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Be Your Own Editor Written and Compiled by Anita J. Ghajar-Selim.

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Presentation on theme: "Be Your Own Editor Written and Compiled by Anita J. Ghajar-Selim."— Presentation transcript:

1 Be Your Own Editor Written and Compiled by Anita J. Ghajar-Selim

2 Table of Contents Disclaimer…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Writing Error Symbols…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… – MP………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. MP – WP………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. WP – MA………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. MA – MC……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. MC – MPu…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. MPu – WF…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………… WF – Frag.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… Frag – RO……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… RO – WTr…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… WTr – WW…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. WW – PL…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… PL – VT……………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………….………………………… VT – C……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………… C – SP………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… SP – SVA……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… SVA – CS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………… CS Independent vs. dependent clause……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Independent vs. dependent clause Coordinating Conjunctions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Subordinating Conjunctions Clause vs. Phrase…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Clause vs. Phrase Suggested Reading………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Suggested Reading Contact Me…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Contact Me

3 Disclaimer In the following slides, you will see some of the error symbols I have been using over the years with my students. Your teacher might use other symbols, or you might come across different symbols on the internet. No matter what the symbol, the error and the explanation for it will be the same. All the examples are real sentences taken from my students’ essays.

4 Click on the symbols that you saw on your essay. MPFrag.VT WPROC MAWTrC MCWWSP MPuMPuPL SVASVA WFPl.CS Writing Error Symbols

5 MP/ WP Missing Preposition/ Wrong Preposition Example:  I waited {MP} her for a long time, but she never showed up.  I waited for her for a long time, but she never showed up.  I used to listen at {WP}my grandmother when I was a kid.  I used to listen to my grandmother when I was a kid. Lesson: Quiz: Error Symbol List

6 MA Missing Article: Example:  Also, men in {MA} Gulf wear a long white dress called “Thoub”.  Also, men in the Gulf wear a long white dress called “Thoub”. Lesson: Quiz: Error Symbol List

7 MC Missing Comma Example:  On the other hand {MC} education now is of very high quality and...  On the other hand, education now is of very high quality and... Lesson: Quiz: Error Symbol List

8 MPu Missing Punctuation Example:  Nowadays, we have a lot of facilities, unlike our grandparent’s {MPU}  Nowadays, we have a lot of facilities, unlike our grandparent’s. Lesson: Quiz: shl/quiz.pl/punct_quiz.htm Error Symbol List

9 WF Wrong Form Example:  People don’t change that much considered {WF} what they grew up with and learned from their grandparents.  People don’t change that much considering what they grew up with and learned from their grandparents. Lesson: Quiz: Error Symbol List

10 CS Comma Splice: Joining two sentences ONLY with a comma and no coordinating conjunction is called comma splice.coordinating conjunction Example:  These two people are my most favorite people in the world, {CS} they may be alike in many things but very different at the same time.  Those two people are my most favorite people in the world; they may be alike in many things, but very different at the same time. Lesson: m Quiz: m#commspliceex Error Symbol List

11 Frag. Fragment: A fragment is an incomplete sentence. It doesn’t have an independent clause.independent clause. Example:  In addition, the kind of food is still the same as it in the past {frag}.  In addition, the kind of food is still the same as it used to be in the past. Lesson: Quiz: shl/quiz.pl/fragments_add1.htm Error Symbol List

12 RO Run-on Sentence: Fused (Run-on) sentences happen when there are two independent clauses not separated by any punctuation. You can fix this problem by adding a period, semicolon, or comma and FANBOYS to separate the two sentences.independent clauses S V S V Incorrect: My friend is very knowledgeable I've learned a lot from her. Correct: My friend is knowledgeable. I've learned a lot from her. or My friend is knowledgeable; I've learned a lot from her. or My friend is knowledgeable, and I've learned a lot from her. Example:  Our grandparents lived in a simple way {RO} theywere in small tents or in a small room built with mud.  Our grandparents lived in a simple way; they were in small tents or in a small room built with mud. Lesson: Quiz: Error Symbol List

13 WTr. Wrong Transition Word Example:  Women in the Gulf wear “Abaya”. On the other hand {WTr.}, they wear a veil, too.  Women in the Gulf wear “Abaya”. In addition, they wear a veil, too. Lesson: Quiz Error Symbol List

