A. the expansion of democratic governments B. the development of modern banking practices C. the diffusion of cultural ideas D. the spread of mapmaking skills Answer: C

24 Standard 2.7 Which statement best explains a significant effect of the various routes of the Silk Road? A. Religious conflict between China and the Middle East intensified B. Military invasions of African nations increased C. The spread of new technologies to the Americas improved D. Trade between Europe and Asia expanded Answer: D

25 Standard 2.8 Which statement best explains why the Spanish language used in Latin America is different from the Spanish Language used in Europe? A. Immigrants to Latin America incorporated elements of indigenous languages into Spanish B. Latin American officials preserved a formal version of the Spanish language C. Spanish in Latin America was influenced by the Portuguese spoken in neighboring areas D. Conquistadors who settled in Latin America spoke different dialects of Spanish Answer: A

26 Standard 2.9 Which phrase describes an additional contribution from this culture? A. development of interchangeable parts B. introduction of paper money C. widespread use of bank accounts D. establishment of a uniform writing system Contributions to the Modern World Porcelain Moveable Type Compass Answer: B

27 Standard 2.9 Which architectural feature was commonly used by the ancient Greeks? A. columns B. domes C. arches D. ziggurats Answer: A

28 Standard 2.9 The diffusion of aqueduct technology occurred because of which development? A. the growth of Middle East trade B. the spread of Islam in North Africa C. the expansion of the Roman Empire D. the Macedonian conquest of Asia Minor Answer: C

29 Standard 3 WH.H.3.1Explain how religion influenced political power and cultural unity in various regions of the Europe, Asia and Africa (e.g., Carolingian Dynasty, Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire, Safavid Empire). WH.H.3.2 Explain how religious and secular struggles for authority impacted the structure of government and society in Europe, Asia, and Africa (e.g., Cluniac Reforms, common law, Magna Carta, conflicts between popes and emperors, Crusades, religious schisms, Hundred Years’ War, etc.). WH.H.3.3 Analyze how innovations in agriculture, trade and business impacted the economic and social development of various medieval societies (e.g., Feudalism, Agricultural Revolutions, Commercial Revolution and development of a banking system, manorial system, growth of towns, etc.). WH.H.3.4 Analyze how the desire for farmable land created conflict and impacted the physical environments of Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas (e.g., Agricultural Revolution in Europe, Muslim Agricultural Revolution, Mesoamerican and Andean agricultural innovations, etc.).

30 Standard 3.1 What outside groups did tribes in Africa encounter first? A) Christian missionaries B) British colonists C) Spanish conquistadors D) Muslim merchants Answer: D

31 Standard 3.1 Which statement is the best explanation of the divine right of kings? A People are sovereign. B People are born with God-given rights. C The king must abide by the social contract. D The king answers only to God. Answer: D

32 Standard 3.1 Which statement best describes this social structure? Hierarchical Social Structure King Nobles and Church Leaders Barons Knights Freemen and Serfs A the division of orders in the Roman Republic B militant culture of ancient Sparta C feudalism in medieval Europe D the division of Christianity during the Reformation Answer: C

33 Standard 3.2 Which characteristic of Roman Catholicism was rejected by followers of Eastern Orthodoxy? A belief in monotheism B church hierarchy C belief in the Trinity D papal supremacy Answer: D

34 Standard 3.2 Which document recognized the rights of the nobility in England? A The Mayflower Compact B The Magna Carta C Articles of Confederation D The Declaration of Independence Answer: B

35 Standard 3.2 Which political ideal is expressed in this excerpt? No freemen shall be taken or imprisoned... except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land. —Magna Carta A Leaders should be accountable to the people. B Citizens have the right to due process. C Legislation should follow a constitution. D Criminal punishments should be humane. Answer: B

36 Standard 3.2 Use the excerpt below to answer the question. -They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessionalia. -Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon. -Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon Theses, Martin Luther, 1517 Which statement best explains one immediate effect of these declarations? A The Catholic Church granted more authority to lay leaders. B People began to redefine the doctrines of Christianity. C The Catholic Church gained influence among absolute monarchs. D Priests began to spread Christianity using common languages. Answer: B

37 Standard 3.3 Use the excerpt below to answer the question. By the [feudal] Lord before whom this sanctuary is holy, I will... be true and faithful, and love all which he loves and shun all which he shuns, according to the laws of God and the order of the world. Nor will I ever with will or action, through word or deed, do anything which is unpleasing to him.... —I: An Anglo Saxon Form of Commendation, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen Which condition led to Medieval Era vows like the one in this excerpt? A the lack of regional alliances B increased authority of religious leaders C the need for protection from invading forces D improved trade opportunities Answer: C

38 Standard 3.3 Which was a direct effect of the feudal system in medieval Europe? A development of early trade routes B creation of a capitalist economy C establishment of a rigid class structure D requirement of church donation Answer: C

39 Standard 3.3 A pre-industrial farmer plants different crops on the same soil with each new growing season. This is an example of A enclosure. B crop rotation. C cottage industry. D the putting-out system Answer: B

40 Standard 3.4 WH.H.3.4 Analyze how the desire for farmable land created conflict and impacted the physical environments of Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas (e.g., Agricultural Revolution in Europe, Muslim Agricultural Revolution, Mesoamerican and Andean agricultural innovations, etc.). No sample questions available for this standard.

