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The Periodic Table H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ra Ba F Cl Br I Uus At O S Se Te Uuh Po N P As Sb Uup Bi C Si Ge Sn Uuq Pb B Al Ga In Uut Tl ScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZn.

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Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ra Ba F Cl Br I Uus At O S Se Te Uuh Po N P As Sb Uup Bi C Si Ge Sn Uuq Pb B Al Ga In Uut Tl ScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZn."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Periodic Table H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ra Ba F Cl Br I Uus At O S Se Te Uuh Po N P As Sb Uup Bi C Si Ge Sn Uuq Pb B Al Ga In Uut Tl ScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZn YZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCd LuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHg He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Uuo LaCePrNdPmSmEuGdTb AcThPaUNpPuAmCmBk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ra Ba B Al Ga In Uut Tl Lr Rf DbSgBhHsMt UunUuuUub ScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZn YZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCd LuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHg Lr Rf DbSgBhHsMt UunUuuUub C Si Ge Sn Uuq Pb N P As Sb Uup Bi O S Se Te Uuh Po F Cl Br I Uus At He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Uuo LaCePrNdPmSmEuGdTb AcThPaUNpPuAmCmBk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No

2 Atoms All matter is made of them All matter is made of them Idea came from Greek philosopher Democritus Idea came from Greek philosopher Democritus 400 B.C 400 B.C Greek word atomos – not to be cut Greek word atomos – not to be cut Did not use scientific method Did not use scientific method No experiments to support idea No experiments to support idea

3 John Dalton Late 1808 look at all the data from experiments- his and others Late 1808 look at all the data from experiments- his and others Developed his own theory Developed his own theory Was accepted because of all the evidence Was accepted because of all the evidence

4 Daltons Atomic theory 1. All matter is made up of atoms- tiny particles of that cant be broken up 2. Atoms of the same element are identical 3. Atoms of different elements join to form molecules. The smallest part of an element with all the properties of that element. The smallest part of an element with all the properties of that element. Join in certain ratios to form molecules Join in certain ratios to form molecules

5 Parts of Atoms Atoms can be broken. Atoms can be broken. There are many different particles There are many different particles We will learn about the three most important to chemistry We will learn about the three most important to chemistry Proton – positively charged, big mass Proton – positively charged, big mass Electron – negatively charged, very small mass Electron – negatively charged, very small mass Neutron – no charge, about the same mass as a proton Neutron – no charge, about the same mass as a proton

6 Parts of Atoms Proton and neutron are about 2000 times heavier than the electron Proton and neutron are about 2000 times heavier than the electron Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus Electrons outside the nucleus Electrons outside the nucleus An atom is mostly empty An atom is mostly empty If the atom were the size of a baseball stadium, the nucleus would be the size of a marble If the atom were the size of a baseball stadium, the nucleus would be the size of a marble

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8 Bohrs Model Niels Bohr Niels Bohr Why dont negative electrons fall into positive nucleus? Why dont negative electrons fall into positive nucleus? They move like planets around the sun. They move like planets around the sun. Each electron in its own energy level Each electron in its own energy level

9 Energy Level Describe the path the electron takes around the nucleus Describe the path the electron takes around the nucleus Farther from nucleus is more energy Farther from nucleus is more energy Gain energy they move away Gain energy they move away Lose energy they move toward Lose energy they move toward Only certain energies are allowed in each atom Only certain energies are allowed in each atom

10 Energy Levels 2e - 8e - Like an elevator Like an elevator it can only be on certain floors it can only be on certain floors Never in between Never in between Energy levels get closer together the higher you go Energy levels get closer together the higher you go Each has room for a certain number of electrons Each has room for a certain number of electrons

11 Current Model Treats electrons as waves, not particles Treats electrons as waves, not particles Talks only about the probability of finding an electron Talks only about the probability of finding an electron Region called the electron cloud Region called the electron cloud Where are the blades in a fan? Where are the blades in a fan? It is impossible to know the exact location and the speed and direction of an electron It is impossible to know the exact location and the speed and direction of an electron

12 Orbitals Regions where you have a chance of finding the electron Regions where you have a chance of finding the electron There are different types of orbitals There are different types of orbitals s, p, d, f s, p, d, f Each has its own shape or shapes Each has its own shape or shapes Each shape has room for two electrons Each shape has room for two electrons Each can be found in the energy levels Each can be found in the energy levels