14 WW Wrong Word Example:  At university, it is harder to find English doctors {WW} in their office hours.  At university, it is harder to find English professors in their office hours. Tips: Be careful when using words you are unfamiliar with. Look at how they are used in context and check their dictionary definitions. Be careful when using the thesaurus. Each word listed as a synonym for the word you're looking up may have its own unique connotations or shades of meaning. Use a dictionary to be sure the synonym you are considering really fits what you are trying to say. Don’t try to impress your reader or sound unduly authoritative. For example, which sentence is clearer to you: "a" or "b"? Under the present conditions of our society, marriage practices generally demonstrate a high degree of homogeneity. In our culture, people tend to marry others who are like themselves. (Longman, p. 452) Error Symbol List

15 Pl. & Pl Pluralize & Don’t pluralize Example:  There are a lot of thing {Pl} that they are different in.  There are a lot of things that they are different in.  I didn’t receive any informations {Pl} from them for a long time.  I didn’t receive any information from them for a long time. Lesson: Quiz: Error Symbol List

16 C & C Capitalize & Don’t capitalize Example:  Finally, the gulf {C}people did not change that much if...  Finally, the Gulf people did not change that much if...  I have known my best Friend {C} since I was in high school.  I have known my best friend since I was in high school. Lesson: Quiz: Error Symbol List

17 SVA Subject Verb Agreement Example:  High school days was {SVA} full of fun and innocent behaviors.  High school days were full of fun and innocent behaviors. Lesson: Quiz: Table of Contents

18 VT Verb Tense Example:  I know {VT} my second friend since high school.  I knew my second friend since high school. Lesson: Quiz: Error Symbol List

19 SP Spelling Example:  You can’t stop laughing when you set {SP} with her.  You can’t stop laughing when you sit with her. Lesson: Quiz: Error Symbol List

20 Independent/Dependent Clause An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence. – Example: Aisha studied hard for her IELTS exam. A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. A dependent clause is often marked by a dependent marker word. – Example: Because Aisha studied hard for her IELTS exam... Practice Error Symbol List

21 Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses. Coordinating conjunctions talk about the things which are equally important unlike subordinating conjunctions. In order to remember them you can memorize them as FANBOYS. To punctuate FANBOYS, you should put a comma before them ONLY if they join two independent clauses (the sentences before and after them have subject and verb). If one of the sentences doesn’t have subject and verb, don’t put any commas.phrasesclausessubordinating conjunctions. independent clauses Example 1: I was sick, and I had to prepare for an exam. Example 2: I was sick and had to prepare for an exam. F = for I like my level 4 grammar, for it is much easier than level 3. A= and He studies at Qatar University, and he works for QNB. N= nor My son refuses to eat meat, nor does he show any interest in chicken. B = but Her dad is Qatari, but her mom is from Oman. O= or We can eat at home, or we can pick up something from the drive through. Y = yet Our plane is leaving in an hour, yet my brother is still in the shower. S = so Maryam was sick, so she went to the doctor. Practice Error Symbol List

22 Subordinating conjunction after although as as soon as because before by the time even if even though every time if in case in the event that just in case now that once only if since the first time though unless until when whenever whereas whether or not while To subordinate means to introduce something which is less important. Subordinating Conjunctions introduce the dependent clause (the less important information) and join it with the independent clause. They also introduce an adverb clause. Here is a list of the most common ones. IMPORTANT! To punctuate the Subordinating Conjunctions, you should put a comma ONLY when they are used in the beginning of a sentence as an introductory phrase. If they come in the middle of the sentence, you won’t need any punctuation for them. dependent clause independent clause phrase Practice Error Symbol List

23 Clause vs. Phrase Clause: A clause is a group of words put together which has a subject and a verb: I am hungry. Phrase: Some words put together without a verb. For example, an expression: as light as a feather. Table of Contents

24 Suggested Reading Look for the following files at: Essay Paragraph Be Your Own Editor Sneaky Grammar Research IELTS Table of Contents

25 If you have any questions or suggestions, please do not hesitate to contact me at: Table of Contents


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