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Chapter 10: How Do We Relate With Others?. Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Social Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: How Do We Relate With Others?. Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Social Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10: How Do We Relate With Others?

2 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Social Psychology The study of thought and behavior as influenced by social situations Attitudes – an evaluative belief held about something  Acquired through learning; classical, operant and social learning

3 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Classical and Operant Conditioning of Attitudes Classical Conditioning  Learned emotional and physiological responses Operant Conditioning  Attitudes strengthened if rewarded and weakened if punished  Consequences of direct interaction with object affect attitude Social Learning Observe a model and store mental representation of behavior Attitudes tend to be most like those around us

4 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning The Link Between Attitudes and Behavior Attitude-behavior consistency Researchers interested in why this is often lacking  What variables affect attitude-behavior consistency?  Answers have practical social value  Politics, consumerism, safe sex, prejudice  How can attitudes be changed?

5 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Cognitive Consistency and Attitude Change Attitudes change as new knowledge is acquired and different experiences are had Cognitive consistency  Desire to avoid contradictions among attitudes or between attitudes and behavior Why?... Cognitive Dissonance theory

6 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Dissonance Theory Inconsistencies cause unpleasant physical state – dissonance Motivated to restore state of consonance Three ways to remove inconsistencies  Change behavior  Change attitudes  Bring new beliefs or attitudes to situation

7 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Persuasion and Attitude Change Persuasion = Direct attempts to change attitudes  Advertisements, media, politicians, friends Exposed to multitude of persuasion attempts on daily basis Cognitive processes engaged during the persuasive attempt influence effect  Central route where messages are critically evaluated  Peripheral route where superficial aspects of arguments influence

8 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Other Variables Affecting Persuasion Communicator variables  Credible, attractive, expert  Especially in peripheral route Message variables  Present both pros and cons Audience variables  Easier on peripheral route than central route  Positive moods use less careful evaluation  Easier to persuade:  low IQ, sometimes high IQ, younger

9 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning How We Form Impressions of Others Impression formation = How we understand and make judgments about others  Attempt to determine what others are like so we can predict their behavior and guide ours

10 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning The Attribution Process Attribution = Judging people by observing and determining cause of behavior Trait attribution  Traits, abilities, characteristics of person Situational attribution  Environmental causes

11 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Heuristics and Biases in Attribution Realistically, not always possible to make careful attributions Humans are ‘cognitive misers’  Often use heuristics or shortcuts to make conclusions about others May lead to errors and biases

12 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to rely more on trait attributions than situational Reasons for this not entirely clear Varies by culture  Individualistic cultures emphasize individual behavior and success over group; more likely to make fundamental attribution errors  Collectivistic cultures emphasize group over individual

13 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Actor/Observer Bias When observing own behavior take more situational factors into account Appears self-serving, but not always Factors:  Cannot see own behavior, focused outward  Have different knowledge about self than other

14 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Self-Serving Bias Tendency to make trait attributions for successes, situational attributions for failures Helps protect self-esteem May become too self-serving and hurt

15 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Prejudice: How It Occurs and How to Reduce It Prejudice hampers lives through violence, hate crimes or subtler forms (discrimination against minorities in home loans, women in workforce) Of hate crimes, most common motivations are racial, religious, and sexual orientation Prejudice is an attitude and develops like other normal cognitive processes; it is unique in its divisiveness

16 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Prejudice and Stereotypes Stereotype: formation of a schema for specific groups of people Stereotypes can be helpful or hurtful Prejudice is stereotype gone awry Biased, negative stereotype + negative affect = prejudice Discrimination: behavioral expression of prejudice

17 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Stereotype Threat Claude Steele Stereotype threat - Fear that others will judge one based on prejudicial stereotypes  May end up reinforcing aspects of the prejudice  Can inhibit task performance Stereotype threat impairs African Americans’ academic performance

18 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Social Transmission of Prejudice Develop through classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning Jane Elliot’s “experiment”  Created prejudice within hours of beginning experiment Children tend to adapt parents’ beliefs, more so for egalitarian beliefs than prejudicial beliefs  Shaped by peers

19 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning In-Group Bias: Us vs. Them In-group bias: prefer groups of which we are members  Like group members more than others Contributes to self-esteem View out-group members as inferior Affects way we perceive out-group members  Out-group homogeneity bias: perceive members of out-group as alike

20 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Intergroup Conflict and Prejudice: It’s Their Fault Realistic-conflict theory  Conflict amongst groups for resources (e.g. jobs, trophies) contributes to development of prejudice Minority out-group can become scapegoats  Racial prejudice when direct competition between groups for jobs Muzafer Sherif’s Robber’s Cave experiment  Competition between groups and affiliation with group led to prejudice

21 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Does Social Contact Reduce Prejudice? Contact hypothesis: contact between groups reduces prejudices Contact alone does not reduce prejudice, must be cooperative contact Superordinate goal: goal both groups want to achieve, but need help of other group  Become one group, with one mission

22 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Group Contact Characteristics That Reduce Prejudice Groups need each other Have a common, superordinate goal Work at same level on equal playing field Contact is hospitable, informal, and free from negative emotional interaction Contact lasts a significant period of time Norm promote harmony and mutual respect

23 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning The Jigsaw Classroom Real-life application of group contact Elliot Aronson Jigsaw classroom: students from different ethnic groups work together to complete a project  Reduces prejudice and hostility  Increases academic performance and self-esteem

24 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning The Nature of Attraction Attitudes formed about a person determine whether or not we will be attracted  Affective component particularly important Proximity  Physical closeness to person affects attraction (someone we see often, live near)  Mere exposure effect: the more often we see person or object, the more we like it Similarity  Similarity predicts attraction across all cultures

