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Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms

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**Rutherford’s Model Discovered the nucleus Small dense and positive**

Electrons moved around in Electron cloud

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**Bohr’s Model Why don’t the electrons fall into the nucleus?**

Move like planets around the sun. In circular orbits at different levels. Energy separates one level from another.

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Bohr’s Model Nucleus Electron Orbit Energy Levels

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Bohr’s Model Nucleus Electron Orbit Energy Levels

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**} Bohr’s Model Further away from the nucleus means more energy. Fifth**

There is no “in between” energy Energy Levels Fifth Fourth Third Increasing energy Second First Nucleus

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**The Quantum Mechanical Model**

Energy is quantized. It comes in chunks. Quanta - the amount of energy needed to move from one energy level to another. Quantum leap in energy. Schrödinger derived an equation that described the energy and position of the electrons in an atom Treated electrons as waves

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**The Quantum Mechanical Model**

a mathematical solution It is not like anything you can see.

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**The Quantum Mechanical Model**

Does have energy levels for electrons. Orbits are not circular. It can only tell us the probability of finding an electron a certain distance from the nucleus.

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**The Quantum Mechanical Model**

The electron is found inside a blurry “electron cloud” An area where there is a chance of finding an electron. Draw a line at 90 %

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Atomic Orbitals Principal Quantum Number (n) = the energy level of the electron. Within each energy level the complex math of Schrödinger's equation describes several shapes. These are called atomic orbitals Regions where there is a high probability of finding an electron.

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**S orbitals 1 s orbital for every energy level Spherical shaped**

Each s orbital can hold 2 electrons Called the 1s, 2s, 3s, etc.. orbitals.

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**P orbitals Start at the second energy level 3 different directions**

3 different shapes (dumbell) Each can hold 2 electrons

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P Orbitals

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**D orbitals Start at the third energy level 5 different shapes**

Each can hold 2 electrons

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**F orbitals Start at the fourth energy level**

Have seven different shapes 2 electrons per shape

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F orbitals Images J mol

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**Summary # of shapes Max electrons Starts at energy level s 1 2 1 p 3 6**

d 5 10 3 7 14 4 f

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**By Energy Level First Energy Level only s orbital only 2 electrons 1s2**

Second Energy Level s and p orbitals are available 2 in s, 6 in p 2s22p6 8 total electrons

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**Filling order Lowest energy fill first. The energy levels overlap**

The orbitals do not fill up order of energy level. Counting system Each box is an orbital shape Room for two electrons

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**Increasing energy 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 7p 3d 4d 5d 6d 6s 5s 4f 5f 4s 3s**

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**Increasing energy 7p 6d 5f 7s 6p 5d 6s 4f 5p 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p**

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**Electron Configurations**

The way electrons are arranged in atoms. Aufbau principle- electrons enter the lowest energy first. This causes difficulties because of the overlap of orbitals of different energies. Pauli Exclusion Principle- at most 2 electrons per orbital - different spins

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**Electron Configuration**

Hund’s Rule- When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy they don’t pair up until they have to . Let’s determine the electron configuration for Phosphorus Need to account for 15 electrons

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**Increasing energy 7p 6d 5f 7s 6p 5d 6s 4f 5p 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p**

The first to electrons go into the 1s orbital Notice the opposite spins only 13 more

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**Increasing energy 7p 6d 5f 7s 6p 5d 6s 4f 5p 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p**

The next electrons go into the 2s orbital only 11 more

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**Increasing energy 7p 6d 5f 7s 6p 5d 6s 4f 5p 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p**

The next electrons go into the 2p orbital only 5 more

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**Increasing energy 7p 6d 5f 7s 6p 5d 6s 4f 5p 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p**

The next electrons go into the 3s orbital only 3 more

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**Increasing energy 7p 6d 5f 7s 6p 5d 6s 4f 5p 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s**

The last three electrons go into the 3p orbitals. They each go into separate shapes 3 unpaired electrons 1s22s22p63s23p3

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**The easy way to remember**

2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p 7d 7f 1s2 2 electrons

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**Fill from the bottom up following the arrows**

2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p 7d 7f 1s2 2s2 4 electrons

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**Fill from the bottom up following the arrows**

2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p 7d 7f 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 12 electrons

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**Fill from the bottom up following the arrows**

2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p 7d 7f 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 20 electrons

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**Fill from the bottom up following the arrows**

2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p 7d 7f 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 38 electrons

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**Fill from the bottom up following the arrows**

2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p 7d 7f 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 56 electrons

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**Fill from the bottom up following the arrows**

2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p 7d 7f 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 7s2 88 electrons

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**Fill from the bottom up following the arrows**

2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p 7d 7f 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 7s2 5f14 6d10 7p6 118 electrons

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Rewrite when done 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 7s2 5f14 6d10 7p6 Group the energy levels together 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d105f146s2 6p6 6d10 7s2 7p6

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**Exceptions to Electron Configuration**

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**Orbitals fill in order Lowest energy to higher energy.**

Adding electrons can change the energy of the orbital. Filled and half-filled orbitals have a lower energy. Makes them more stable. Changes the filling order of d orbitals

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**Write these electron configurations**

Titanium - 22 electrons 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2 Vanadium - 23 electrons 1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2 Chromium - 24 electrons 1s22s22p63s23p63d44s2 is expected But this is wrong!!

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**Chromium is actually 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1 Why?**

This gives us two half filled orbitals.

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**Chromium is actually 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1 Why?**

This gives us two half filled orbitals.

