Presentation on theme: "Brown Paper Process Mapping"— Presentation transcript:
1Brown Paper Process Mapping Gemini Skills WorkshopJuly 1998
2Outline of Session Purpose of a Brown Paper Elements of a Brown Paper Building a Brown PaperAppendixWhat to includePractical hintsPreparing for presenting at a Brown Paper FairWe will first talk about:Why?What is a BP?How is it built?And who is involved?Why do you think we use BP’s in an A&D (go to flip chart and draw out need for speed and the need for an emotional/rational approach)
3The Brown Paper helps identify and gain support for Opportunities PURPOSE OF A BROWN PAPERThe Brown Paper helps identify and gain support for OpportunitiesThe Brown Paper......describes the process as it works today from start to end...may be used to describe the process as it should be...shows the big picture...is high touch, low-tech...identifies strengths and opportunities...captures the complexity and disconnects of operational issues...quantifies elements of timing, volume, resource requirement...develops enthusiasm and ownership of issues...builds project momentum...is self-explanatory
4Why Do We Use Brown Papers? PURPOSE OF A BROWN PAPERWhy Do We Use Brown Papers?For Gemini.... . . and the ClientThe Gemini Team . . .. . . often has limited time to gather information. . . understands the “generic process”, but not the process specific to the client. . . has hypotheses of potential opportunities - based on limited data and past experience, which need to be tested. . . needs to surface the politics and emotions involved in the current situationThe Brown Paper map . . .. . . describes the process as they use it today and identifying who gets involved, how, and where. . . identifies strengths and opportunities as they see them. . . provides the basis for further data gathering / studies. . . helps to mobilise the client and allows them to focus on the opportunities without blameThe technique is superb at breaking down hierarchical boundaries and developing broad client ownership
5What Does a Brown Paper Process Map Look Like? ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPERWhat Does a Brown Paper Process Map Look Like?TitleBrown Paper• xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx• xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxTaskStrength(TypicallyGreen)Red FlagsHighlightingKey OpportunitiesLink to AnotherProcessSummaryofStrengthsLiveDocumentsSign-inSheetSummaryofOpportunitiesDecisionClarification(Typically Yellow)Opportunity(Typically Pink)This is what a process flow looks like . . .What else might you see on a BP (cycle time, costs, volume, who)But for every standard there are exceptions — check what’s preferred by the client or the project manager!
6ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER Use the following symbols for activity, decision and link to another processDescribes activity/task performedStarts with an action verbUse few words (less than 5)e.g. “Receive order”, “Dispatch sales person”, “Give feedback to customer” etc.Include organisation unit/person who does the task todayBoth official and daily life namesTaskYes xx%Describe decision as a yes/no questione.g. “Fault found in local loop?”, “Found OK?”etcWrite English translation in brackets underneathQuantify outcome (volume, percentage)“Question”No xx%“Process Name”Link to another process flow outside this Brown PaperDescribe required input/outputComments
7Use the following symbols for comments and to flag an opportunity ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPERUse the following symbols for comments and to flag an opportunityComment on activity, process flow etc.Include valuable information, e.g:man-years used for activitynumber of iterations (rework)dwell timesetc.CommentFlag an OpportunityHighlights an opportunity to improveNumber flag to reference it“ # ”Shows that an information system is involvedInclude valuable information, e.g:name of systemsresponsible personslink to other IT support system setc.Name ofIT system
8Connect activities with lines and arrows ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPERConnect activities with lines and arrowsStandard activity connection with flow directionIndicates that flow lines cross each otherIndicates telephone or other electronic transmissionDraw the lines on the brown paper itself - first with a pencil (draft), then with a thick black pen
9Placement of Panels on Brown Paper ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPERPlacement of Panels on Brown PaperTo the far left: introduction to theBP, who made the BP and sign in sheet.To the far right: summary of findings, strengths and opportunities
10Use different coloured “Post-it” notes for comments ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPERUse different coloured “Post-it” notes for commentsRedTo point out an area of improvementTo point out a strengthGreenTo comment on process flowe.g. disagreement with the way the process has been mappedYellow
11BUILDING A BROWN PAPERThe “Brown Paper process” includes more than the actual mapping of the process flowPlanDoReviewPrepareLogisticsBuildReviewAnalyseHypothesize about todays processThink about what information you need to validate hypothesisInvite the “right” people to build the process flowLogisticsMap the “As Is” process flowGather as much information around the process as possibleInvite people to give comments to the Brown PaperValidate the Brown Paper with staff and managementArrange Brown Paper FairsAnalyse for root causesTry to understand costs, cost drivers and key performance indicators
12Plan How do I start? Prepare Be clear about the objective and scope BUILDING A BROWN PAPERHow do I start?PrepareBe clear about the objective and scopeHypotheses about the process todayand about benefits, opportunities, dataCreate a draft of the processDecide appropriate level of detailgiven the potential opportunities and time constraintsSet-Up LogisticsPeople to make it (owner, credible experts & users, facilitator/helper)Prepare materials (cut/taped brown paper, post-it’s, icons)Location (wall space, strong wall-paper)Time contractPlan
13How do I create a Brown Paper? BUILDING A BROWN PAPERHow do I create a Brown Paper?Build the Brown PaperReiterate objectives and expectationsClarify scope - start and end points, interfacesProvide some guidance on level of detail“Just-do-it” — it’s easy to course correct, but it’s painful to procrastinateIdentify where you need further details and arrange next steps to get themCapture strengths and opportunities as you progressAsk the participants at the end what they think the key opportunities and concerns areAllow time for client to air complaints and frustrationsDo