41 Standard 4 ●WH.H.4.1 Explain how interest in classical learning and religious reform contributed to increased global interaction (e.g., Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Catholic Reformation, Printing revolution, etc.). ●WH.H.4.2 Explain the political, social and economic reasons for the rise of powerful centralized nation-states and empires (e.g., Reformation, absolutism, limited monarchy, empires, etc.) ●WH.H.4.3 Explain how agricultural and technological improvements transformed daily life socially and economically (e.g., growth of towns, creation of guilds, feudalism and the manorial system, commercialization, etc.). ●WH.H.4.4 Analyze the effects of increased global trade on the interactions between nations in Europe, Southwest Asia, the Americas and Africa (e.g., exploration, mercantilism, inflation, rise of capitalism, etc.).

42 Standard 4.1 What was one direct result of the reforms described below? Reforms of Protestant Reformation Religion should be personal, immediate, and based on faith Focus on the scriptures and abolish ritualistic ceremony Increase literacy so all could read the Bible in their own language a. expansion of a traditional economic system b. end of absolute monarchies c. development of new faiths d. acceptance of radical political groups Answer c

43 Standard 4.1 Which aspect of the Renaissance is shown in this information about Florence? The welling up of civic pride that overflowed in public building was brought on by that remarkable course of events from the end of the thirteenth to the beginning of the fifteenth century that transformed the Florentine state... During the century and a half at the building of the town hall and ending at the crowning of the cathedral with Brunelleschi’s cupola, Florence put its internal affairs into an impressive new order... and asserted itself as a major Italian power. —Richard A. Goldthwaite a. rising power of artists b. economic prosperity of city-states c. new techniques in religious sculpture d. increased use of the vernacular languages Answer b

44 Standard 4.1 What was an effect of Luther’s assertion? The pope cannot remit [forgive] any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it has been remitted [forgiven] by God.... —Martin Luther’s Ninety-five Theses a. The Church experienced a decrease in attendance b. The authority of Church officials was questioned c. Reforms were adopted to unify the Church. d. Military leaders defended Church policies. Answer b

45 Standard 4.1 What was one major effect of the invention of the printing press? a. It helped Catholic leaders increase power. b. It helped facilitate the spread of religious ideas c. It helped popularize reforms in the Catholic Church d. It helped introduce new leadership roles in the church Answer b

46 Standard 4.1 Use the list below to answer the question Characteristics of the Renaissance Cultural achievements were financed by cities. Classical texts and art were valued and studied. ? Which statement best completes this list? a. Kings gave authority to religious leaders. b. People chose to enter monasteries. c. Legislative bodies began to tax churches. d. People embraced secular ideas. Answer d

47 Standard 4.2 Louis XIV’s statement, “I am the state,” is a reflection of which type of government? a. a constitutional theocracy b. an absolute monarchy c. an authoritarian oligarchy d. a direct democracy Answer b

48 Standard 4.2 What is significant about this act? Albeit the king’s Majesty justly and rightfully is... the supreme head of the Church of England, and so is recognized by the clergy of this realm... be it enacted, by authority of this present Parliament, that the king, our sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall be... the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England.... —Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII, 1534 a. It allowed the monarch to override laws passed by Parliament. b. It increased tensions during the Protestant Reformation c. It improved political relations among the leaders of Parliament d. It led to the events that prompted the Renaissance Answer b

49 Standard 4.3 Which turning point most directly affected the development of the free market economy? a. changes in religious beliefs b. availability of printed books c. success of the commercial revolution d. changes in agricultural practices changes in religious beliefs Answer c

50 Standard 4.3 Which factor led to the development of manorialism? a. the collapse of an economy b. the influence of the Catholic Church c. the decrease in migrations d. the expansion of the Roman Empire Answer A

51 Standard 4.4 Use the list below to answer the question. Banks Bills of exchange Business partnerships The early spread of these innovations are evidence of which stage in Europe’s economic development? a. the transition from an individual barter economy to feudalism b. the growth of manufacturing cities in northern Europe c. the transition from a mercantilist economy to capitalism d. the growth of artisan guilds in southern Europe Answer C

