MODULE HANDBOOK UPDATES Schedule wk 11 (Thu 26 April) 11am-12.30pmGuest speaker (Roland Moore) pmModule evaluation Seminar assessment - 25% Class presentation - Any active contribution to class discussion will be considered when assessing general learning outcomes
U64022 SCREENWRITING ADVANCED WEEK 6 COMPLEX NARRATIVES Case study: Mulholland Drive SHORT FORMATS (1): SIT-COMS Case study: Friends SCRIPT FORMATS
COMPLEX NARRATIVES Case studies: Pulp Fiction Memento Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind - Mulholland Drive
MULHOLLAND DRIVE Blonde Girls dream – Who is she? No exposition until late into third section Protagonist introduced 17 into the film 12 (1h53) 3 (25) (230) Awake (reality) Asleep (dream) ?
MULHOLLAND DRIVE Jitterbug dance - Solid color blue screen, no wall, no floor -Superimposed images of dancers -Further superimposed images (Blonde Girl and parents?) - Overexposed, out of focus, jittery STYLISED, UNREALISTIC NARRATION... POV shot, sone heading towards bed -Handheld, moving camera -O.S. breathing sound -Selective focus on red sheets and pillow -Superimposed images (glimpse): link to Blonde Girl and parents -Closing in on pillow, fade to black: characters loss of consciousness (falls asleep) SEQUENCE MOTIVATED BY CHARACTERS PSYCHOLOGY
MULHOLLAND DRIVE CREDIT SEQUENCE -Closing in on pillow, fade to black: characters loss of consciousness (falls asleep) DREAM STARTS -Road sign shimmering (effect motivated by cause: i.e. Cadillac headlamps flashing on and off in next shot) ROAD SIGN = FILM TITLE (Credit sequence started) Film born from blackness (dream state) Dream length = 1h53 Section 2 as a focused chain of events when does the dream stop?
MULHOLLAND DRIVE DREAM, SECTION 1 (DARK-HAIRED WOMAN) -Cadillac, Dark Woman threatened, car crash Narrative disequilibrium (disturbance) - Who is this woman? - Why is she being threatened? - How has the crash affected her? (amnesia) -Stumbles into apartment (whose?) -Falls asleep (dream within dream – Winkies)
MULHOLLAND DRIVE 12 (1h53) 3 (25) (230) Awake (reality) Asleep (dream) ? Cadillac on Mullholland Dr. scenes
MULHOLLAND DRIVE PATTERN REPETITIONS W/DIFFERENCES Important events in Section 2 are repeated in Section 3 Different characters (played by same actors) repeat same actions/event/piece of dialogue in different context - Significant and mysterious in Section 2 - Mundane and ordinary in Section 3 Car crash; Winkies; Coco (landlady, Adams mother); mysterious cowboy; Dianes rundown apartment; lovemaking; Silencio Club; blue key; etc. MEANING (through spectators mental activity) Priming in Sections 1 and 2 Link up repetitions and compare differences (Section 3)
MULHOLLAND DRIVE DREAMREALITY Naomi WattsBetty (+)Diane Selwin (--) Laura HerringRita (-)Camilla Rhodes (+) Dianes dream idealized image of her lover (Camilla) and of herself, with reversed power dynamics Section 3 exposition: jitterbug contest, inheritance, audition, Camilla, lovers and paranoia Dream and repetition pattern to tell story of thwarted dream
MULHOLLAND DRIVE - MAP
SHORT FORMAT - STRUCTURE TV FORMATS (series) Long = 1-hour slot, 42 minutes ca. (4-5 acts, up to 7) Short = ½-hour slot, 22 minutes ca. (2 acts) + teasers and epilogue/coda TV terminology Act
22-minutes format, Sit-com FRIENDS Set characters Chandler, Joey, Ross, Rachel, Monica and Phoebe Recurring minor characters: the Gellers, Gunther, Janice, Carol and Susan, Ben, Estelle Other characters: boyfriends and girlfriends, other friends and relatives (the Bings, the Tribbianis), employers, etc. Set locations Monica and Rachels apartment Joey and Chandlers apartment Central Perk Rosss and Phoebes apartments (less frequent) Workplaces (may change over time) Others