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**Chromium is actually 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1 Why?**

This gives us two half filled orbitals. Slightly lower in energy. The same principle applies to copper.

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**Copper’s electron configuration**

Copper has 29 electrons so we expect 1s22s22p63s23p63d94s2 But the actual configuration is 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1 This gives one filled orbital and one half filled orbital. Remember these exceptions d4s2 d5 s1 d9s2 d10s1

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In each energy level The number of electrons that can fit in each energy level is calculated with Max e- = 2n2 where n is energy level 1st 2nd 3rd

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Light The study of light led to the development of the quantum mechanical model. Light is a kind of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation includes many kinds of waves All move at 3.00 x 108 m/s ( c)

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Parts of a wave Crest Wavelength Amplitude Origin Trough

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**Parts of Wave Origin - the base line of the energy.**

Crest - high point on a wave Trough - Low point on a wave Amplitude - distance from origin to crest Wavelength - distance from crest to crest Wavelength - is abbreviated l -Greek letter lambda.

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Frequency The number of waves that pass a given point per second. Units are cycles/sec or hertz (Hz) Abbreviated n - the Greek letter nu c = ln

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**Frequency and wavelength**

Are inversely related As one goes up the other goes down. Different frequencies of light is different colors of light. There is a wide variety of frequencies The whole range is called a spectrum

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**Spectrum Low energy High energy Radiowaves Microwaves Infrared .**

Ultra-violet X-Rays GammaRays Low Frequency High Frequency Long Wavelength Short Wavelength Visible Light

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**Light is a Particle Energy is quantized. Light is energy**

Light must be quantized These smallest pieces of light are called photons. Energy and frequency are directly related.

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**Energy and frequency E = h x n E is the energy of the photon**

n is the frequency h is Planck’s constant h = x Joules sec.

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**The Math in Chapter 5 Only 2 equations c = ln E = hn**

c is always x 108 m/s h is always x J s

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Examples What is the frequency of red light with a wavelength of 4.2 x 10-5 cm? What is the wavelength of KFI, which broadcasts at with a frequency of 640 kHz? What is the energy of a photon of each of the above?

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**How color tells us about atoms**

Atomic Spectrum How color tells us about atoms

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Prism White light is made up of all the colors of the visible spectrum. Passing it through a prism separates it.

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**If the light is not white**

By heating a gas or with electricity we can get it to give off colors. Passing this light through a prism does something different.

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**Atomic Spectrum Each element gives off its own characteristic colors.**

Can be used to identify the atom. How we know what stars are made of.

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**These are called line spectra**

unique to each element. These are emission spectra Mirror images are absorption spectra Light with black missing

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**An explanation of Atomic Spectra**

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**Where the electron starts**

When we write electron configurations we are writing the lowest energy. The energy level an electron starts from is called its ground state.

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Changing the energy Let’s look at a hydrogen atom

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Changing the energy Heat or electricity or light can move the electron up energy levels

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Changing the energy As the electron falls back to ground state it gives the energy back as light

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**Changing the energy May fall down in steps**

Each with a different energy

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The Bohr Ring Atom n = 4 n = 3 n = 2 n = 1

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{ { {

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Ultraviolet Visible Infrared Further they fall, more energy, higher frequency. This is simplified the orbitals also have different energies inside energy levels All the electrons can move around.

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**What is light? Light is a particle - it comes in chunks.**

Light is a wave- we can measure its wave length and it behaves as a wave If we combine E=mc2 , c=ln, E = 1/2 mv2 and E = hn We can get l = h/mv The wavelength of a particle.

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**Matter is a Wave Does not apply to large objects**

Things bigger than an atom A baseball has a wavelength of about m when moving 30 m/s An electron at the same speed has a wavelength of 10-3 cm Big enough to measure.

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Diffraction When light passes through, or reflects off, a series of thinly spaced lines, it creates a rainbow effect because the waves interfere with each other.

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**A wave moves toward a slit.**

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**A wave moves toward a slit.**

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**A wave moves toward a slit.**

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**A wave moves toward a slit.**

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**A wave moves toward a slit.**

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Comes out as a curve

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Comes out as a curve

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Comes out as a curve

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with two holes

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with two holes

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with two holes

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with two holes

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with two holes

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Two Curves with two holes

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Two Curves with two holes

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Two Curves with two holes Interfere with each other

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Two Curves with two holes Interfere with each other crests add up

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Several waves

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Several waves

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Several waves

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Several waves

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Several waves

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Several waves

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Several waves

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Several waves

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Several waves

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Several waves

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Several waves Several Curves

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Several waves Several Curves

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Several waves Several Curves

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Several waves Several Curves

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Several waves Several waves Several Curves Interference Pattern

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**Diffraction Light shows interference patterns Light is a wave**

What will an electron do when going through two slits? Go through one slit or the other and make two spots Go through both and make a interference pattern

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Electron as Particle Electron “gun”

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Electron as wave Electron “gun”

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**Which did it do? It made the diffraction pattern**

The electron is a wave Led to Schrödingers equation

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**The physics of the very small**

Quantum mechanics explains how the very small behaves. Quantum mechanics is based on probability because

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**Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle**

It is impossible to know exactly the speed and position of a particle. The better we know one, the less we know the other. The act of measuring changes the properties.

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**More obvious with the very small**

To measure where a electron is, we use light. But the light moves the electron And hitting the electron changes the frequency of the light.

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**After Before Photon changes wavelength Photon**

Electron changes velocity Moving Electron

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