52 Standard 4.4 How did the bubonic plague most change the social structure of Europe in the Middle Ages? A.The shortage of labor empowered the peasant class. B.The rise of nationalism increased the influence of the nobility. C.The decline in demand ensured the success of the merchants D.The increased demand for labor strengthened feudalism. Answer A

53 Use the table below to answer the question. Slaves Exported From Africa DatesTrans-Atlantic Slave TradeTrans-Saharan Slave TradeAsian Slave Trade 650–1500 AD1%72%34% 1500–1800 AD72%18%10% Which development led to the change shown in this table? a. Growing cash crops in the Americas increased the demand for labor b. Conflicts in the Middle East made certain routes too dangerous. c. Famine in Asia led to increased need for food cultivation. d. Drought caused a mass migration to North Africa. Answer A Standard 4.4

54 Which statement best explains how Marco Polo influenced European voyages of exploration to the Americas? a. His innovations in navigation allowed European ships to make more distant trips. b. His descriptions of the Americas convinced Europeans to establish settlements there c. His accounts of the wealth in China motivated Europeans to seek trade routes to Asia d. His religious ideas inspired Europeans to spread Christianity farther around the world. Answer C

55 Standard 4.4 Which factor most affected the commercial revolution in Europe? a. the establishment of the divine right of kings b. the development of overseas colonies c. the increase of religious influence in business d. the introduction of the university system Answer b

56 Standard 4.4 Use the table below to answer the question. Number of Ships Sailing From Europe to Asia 1600– –1800 England France Netherlands Which factor best explains the change shown in this table? a. favorable climate b. access to valuable resources c. insufficient infrastructure d. lack of agricultural goods Answer b

57 Standard 5 motivati Analyze exploration and expansion in terms of its motivations and impact. 5.1 Explain how and why the motivations for exploration and conquest resulted in increased global interactions, differing patterns of trade, colonization, and conflict among nations (e.g., religious and political motives, adventure, economic investment, Columbian exchange, commercial revolution, conquistador destruction of Aztec and Incan civilizations, Triangular Trade, Middle Passage, trading outposts, plantation colonies, rise of capitalism, etc.). 5.2 Explain the causes and effects of exploration and expansion (e.g., technological innovations and advances,forces that allowed the acquisition of colonial possessions and trading privileges in Africa, Asia, the Americas and the Colombian exchange).

58 5.3 Analyze colonization in terms of the desire for access to resources and markets as well as the consequences on indigenous cultures, population, and environment (e.g., commercial revolution, Columbian exchange, religious conversion, spread of Christianity, spread of disease, spread of technology, conquistadors, slave trade, encomienda system, enslavement of indigenous people, mixing of populations, etc.). 5.4 Analyze the role of investment in global exploration in terms of its implications for international trade (e.g., transatlantic trade, mercantilism, joint- stock companies, trading companies, government and monarchial funding, corporations, creation of capitalist markets, etc.

59 Standard 5.1 Which phrase best explains a reason for the beginning of European exploration of the Americas? A. demands for economic resources B. pressures from foreign invaders C. shortages of skilled labor D. lack of agricultural diversity Answer: A

60 Standard 5.1 During Columbus’ four voyages to the Americas, what did he hope to find? A. gold B. trade routes to Asia C. land D. religious freedom Answer: B

61 Standard 5.1 Which factor contributed the most to the development of the slave trade? A. factory labor in European industrial centers B. textile work in North American urban areas C. sugar plantations in Caribbean territories D. shipping ports in Mediterranean coastal cities Answer: C

62 Standard 5.2 Which of these African resources provided an economic motive for European powers to colonize the continent in the late 1800’s? A. salt and uranium B. land for grazing cattle C. precious jewels and metals D. exotic animals Answer: C

63 Standard 5.2 What was one result of the Treaty of Tordesillas? A. a decrease in religious wars in Europe B. the expansion of native populations of the New World C. the increase of exploration of the New World D. a reduction of standing armies in Europe Answer: C

64 Standard 5.2 Which event was undertaken to address the goals on this list? Reasons for European Expansion ●To seek trade routes ●To spread religious faith ●To increase political and economic influence A. the voyage of Christopher Columbus B. the launching of the First Crusade C. the travels of Marco Polo D. the Spanish reconquest of Granada Answer: A

65 Standard 5.3 The Columbian Exchange affected Native Americans by A. increasing the diversity of goods. B. decreasing the transmission of disease C. improving tribal relations D. decreasing religious conflict Answer: A

66 Standard 5.3 The language and religion of Central and South America have been most influenced by A. indigenous populations B. alliances with the United States C. Spanish colonization D. free trade agreements Answer: C