22-minutes format, Sit-com FRIENDS Stories Ongoing major narrative threads (Rachel and Ross, Rosss ex wives, Monica and Chandler, Chandler and Janice, Chandler and Joey, Rachel and Monica, Joey and Rachel, Rachels pregnancy and daughter, Phoebes brothers children, Phoebe and David/Mike) One-off stories (episodes)
FRIENDS – EPISODE STRUCTURE #PLOT A (Chandler & Joey)Plot B (Monica)Plot C (Rachel & Ross)LocationTransitions 1J pays back C and gives him a best buds bracelet Boys apartment CREDITS Ms job interview – 110Kitchen 3M, Ross & P see Cs bracelet and make fun M took a shower. Ross suggests borrowing money from parents Ross takes a phone call for Rachel and worries Girls apartmentNY street 4The Gellers bring boxes(*). Rachel arrives too – 105 Girls apartment 5Cs bracelet the women- repeller. J gets upset – 130 Central PerkNY Skyline 6Ross saves Rachel from a guy. They argue over the lobsters thing: no us – 240 Central PerkFADE OUT J and C argue. C has lost the bracelet – 120 Boys apartment 8Ross helps M to ask money to the Gellers – 120 Girls apartment 9C bought a new bracelet. Now they have two: best buds again – 115 Central Perk 10Ross lends money to MRachel arrives: cold w/Ross. * The prom video in the boxes: Ross does not want to watch it, Ross in love w/Rachel, Rachel realizes that, they kiss – 555 Girls apartment + Gellers house FADE OUT Epilogue – M watches the tape, the Gellers in bed – 030 END CREDITS – 010
FRIENDS – EPISODE STRUCTURE Total duration credit sequences: 1 in total Actual story duration: 2050 in total 11 scenes(ie. 10 scenes incl. teaser + tag) (but scenes 3 and 10 include multiple narrative threads each) 3 narrative threads (plots A, B and C) 14 narrative units 6 main characters + Gellers + Guy at cafè + Hot girl + Chip&Roy 3 usual locations (INT.): girls apartment, boys apartment, Central Perk 2 other locations (INT.): kitchen, Gellers house
FRIENDS – EPISODE STRUCTURE Avg duration per scene: 2 ca. PLOT A 5 narr. units: 645 (Chandler + Joey) + Phoebe friendship + incomprehension = gags (funny) PLOT B 5 narr. units: 435 (Monica + Gellers) + Ross Work/money + family = everyday life (serious) PLOT C 3 narr. units: 940 (Ross + Rach) + Phoebe Love anticlimax / expectations (emotions)
SIT-COM - DIALOGUE Fixed structure Set characters Set locations Where is creativity? DIALOGUE How many lines per episode? How many lines per character? How many laughters? How many ooohs?
SIT-COM - DIALOGUE Fixed structure Set characters Set locations Where is creativity? DIALOGUE How many lines per episode? How many lines per character? How many laughters? per episode How many ooohs?
SIT-COM - DIALOGUE Fixed structure Set characters Set locations Where is creativity? DIALOGUE How many lines per episode? How many lines per character? How many laughters? per season How many ooohs?
SIT-COM - DIALOGUE Fixed structure Set characters Set locations Where is creativity? DIALOGUE How many lines per episode? How many lines per character? How many laughters? total (over 10 yrs) How many ooohs?
SCRIPT FORMATS Samples Feature films TV series - US sit-com (30-min slot) - UK 1-hour slot
SCREENPLAY FORMAT – SCRIPT ELEMENTS SCENE HEADING / SLUG LINE (all caps) Scene intro (location) EXT./INT. Description (location) DAY/NIGHT (DAWN/SUNSET Info for production manager Production plan Production design (sets) Photography ACTION / BUSINESS Description of action, people, places Single-spaced Margin-to-margin (not justified) Sound effects capitalized
SCREENPLAY FORMAT – SCRIPT ELEMENTS... DIALOGUE Characters name (capitalized) Characters extension (O.S. or V.O.) Parentheticals (stage direction; keep to a minimum, only if essential, e.g. reactions) Dialogue lines: single- spaced TABS (from left margin) Action / Business = 0 Dialogue = 2 Parentheticals = 3 Characters name (before dialogue) = 4 TRANSITIONS Only if/when necessary