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Learning Outcomes compare and contrast active, passive, natural and artificial immunity; (m) explain how vaccination can control disease (HSW6a, 7c); (n)

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Outcomes compare and contrast active, passive, natural and artificial immunity; (m) explain how vaccination can control disease (HSW6a, 7c); (n)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Outcomes compare and contrast active, passive, natural and artificial immunity; (m) explain how vaccination can control disease (HSW6a, 7c); (n) discuss the responses of governments and other organisations to the threat of new strains of influenza each year (HSW7b, 7c); (o) outline possible new sources of medicines, with reference to microorganisms and plants and the need to maintain biodiversity (HSW 6a, 6b, 7b);

2 Immunology Quiz 1. A substance released by helper T cells or by macrophages which have engulfed a pathogen a. A named example of the above is Name of the process describing activated immune cells increase in numbers The reason why AIDS sufferers have many opportunistic infections Receptors of immune cells are to specific antigens and are located Phagocytosis is a. Agglutination is The part of the macrophage which surrounds the pathogen to be engulfed is

3 Immunology Quiz 1. A substance released by helper T cells or by macrophages which have engulfed a pathogen a. A named example of the above is Name of the process describing activated immune cells increase in numbers The reason why AIDS sufferers have many opportunistic infections Receptors of immune cells are to specific antigens and are located Phagocytosis is a. Agglutination is The part of the macrophage which surrounds the pathogen to be engulfed is

4 Outline two ways that antibodies reduce the threat from pathogens (4) (Jan 2013) Neutralisation (1) Prevent pathogen binding to receptor and infecting cells/binding toxins (1) Agglutination (1) Clumps together many pathogens so cannot enter cell/more likely to be engulfed by phagocyte (1)

5 Recap on Phagocytosis Draw the stages. You have 5 minutes Then you will peer mark another group’s effort Then you can improve your own

6 What happens during inflammation?

7 Vaccinations

8 8 of 38© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Artificial immunity

9 Natural and artificial immunity NaturalArtificial PassiveAntibodies passed in breast milk Vaccination with antibodies made by another organism eg anti-venom ActiveAntibodies produced in response to natural infection of microbe Antibodies produced in response to vaccination with damaged microbe Copy the table and fit one of these sentences into each box: Vaccination with antibodies Antibodies produced in response made by another organism to vaccination with eg anti-venom damaged microbe Antibodies produced in Antibodies passed in response to natural infection breast milk of microbe

10 10 of 38© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is vaccination? Vaccines stimulate the production of antibodies and memory cells against the target pathogen without causing illness. Why don’t vaccines cause illness? They may contain an inactivated form of the pathogen, killed by heat treatment (which leaves the immune-stimulating antigens intact). They may contain an attenuated (less virulent) form of the pathogen. They may contain isolated antigens, such as cell surface proteins, from the pathogen.

11 Vaccinations against diseases Herd Immunity – Once enough of population immunised, disease can no longer spread. Estimated that 95 % of the population need to be immunised to prevent the spread of measles Ring Vaccination – New case of a disease reported. Vaccinating people in the immediate vicinity of infection can control the spread of the disease. Often used in livestock diseases - eg foot and mouth

12 12 of 38© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Influenza vaccines New strains of the influenza virus are constantly emerging. This is because antigens displayed on the virus change due to mutation. This causes antigenic variation. The government works with other organizations to identify current strains of influenza. An effective vaccine is developed each year. Antigenic variation makes it hard to immunize a patient against the influenza virus for life with just a single vaccine.

13 13 of 38© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Vaccination past question In an attempt to reduce outbreaks of influenza, the government encourages vaccination of at risk groups such as the elderly and young children, Give two more examples of at risk groups and explain why they are at risk. (4) AIDS/HIV sufferers/transplant patients (1) Weak/Suppressed immune system, more likely to become infected (1) Pregnant women (1) Allows protection of foetus (1) Health Workers (1) High level of exposure to disease (1)

14 New Medicines Complete the spider diagram below use p176-7P; p170G New Medicines Why we need them Sources Methods of Discovery Why is maintenance of biodiversity relevant here?

15 Smoking and Disease describe the effects of smoking on the mammalian gas exchange system, with reference to the symptoms of chronic bronchitis, emphysema (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and lung cancer; (q) describe the effects of nicotine and carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke on the cardiovascular system with reference to the course of events that lead to atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and stroke; (r) evaluate the epidemiological and experimental evidence linking cigarette smoking to disease and early death (HSW3, 6a, 7a, 7b, 7c).

16 Cigarette smoke Tar –Contains carcinogens –Destroys cilia –Stimulates goblet cells –Increases incidence of infection –Causes allergic reactions Smokers Cough – damages linings in airway, smooth muscle thickens, inflammation and wbc mediated destruction of lung linings. Lung Cancer – carcinogens mutate DNA in cells Eg Benzopyrene Tar Carbon Monoxide Nicotine

17 Diseases Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema COPD Lung Cancer Use purple book p179 and green book p176-7 to complete the worksheet

18 Nicotine and CO Causes adrenaline release – speeds up heart, breathing rate and causes constriction of arterioles (leads to inc in BP and possible loss of extremities) Causes platelets to become sticky – thrombus CO – carboxyhaemoglobin – raises HR CO – damages artery linings

19 CHD/Stroke Damage of artery inner lining (endothelium) Phagocytes repair damage by encouraging fatty deposition within walls (Atheroma) Develops into plaque Restricts flow (lumen narrows) and increases chance of thrombosis Coronary arteries (carry blood at high pressure) supply the heart – restricted CA can cause CHD – angina, MI, heart failure. Stroke if occurs in brain.

20 Epidemiology The study of distribution of a disease in populations and the factors that influence its spread. The link between smoking and lung cancer was established by Doll and Peto in 1978 They did a 20 year prospective study using doctors.

21 Use green book p178-9 Handouts provided Past paper question: p16, Q5a (Jun 2012)Past paper question Describe the trends in the data (4) Mark scheme p23, ans 5aMark scheme


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