67 Standard 5.3 What was one major effect of the Columbian Exchange? A. It created a new source of revenue for European farmers B. It led to the widespread adoption of the institution of slavery C. It enhanced the technology used in the Industrial Revolution D. It improved political relations between competing countries Answer: B

68 Standard 5.4 Which factor best completes this diagram? A. Increased Colonialism and Mercantilism B. Introduction and Expansion of Trade C. Decline of Monarchial Governments D. Decline in the Number of Middle Class Merchants ? Growth of the Banking System Greater Investment in Commercial Enterprises Answer: A

69 Standard 5.4 The Navigation Act of 1660 For the increase of shipping and encouragement of the navigation of this nation..., no goods or commodities whatsoever shall be imported into or exported out of any lands, islands, plantations or territories to his Majesty belonging or in his possession... but in such ships or vessels as do truly and without fraud belong only to the people of England or Ireland.... This legislation was enacted for what purpose? A. to strengthen trade between England and other European countries B. to increase the profits of farmers in the English colonies in America C. to attract settlers to the American colonies by developing the economy D. to ensure that England would profit from trade with its American colonies Answer: D

70 Standard 6 WH.6.1 Explain how new ideas and theories of the universe altered political thought and affected economic and social conditions (e.g., Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, rationalism, secularism, humanism, tolerance, empiricism, natural rights, contractual government, laissez-faire economics, Bacon, Descartes, Galileo, Newton, inductive and deductive reasoning, heliocentric, inquisition, works of Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Bolivar, Jefferson, Paine, Adam Smith, etc.). WH.6.2 Analyze political revolutions in terms of their causes and impact on independence, governing bodies and church-state relations. (e.g., Glorious Revolution, American Revolution, French Revolution, Russian Revolution, Haitian, Mexican, Chinese, etc.). WH.6.3 Explain how physical geography and natural resources influenced industrialism and changes in the environment (e.g., agricultural revolutions, technological innovations in farming, land use, deforestation, industrial towns, pollution, etc.). WH.6.4 Analyze the effects of industrialism and urbanization on social and economic reform (e.g., Industrial Revolution, urbanization, growth of middle class, increase in productivity and wealth, changes in economic status, new types of labor organizations, etc.). WH.6 Understand the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions.

71 Standard 6.1 Use the list below to answer the question. - Francis Bacon - Robert Boyle - Nicolaus Copernicus - Sir Isaac Newton - Galileo Galilei What was the main contribution of this group of people? A the formalization of philosophical discourse B the development of the scientific method C the creation of mapping technology D the discovery of nearby planets Answer: B

72 Standard 6.1 Adam Smith advocated laissez-faire, which implies A minimal governmental control. B control by the working class. C regulation by citizen commissions. D businesses cooperating with government agencies. Answer: A

73 Standard 6.1 How did the ideas of the Enlightenment philosophers most influence popular revolutions in France and in the United States? A by explaining that society could be improved through scientific discovery B by challenging the belief in the divine right of kings C by stressing the importance of military strength D by examining other countries as models of self-government Answer: B

74 Standard 6.1 Below are some descriptions of an invention Invented in Germany in 1448 Used movable blocks to set type Some blocks created to replicate handwriting How did this invention contribute to the Scientific Revolution? A by conducting new physical experiments B by performing complex mathematical computations C by enhancing the study of astronomy D by expanding access to new ideas Answer: D

75 Standard 6.1 What was a primary focus of the Enlightenment philosophers? A increasing faith by examining religious texts B achieving wisdom through experiences with nature C seeking progress through the expansion of human knowledge D pursuing spiritual experiences through the revival of religious tradition Answer: C

76 Standard 6.1 Which statement best completes this sequence? A Religion becomes more prevalent in everyday life B Rural communities become more isolated C Monarchs gain authority in European nations D Scientific innovations are introduced in Europe Answer: D

77 Standard 6.2 Which event best replaces the question mark in this sequence? Russia Czar Nicholas II abdicated Russian Imperial throne ____________?________________ Bolsheviks seized power and became the Communist Party Russia signed a peace treaty with the Central Powers A Vladimir Lenin returned to lead the Russian Revolution B Leon Trotsky escaped Russia for exile in Mexico C The Russian government adopted the New Economic Policy D The Red Army won the Russian Civil War Answer: A

78 Standard 6.2 Use the information to answer the question. Great Fear Storming of the Bastille Tennis Court Oath Which title best defines the events in this list? A Enlightenment Influences on the French Revolution B The Moderate Stage of the French Revolution C Major Events during the Reign of Terror D The Steps Leading to the Rise of Napoleon Answer: B

79 Standard 6.2 Which cultural development had the greatest effect on these events? Some Features Common to the American Revolution and French Revolution Establishment of basic human rights Replacement of monarchy with a republic Elimination of aristocratic privileges A the Protestant Reformation B the Great Schism C the Renaissance D the Enlightenment Answer: D