14Review What do I do next? Review Follow-up next steps BUILDING A BROWN PAPERWhat do I do next?ReviewFollow-up next stepsSmarten up the paper as necessaryCapture/review builds from review group(s)Highlight and validate key strengths and weaknessesAnalyseDesign necessary in-depth studiesIdentify “Early Wins”Identify root causesLook at the process from a customers point of viewUse the BP as a starting point to understand costs, cost drivers and key performance indicatorsReview
15Appendix What to include Practical hints Preparing for a Brown Paper Fair
16WHAT TO INCLUDEThe Brown Papers should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the processPerson/function carrying out each activity (who does what)How many people involvedHow much time is spent in the process/activity (man years used)Volumes, Values of flowsBacklogsTouch timesTime in systemelapsed time, cycle timeDwell times & reasonse.g. “rest” time on a desk before being processedErrorshow often
17WHAT TO INCLUDEThe Brown Papers should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process (cont.)(Cont:)Rework - Nº of iterationsCheckingwhen, by whom, how much time, whyApproval points & funding gatesAuthority level needed to take decision, sign document etc.Interface traffic & hand offsmail, telephone, office system, etc.Input/output that are requiredDuplication of work at boundariesInformation about the IT systems used in the process
18Get as much written information around the process as possible WHAT TO INCLUDEGet as much written information around the process as possibleAttach copies of actual documentation used, e.g. formsObtain copies of all working documentsGet documents/reports describing processGet information on past and present initiatives that address the processProject PlanNames, org. unit and phone numbers of key persons involved in the initiativePreliminary reports etc.IT systems supporting the process should be clearly shown on the Brown Paperindicate along the process where the different IT systems are used (e.g. use different icons for different systems)have a separate section on the Brown Paper describing the different IT systems
19Some practical hints Have complete supply kit Keep a spare set of icons - you never have enoughStrengthen the edges of the Brown Paper with tapeUse yellow or white “Post-it” notes first for each activity/task before rewriting them on white rectanglesMake sure hand-written text is easy for others to readDraw connections with a soft pencil first, to enable adjustmentsInitially attach papers in a way that they are easy to move aroundDon´t glue down any papers until the Brown Paper has been reviewedMake sure you use glue that will lastTape “post-its” on with small tape
20Some process hints Prepare a rough draft (high level flow) PRACTICAL HINTSSome process hintsPrepare a rough draft (high level flow)Based on preliminary discussions and knowledge on a separate sheet and integrate with content expertsClearly define the start and stop points in the processManage the scopeDo not try to depict a lengthy/complex process Flow in a single sessionClear objectivesGet “creators” to do the work while joint team member “facilitates”When they get involved they will really feel ownership for the outcomeFocus on what really happens - not what is supposed to happenKeep participants focused on the “As Is” - not the “To Be”To maintain continuity try to have a team of people that can be there for the whole session when constructing the Brown Paper
21Some process hints (cont.) PRACTICAL HINTSSome process hints (cont.)Continue probing, what else?, what happens next?, how often?Keep them moving; don´t let them deliberate too much (maintain focus)Remember the 80:20 rule when driving the detailIntegrate “presenting back” what is on paperThis helps clarify the process and facilitates knowledge transferNever leave the Brown Paper to be done by people who do not have the proper trainingAlways ask: who else should see this, or who else is involved in the process?
22How Do I Prepare for a Brown/White Paper Fair PREPARE FOR A BROWN PAPER FAIRHow Do I Prepare for a Brown/White Paper Fair1. Schedule Time(s)There will never be a perfect time - be brave and pick one - with interest, people will make timeMay need a few events e.g. night shifts; different sites/offices; management &/or others2. Plan the LogisticsClient owner / champion - at /near ‘the top’Coordinator with time and accountability(client & Gemini involvement needed)AgendaRoom & layoutAppropriate running order of the papersExtraordinary needs - popcorn in America, Oompah bands in Europe!Launch / instructions by a (client) leaderHand-out for guidance and to collect feedback3. Communicate Expectations & Promote the EventUse all available methods of communication (meeting cascade, , 1-2-1’s)If necessary create concern / intrigue to ensure participationPre-position key clients to be there and be interestedDiscuss behavioural norms4. Prepare the Papers. . . And prepare the people to ‘man’ themToo perfect and people won’t want to criticise5. Do ItWelcome and ‘sign-in’ at entranceKeep the atmosphere up beatRole-model listening and post-it issues capture, and coach people to do it6. Follow-upExpect, plan for, and fulfill/manage the expectations that are generatedGSW staff will be available to help
23How do I Present the Brown Paper? PREPARE FOR A BROWN PAPER FAIRHow do I Present the Brown Paper?Define the work process flow:Purpose of the flowLegend describing brown paper iconsDescribe the client involvement:Participation from people in various functionsDescribe the process analyzed:Identify the processDescribe the beginning and end point of the processDescribe major blocks of activity in the processDescribe activities and decisionsCapture vital details (ratio, # of times, etc.)Understand decision dynamicsMade alone/groupImportance/frequencyIndividuals involvedDescribe overall strengths and opportunities:Key comments and anecdotes made by client participantsSolicit input from the audienceSummarize strengths and opportunitiesGSW staff will be available to helpPresentation of the process can be anywhere from five minutes to one hour depending on the objectives of the presentation.