13 S orbital Shaped like a sphere Shaped like a sphere Room for 2 electrons Room for 2 electrons

14 P orbitals 3 dumbbell-shaped regions 3 dumbbell-shaped regions One on each axes of a 3-D graph One on each axes of a 3-D graph

15 P orbitals Each shape can hold two electrons Each shape can hold two electrons Total of 6 Total of 6

16 d orbitals Five different shapes Five different shapes More complex More complex Each can hold 2 electrons Each can hold 2 electrons Total of 10 electrons Total of 10 electrons

17 d orbitals

18 f orbitals seven different shapes seven different shapes Much more complex Much more complex Each can hold 2 electrons Each can hold 2 electrons Total of 14 electrons Total of 14 electrons

19 f orbitals

20 Valence electrons The electrons in the outermost energy level The electrons in the outermost energy level Responsible for most of the chemical properties Responsible for most of the chemical properties When two atoms interact, the outside electrons are the ones affected When two atoms interact, the outside electrons are the ones affected

21 The Periodic Table Listed in order of increasing number of protons Listed in order of increasing number of protons When you do this the properties of the elements repeat. When you do this the properties of the elements repeat. Periodic Law- when the elements are arranged in order of increasing number of protons, the properties tend to repeat in a pattern Periodic Law- when the elements are arranged in order of increasing number of protons, the properties tend to repeat in a pattern

22 The Periodic Table Atoms in the same column have similar properties Atoms in the same column have similar properties Columns are called groups or families Columns are called groups or families They have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons They have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons Rows are called periods Rows are called periods

23 Group 1 all have one electron in their outside s orbital Group 1 all have one electron in their outside s orbital Group 2 all have two electrons in their outside s orbital Group 2 all have two electrons in their outside s orbital

24 The middle of the table is 10 elements wide The middle of the table is 10 elements wide This is where the d orbitals are filling This is where the d orbitals are filling

25 On the right hand side Group the s orbitals are full, and the p orbitals are filling On the right hand side Group the s orbitals are full, and the p orbitals are filling Group 13 s has 2 e - p has 1 e - Group 13 s has 2 e - p has 1 e - Group 14 s has 2 e - p has 2 e - Group 14 s has 2 e - p has 2 e - Group 18 s has 2 e - p has 6 e - Group 18 s has 2 e - p has 6 e - p and s both full p and s both full

26 Ions Atoms with a charge Atoms with a charge Different number of protons and electrons Different number of protons and electrons Form by changing the number of electrons Form by changing the number of electrons Ionization- adding or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms Ionization- adding or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms Two types Two types

27 Cations Ions with a positive charge Ions with a positive charge More protons than electrons More protons than electrons Formed by losing electrons Formed by losing electrons Happens to atoms with few valence electrons Happens to atoms with few valence electrons Lose electrons to get down to full outside energy level Lose electrons to get down to full outside energy level Written as a superscript Na + Ca 2+ Written as a superscript Na + Ca 2+

28 Anions Negative ions Negative ions More electrons than protons More electrons than protons Form by gaining electrons Form by gaining electrons Happens to atoms with many valence electrons Happens to atoms with many valence electrons Fill up outer energy level Fill up outer energy level Written as a superscript F - O 2- Written as a superscript F - O 2-

29 Counting the pieces Atomic Number- the number of protons Atomic Number- the number of protons Determines the type of atom and element Determines the type of atom and element Mass number- number of protons and neutrons Mass number- number of protons and neutrons All the heavy pieces All the heavy pieces Electrons are the same as protons if neutral. Electrons are the same as protons if neutral. If an ion, it gained or lost electrons If an ion, it gained or lost electrons

30 Isotopes Atoms of the same type can have different numbers of neutrons Atoms of the same type can have different numbers of neutrons These are isotopes These are isotopes They behave identically They behave identically They just weigh different amounts They just weigh different amounts Mass number is written after the name Mass number is written after the name Hydrogen – 1 Hydrogen – 1 Hydrogen – 2 Hydrogen – 2