80 Standard 6.2 What was an immediate effect of the American Revolution? We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. —That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, —Declaration of Independence, 1776 A Geographical factors helped improve governmental relations. B Political ideas influenced the citizens of other nations. C Religious views altered the structure of foreign governments. D Social changes created strife among local leaders Answer: B

81 Standard 6.2 Which statement describes the ideology of V.I. Lenin during the Bolshevik Revolution? A He preserved the monarchy as a national symbol. B He called for authoritarian rule to implement communism. C He promoted the use of nonviolent protest for social change. D He held parliamentary elections to legitimize the new government. Answer: B

82 Standard 6.2 Which statement best completes this list? Causes of Revolutions of 1848 in Europe Middle classes demanded a political voice Factory employees sought improved working conditions ________?________ A Nationalists attempted to gain self-government B Citizens supported absolutist monarchs C Colonists demanded regulation of trade D Women demonstrated for voting rights Answer: A

83 Standard 6.2 What was one direct outcome of the events listed below? Spread of Nationalism in Europe 1800 – 1850 The victories of Napoleon Bonaparte across the continent led to strong feelings of nationalism by conquered peoples who wanted independence Congress of Vienna restored traditional monarchies and maintained a balance of power in Europe A rise of revolutions based on common ethnicity B centralized control of Eastern Europe in a unified empire C end of political cooperation in Western Europe D adoption of the use of mercenary troops Answer: A

84 Standard 6.3 Use the information to answer the question. In the early 1800s, entrepreneurs searching for a place to build a textile mill looked for four factors: the availability of inexpensive land, a large town nearby to supply labor, a fast-moving water source to supply energy, and a large river or seaport for transporting finished goods. A means for transporting goods B accessibility to a highly populated area C fast-moving water source D availability of inexpensive land Answer: C

85 Standard 6.3 Which phrase best replaces the question mark in the diagram below? A Skilled Workers B Natural Resources C Financial Investments D New Entrepreneurs Answer: B

86 Standard 6.3 England led the Industrial Revolution for all of the following reasons except… A its geographic location. B its stable government. C its natural resources. D its laws protecting workers. Answer: D

87 Standard 6.4 Which phrase best completes this diagram? A Decrease of available labor supply B Increase in agricultural output C Increase in migration to urban areas D Decrease of overseas trade Answer: C

88 Standard 6.4 What was one result of the Industrial Revolution? A Cottage industries were established to meet consumer needs. B Subsistence farming increased to meet the needs of workers. C Manufacturing industries created a demand for urban laborers. D Regulations for a safe working environment slowed production Answer: C

89

90 Standard 6.4 Based on the information below, which term describes a major driving force of the Industrial Revolution? During the Industrial Revolution, business owners and investors were able to earn immense profits. Many used these profits as capital to develop new technology, processes, and products that helped advance the Industrial Revolution. A communism B direct taxation C free enterprise D overproduction Answer: C

91 Standard 7 Understand how national, regional, and ethnic interests have contributed to conflict among groups and nations in the modern era. WH.H.7.1 Evaluate key turning points of the modern era in terms of their lasting impact (e.g., conflicts, documents, policies, movements, etc.). WH.H.7.2 Analyze the increase in economic and military competition among nations in terms of the influences of nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and industrialization (e.g., Ottoman Empire, Japanese Empire, Prussian Empire, the German Empire, “Haves and Have Nots” of Europe, industrial America, etc.). WH.H.7.3 Analyze economic and political rivalries, ethnic and regional conflicts, and nationalism and imperialism as underlying causes of war (e.g., WWI, Russian Revolution, WWII). WH.H.7.4 Explain how social and economic conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalistic movements (e.g., India, Africa, Southeast Asia). WH.H.7.5 Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominate economic pattern and the responses to it from various nations and groups (e.g., utopianism, social democracy, socialism, communism, etc.). WH.H.7.6 Explain how economic crisis contributed to the growth of various political and economic movements (e.g., Great Depression, nationalistic movements of colonial Africa and Asia, s

92 Standard 7.2 Which factor encouraged European powers in the late 1800s to expand colonization efforts in South Africa? A. the discovery of rare minerals such as gold and diamonds B. the development of markets for manufactured goods C. the use of native populations for labor and military use D. the establishment of alliances for military mobilization Answer: A

93 Standard 7.2 Which statement best describes 19th-century European colonialism in Africa? A. Religious organizations were required to respect local customs. B. Native populations accepted democratic government reforms. C. Large standing armies were needed to maintain public order. D. Industrial nations competed for control of natural resources. Answer: D

94 Standard 7.2 Which phrase best completes this list? Reasons for European Imperialism Raw materials were needed for industry New markets were required for goods ? A. Inexpensive labor was needed to manufacture products B. The influence of labor unions was weakened C. Isolationism led to the desire for stronger militaries D. The need for agricultural technology increased Answer: A

95 Standard 7.2 Use the information to answer the question. The Rise of ________________ ? Began to modernize in the 19th century Created a regional military empire in Asia and the Pacific during the 1930s and 1940s Transformed into democracy with a powerful manufacturing economy during the late 20th century Which nation best replaces the question mark in the title? A. Russia B. Chile C. India D. Japan Answer: D

96 Standard 7.2 Which motivation for imperialism is best reflected in this quotation? Why should we not form a secret society with but one object, the furtherance of the British Empire and the bringing of the whole world under British rule... for making the Anglo Saxon race but one Empire? —Cecil Rhodes, British Imperialist, 1877 A. the demand for raw materials B. a belief in a superior culture C. the need to expand foreign markets D. a desire to expand democracy Answer: B

97 Standard 7.2 Which canal expanded the Middle East’s trade access to the Mediterranean? A. Panama Canal B. Grand Canal C. Erie Canal D. Suez Canal Answer: B

98 Standard 7.3 Prior to World War I, why were the Balkans known as the “powder keg of Europe”? A. The Ottoman Empire’s aggressive foreign policy disrupted the balance of power. B. Nationalistic rivalries between major states resulted in conflict. C. The Serbian nationalists supported an invasion of Russia. D. Economic disparity caused instability in the region. Answer: B

99 Standard 7.3 The list below describes which form of government? Characteristics of a Government 1. Absolute authority over the people 2. Demands people’s unconditional loyalty 3. Glorifies the aims of the state 4. Controls all aspects of society A. totalitarian B. representative democracy C. theocracy D. constitutional monarchy Answer: A

100 Standard 7.3 What was the purpose of this announcement by Hitler? “I hereby and above all annul the signatures extorted from a weak and impotent Government against its better knowledge, confessing Germany's responsibility for the late war.” —Adolph Hitler announcing his rejection of the Versailles Treaty (March 1935) A. commemoration of final payment of German war reparations B. recognition of a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union C. justification for the rearmament of the German military D. ratification of a mutual defense alliance with Italy Answer: C

101 Standard 7.3 Extreme nationalism combined with militarism and rule by a single dictator best defines the concept of A. communism. B. republicanism. C. fascism. D. capitalism Answer: C

102 Standard 7.3 All of the following are regarded as primary causes of World War I except A. alliances. B. nationalism. C. militarism. D. communism. Answer: D

103 Standard 7.4 Which major factor led to the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947? A. loyalties to colonial governments B. issues concerning economic markets C. differences associated with religious beliefs D. conflicts regarding voting requirements Answer: C

104 Standard 7.4 Social Darwinists in the late 1800s and early 1900s used the philosophy of “survival of the fittest” to justify which national action? A. supporting local humanitarian aid B. creating regional trade partnerships C. expanding existing colonial empires D. legislating progressive political reform Answer: C

105 Standard 7.4 The communists were successful in the Chinese civil war because the A. communists were better supplied and armed throughout the struggle. B. nationalists had been weakened by the invasion of other Asian powers. C. nationalists suffered from a lack of Western economic and moral support. D. communists had the support of a majority of the peasants Answer: D

106 Standard 7.5 Which opinion on economic production would Karl Marx most likely express? A. A free market best supports the needs of workers. B. The role of the government is to regulate the means of production. C. Ownership of the means of production should be shared equally by all workers. D. Businesses should own the means of production to effectively increase economic output. Answer: C

107 Standard 7.5 Which factor illustrates the influence of free enterprise on the Industrial Revolution? A. the use of private capital to finance the production of goods B. the purchase of surplus harvests by the government to stabilize prices C. the passage of tariffs to protect domestic manufacturing D. the adoption of government regulations to protect consumers Answer: A

108 Standard 7.6 Use the excerpt below to answer the question. There are not too many necessities of life produced, in proportion to the existing population. Quite the reverse. Too little is produced to decently and humanely satisfy the wants of the great mass. There are not too many means of production produced to employ the able-bodied portion of the population. —Capital, Karl Marx, 1894 Which government action would address the concerns in this excerpt? A. decreasing corporate taxes B. privatizing commercial industries C. distributing resources to individuals D. implementing workplace safety laws Answer: C

109 Standard 7.6 Which event best completes this diagram? A. Great Depression B. Russo-Japanese War C. Spanish-American War D. Industrial Revolution Answer: A