31 In the symbol P Charge Mass Number Atomic Number

32 Find the Find the number of protons number of protons number of neutrons number of neutrons number of electrons number of electrons Atomic number Atomic number Mass Number Mass Number Name Name F 19 9

33 n Find n Find the –number –number of protons of neutrons of electrons –Atomic –Atomic number –Mass –Mass Number –Name Br

34 if an element has an atomic number of 34 and a mass number of 78 what is the if an element has an atomic number of 34 and a mass number of 78 what is the number of protons number of protons number of neutrons number of neutrons number of electrons number of electrons Complete symbol Complete symbol Name Name

35 The Mass of Atoms Very, very small Very, very small Cant use grams Cant use grams Use the Atomic Mass Unit (amu) Use the Atomic Mass Unit (amu) One twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom One twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom Since carbon-12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons makes the mass of a proton or neutron 1.0 amu Since carbon-12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons makes the mass of a proton or neutron 1.0 amu

36 Atomic Mass Mass of the average atom Mass of the average atom Since there are isotopes of atoms two things affect the average Since there are isotopes of atoms two things affect the average The mass of the isotopes The mass of the isotopes How much of each isotope there is How much of each isotope there is These are the decimal numbers on the periodic table These are the decimal numbers on the periodic table

37 Atomic Mass Two isotopes of copper Two isotopes of copper 72% copper-63 72% copper-63 28% copper-65 28% copper-65 Makes the average amu Makes the average amu

38 Metals

39 Metals Luster – shiny. Luster – shiny. Ductile – drawn into wires. Ductile – drawn into wires. Malleable – hammered into sheets. Malleable – hammered into sheets. Conductors of heat and electricity. Conductors of heat and electricity.

40 Transition metals l The Group B elements

41 Non-metals l Dull l Brittle l Nonconductors - insulators

42 Metalloids or Semimetals l Properties of both l Semiconductors

43 Group 1 are the alkali metals Group 1 are the alkali metals Group 2 are the alkaline earth metals Group 2 are the alkaline earth metals

44 Group 17 is called the Halogens Group 17 is called the Halogens Group 18 are the noble gases Group 18 are the noble gases

45 Alkali Metals Very reactive Very reactive Not found alone in nature Not found alone in nature Have one valence electron Have one valence electron Easily lose it to form a 1+ ion Easily lose it to form a 1+ ion

46 Alkaline Earth Metals Les reactive Les reactive Have two valence electrons Have two valence electrons Lose them to form a 2+ ion Lose them to form a 2+ ion

47 Transition Metals Less reactive Less reactive Often found alone in nature Often found alone in nature Form many different ions Form many different ions

48 Halogens Very reactive Very reactive Have many valence electrons Have many valence electrons Gain one electron to form a 1- ion Gain one electron to form a 1- ion

49 Noble Gases Do not react Do not react Will not form compounds Will not form compounds

50 Counting the Particles Atoms are too small to be counted one at a time Atoms are too small to be counted one at a time We count them in groups called the mole We count them in groups called the mole One dozen is twelve One dozen is twelve One gross is 144 One gross is 144 One mole is 602,213,670,000,000,000,000,000 One mole is 602,213,670,000,000,000,000, x x 10 23

51 The mole x is called Avogadros number x is called Avogadros number Abbreviated mol Abbreviated mol The mass of 1 mole is the molar mass The mass of 1 mole is the molar mass For an element it is the same as the atomic mass For an element it is the same as the atomic mass The decimal number on the periodic table The decimal number on the periodic table

52 Conversion Factors A fraction with even top and bottom A fraction with even top and bottom But with different units But with different units 1 m is 100 cm 1 m is 100 cm Can make two conversion factors Can make two conversion factors 1 m and 100 cm 100 cm 1 m 1 m and 100 cm 100 cm 1 m Multiply by conversion factors to change units Multiply by conversion factors to change units

53 Conversion Factors Choose the conversion factor with the unit you want in the numerator and the unit you dont want in the denominator Choose the conversion factor with the unit you want in the numerator and the unit you dont want in the denominator 56 cm is how many meters? 56 cm is how many meters? 56 cm x 56 cm x 1 m 100 cm 1 m 100 cm = 0.56 m

54 Amount (mol) Mass (g) Conversion Factors x 1 mol of element molar mass of element x molar mass of element 1 mol of element


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