110 Standard 7.6 Look at the chart below. This information shows why many Germans after World War I were A. sympathetic to the restoration of traditional government. B. seeking leaders who would improve the economy. C. apologetic about the actions that had caused the war. D. convinced that pacifism would guarantee future security. Value of German Currency, Year Number of German Marks to the U.S. Dollar ,620,455.0 Answer: B

111 Standard 7.6 Which event was a major cause of the development of Palestinian terrorism? A. creation of the European Union B. United States entry into the United Nations C. creation of a Jewish state in the Middle East D. United States deployment of troops to Vietnam Answer: C

112 Standard 7.6 What caused these events in China? Mao’s Great Leap Forward, Huge investments in factories Massive collectivization of farms Severe shortages of natural resources Overproduction of poor-quality goods A. a government demand for rapid industrialization B. an availability of surplus revenue from increased taxes C. a student movement for political reform D. an increase in aid from foreign allies Answer: A

113 Standard 7.6 Use the information to answer the question. During Josef Stalin’s rule, Russians only had access to select information. This is an example of A. suffrage. B. democracy. C. fascism. D. censorship. Answer: D

114 Standard 8 Analyze global interdependence and shifts in power in terms of political, economic, social and environmental changes and conflicts since the last half of the twentieth century. Analyze global interdependence and shifts in power in terms of political, economic, social and environmental changes and conflicts since the last half of the twentieth century.

115 STANDARD 8.1 AT THE 1919 PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE, FRANCE DEMANDED GERMANY BE HELD COMPLETELY RESPONSIBLE FOR STARTING WORLD WAR I. WHAT WAS THE OUTCOME OF THE FRENCH DEMAND AT THIS CONFERENCE? a. GERMANY HAD TO PAY LARGE WAR REPARATIONS TO FRANCE. b. FRANCE WAS FORCED TO SIGN A SEPARATE PEACE TREATY WITH GERMANY. c. FRANCE TOOK POSSESSION OF THE SUDETENLAND FROM GERMANY. d. GERMANY WAS REQUIRED TO TRANSFER CONTROL OF BELGIUM TO FRANCE. ANSWER: A

116 STANDARD 8.1 ST Which military alliance was created by the Soviet Union and its satellite countries in 1955? a. United Nations. b. Warsaw Pact. c. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. d. Triple Enténte. Answer: B

117 SECTION 8.1 The negotiations at the Yalta Conference led to: a. A disagreement over the function of the United Nations. b. An agreement on the type of government to be established in defeated Italy. c. A disagreement about the Soviet Union negotiating for a separate peace. d. An agreement on a division of Germany into four zones. Answer: D

118 STANDARD 8.2 Which statement describes the result of the partition of Korea after World War II? The partition of Korea into two zones dominates the political and economic life of the peninsula. The division…at the 38 th parallel has turned into a hard and fast boundary… Office of Reports and Estimates, 1947 a. It prevented the outbreak of a civil war by establishing an official border. b. It aided reconstruction by dividing responsibilities between the two countries. c. It led to the creation of a United Nations territorial mandate. d. It contributed to the start of a major conflict in the Cold War. Answer: D

119 STANDARD 8.2 Use the list below to answer the question. Selected Economic Events in Cuba. The United States placed the first of many embargoes on Cuba in Cuba accepted $4 to $6 billion, annually, from the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The Soviet Union withdrew subsidies to Cuba in 1990, leading to severe economic downturn. Communist leaders called for wide-ranging economic changes in (Source: World Factbook). Which statement best explains a result of the implementation of U.S. sanctions on Cuba? a. Sanctions led to shortages of basic goods. b. Sanctions led to limited migration. c. Sanctions helped increase individual freedoms. d. Sanctions caused social programs to become privatized. Answer: A

120 STANDARD 8.2 Which groups are in conflict over claims to Palestinian territory? a. Syrians and Greeks. b. Italians and Algerians. c. Arabs and Jews. d. Turks and Kurds. Answer: C

121 STANDARD 8.2 Use the excerpt below to answer the question. On the night of August 20 – 21, 1968, Czechoslovakia was invaded from the north, east and south by 20 Soviet and Warsaw Pact divisions totaling some 250,000 men. At the same time, the positions vacated by these units were backfilled by 10 Soviet divisions coming from positions in Hungary, Poland and East Germany…With this military operation, Moscow put an end to the “Prague Spring”… (Central Intelligence Agency, “A Look Back…The Prague Spring & the Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia,” What was the purpose of this military action? a. To administer aid to countries in conflict. b. To reassert Soviet authority. c. To supply border countries with a means of defense. d. To increase Soviet territory. Answer: B

122 STANDARD 8.3 Which historic trend is illustrated by the darker shaded areas of this map? a. Influence of the United Nations. b. Decline of European colonial empires. c. Enforcement of United States sanctions. d. Expansion of Cold War rivalries. Answer: B

123 STANDARD 8.3 Which change in the Soviet Union was most influenced by Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy of perestroika? a. Secession of the Soviet nationalist republics. b. Termination of the Soviet space program. c. Reformation of the Soviet command economy. d. Reduction of Soviet military spending. Answer: C

124 STANDARD 8.3 The changes brought on by the fall of the Soviet Union affected the global economy by: a. Restricting access to finished products. b. Increasing prices for natural resources. c. Creating new participants in the world market. d. Limiting the expansion of foreign manufacturing. Answer: C

125 STANDARD 8.4 Which statement is supported by these survey results? Community Survey: Sources of Information, 1998 – 2004 a. People depend more on traditional information sources more than new technologies. b. Technological progress has begun changing the way people learn about current events. c. Technology has decreased participation in resolving important community issues. d. People in different age groups disagree on the usefulness of new technologies.. Answer: B Source Local Broadcast TV News80%85.6% Friends72%65.8% Local Newspaper 178%65.3% Local Newspaper 268%53.5% Local Cable TV Channel45%51.4% Radio50%47.6% City Web Page8%29.3%

126 STANDARD 8.4 Which factor has contributed to this trend in the development of a global economy? Outsourcing transcription work – abroad to countries such as India, Pakistan, Philippines, Barbados and Canada – has grown more popular as transmitting confidential health information over the internet has become more secure; however,…reports transcribed by overseas medical transcription services usually require editing for accuracy by domestic medical transcriptionists before they meet U.S. quality standards. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009 a. Rising cost of labor in developing countries. b. Decline of higher education in developed countries. c. Limited access to regional hospitals. d. Improvements in telecommunications technology. Answer: D

127 STANDARD 8.4 Use the excerpt below to answer the question. When the Defense Department issued a $19,800 contract on December 6, 1967, for the purpose of studying the “design and specification of a computer network”, the world didn’t take notice. But it should have. For, from that small, four-month study grew the ARPANET. And, from ARPANET emerged the internet. Federal Communications Commission, 2005 What was one effect of this Cold War technology? a. Data could be stored more easily. b. Global communications became instantaneous. c. Troop deployments became more frequent. d. Combat strategies could be better tested. Answer: B

128 STANDARD 8.5 What is one likely cause of these pandemics? SELECTED PANDEMICS, 1997 – – 2010Avian Flu – 10 new strains over a period 0f 13 years. Hong Kong, United States, China, Thailand, Vietnam, Canada. a.Globalization. b.Drought. c.Pollution. d.Deforestation. Answer: A

129 STANDARD 8.5 What is one effect of economic globalization in the twentieth century? a. An overall decline in living standards. b. Higher prices for imported goods. c. A wider choice of consumer products. d. Fewer international trade agreements. Answer: C

130 STANDARD 8.6 Which statement supports the trend demonstrated in this list? 12/17/2010 – Demonstrations for political reform begin in Tunisia. 01/14/2011 – The Tunisian president flees the country. 01/25/2011 – Demonstrations for democratic reform start in Egypt. 02/11/2011 – The Egyptian president resigns from public office. a. Pressure to protect human rights in the Middle East increased. b. Pressure to prevent foreign military intervention in North Africa increased. c. Demands for political rights in the Middle East have spread to other regions. d. Demands for economic reform have led to massive policy changes in North Africa. Answer: C

131 STANDARD 8.6 Which statement describes Lech Walesa’s role in the fall of communism in Poland? a. He led an armed revolt. b. He led an independent trade union. c. He drafted a new constitution. d. He unified opposing ethnic groups. Answer: B

132 STANDARD 8.6 Which policy did Mikhail Gorbachev adopt to restructure the Soviet economy? a. Appeasement. b. Perestroika. c. Détente. d. Blitzkrieg. Answer: B

133 STANDARD 8.6 Which policy introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s led to democratic reforms in the Soviet Union? a. Glasnost. b. Containment. c. Détente. d. Blitzkrieg. Answer: A

134 STANDARD 8.7 Use the list below to answer the question. Characteristics of the Government of Iraq in 2012 Parliamentary democracy based on federalism. President and a Prime Minister share power. Legislative Branch consist of elected members. Judicial branch has a structured hierarchy. Why was this type of government established in Iraq? a. To localize economic authority. b. To empower military leaders. c. To enable judges to approve legislation. d. To protect the basic rights of citizens. Answer: D

135 STANDARD 8.7 What is one criticism from western European countries about Shari’ah (Islamic law) as practiced by some Middle Eastern countries? a. Civil rights are often violated. b. Economic markets are often restricted. c. Tribal customs are banned. d. Personal investments are limited. Answer: A


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