25 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning The Nature of Attraction: Physical Attractiveness Standards of attractiveness vary by culture, but is important factor in attraction  Important to both men and women, with men placing more emphasis on it Matching hypothesis: involved with people whose physical attractiveness is similar to ours  True for friendships and romantic partners Attractive people perceived as more interesting, kind, sociable, sensitive, and nurturing May be part biological and instinctive

26 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning

27 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Groups and Group Influence We belong to a multitude of groups Functions of groups  Companionship  Security  Social identity  Helps in gaining information and achieving goals Groups have power to influence behavior

28 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Social Forces Within Groups: Norms and Cohesiveness Norms: laws that guide behavior of group members  Explicit or implicit Breaking norms results in unpleasant consequences Cohesiveness: desire to maintain membership in group  High cohesiveness includes high pressure to meet group norms  Increases conformity

29 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Conformity Within a Group Solomon Asch Subjects given series of lines and asked questions about them  Confederates deliberately chose incorrect answers Subjects were most likely to follow confederates and choose wrong answer (74%)  Conformity increases as majority group increases  Maximum conformity with only 3 confederates

30 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning

31 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Factors Contributing to Conformity Lacking confidence in own abilities High cohesiveness in group Responses are public, not anonymous Group has at least 3 unanimous members The idea of conformity is a cultural norm and/or no personal need to feel individuated

32 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Explaining Conformity During debriefing Asch asked why conformed Normative conformity  Subjects who knew their answer was wrong, but went along with group  Desire to fit with group and be liked by others Informational conformity  Subjects became convinced that their choice was actually wrong  Heightened when unsure of opinions or abilities

33 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Stanford Prison Experiment: The Dark Side of Conformity Phillip Zimbardo Subjects assigned role of prisoner or guard in mock prison Within days, disturbing behaviors emerged  Abuse on parts of guards  Prisoners became docile and depressed

34 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Explaining the Stanford Prison Experiment New setting, isolated from outside world and norms of society, new norms developed Deindividuation – behavior controlled by external norms rather than internal values and morals  Several aspects of experiment contributed to deindividuation

35 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Decision Making in Groups Group decisions not necessarily better than decisions made by individuals Groupthink: group fixates on one decision, without examining alternatives Factors related to group think:  Group isolation (no outside information)  Group cohesiveness (don’t rock the boat)  Strong dictatorial leadership (can’t disagree)  Stress in group (may not think logically)

36 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Compliance Techniques Foot-in-the-Door  First asked to comply with small request, then bigger requests  Effective because most want to behave in consistent manner – compliance reduces dissonance Door-in-the-Face  Large request followed by smaller request  High rates of compliance  Effective for may reasons: perceptual contrast, reciprocity, guilt

37 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Obedience Stanley Milgram Research question: Is it possible that the average person could be influenced to hurt others if an authority figure gave order to do so? Subjects asked to shock unseen participants (confederates) when mistake made on word list 65% of subjects shocked up to the 450-volt mark (even when confederate appeared injured) Studies have replicated results

38 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Factors That Affect Obedience Presence of perceived authority figure (relieves responsibility, intimidates) Physical distance of authority figure Timing of request (came quickly, little time to think) Shock levels increase incrementally (foot-in-the- door phenomenon, slippery slope) Psychological distances (don’t see consequences of actions)

39 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Revisiting the Obedience Studies Milgram’s study a demonstration of destructive obedience: that which leads to harm of others Ethics of study?  Effect on subjects: stress-related behaviors, use of deception led to this  Actual purpose of research was disclosed to participants (debriefing), but they are left with knowledge of their behavior  Modern ethical principles guiding research

40 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Aggression Aggression: action intended to cause harm to another  Instrumental aggression: aimed at satisfying goal  Hostile aggression: motivated by desire to hurt U.S. is considered an aggressive society

41 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Biological Theories of Aggression Males tend to be more aggressive then females  80%+ of violent crimes, including murder May be related to testosterone; correlation does not imply causation Serotonin  Lower levels of serotonin found in two groups: survivors of suicide and adults institutionalized since childhood for aggression

42 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Childhood Abuse and Aggression Correlation between aggression and possible brain damage related to child abuse Child abuse and neglect correlated with several structural brain abnormalities  Hippocampus, amygdala, left frontal and temporal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum

43 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Learning Theories of Aggression Albert Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiments  Aggression is learned by viewing an aggressive model

44 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Does Television Portray Violence Accurately? TV portrays aggression unrealistically  Portrays incidence of aggression as higher than actual rates  No negative repercussions for aggressive acts Victims’ suffering not portrayed accurately Least accurate portrayal in children’s programs Leave children with false impressions regarding aggression, increasing likelihood children will model behavior

45 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Situations That Promote Aggressive Behavior Frustration-aggression hypothesis  When frustrated, we activate a motive to harm others or objects  Motives directed at what appears to be source of frustration Abusive parents may be in stressful situations such as poverty

46 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Helping Behavior: Will You Or Won’t You? Just as humans can engage in negative behaviors, we can also be very generous Altruism: willingness to help others without considering personal benefit Capacity for kindness and compassion What factors influence helping behavior?

47 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning The Murder of Kitty Genovese 1964 Kitty Genovese was murdered in New York City while 38 of her neighbors heard Not one contacted the police or intervened Factors involved in decision to help  Noticing something is occurring  Correctly interpret events  Feeling responsibility to intervene  Deciding how to help  Implementing strategy

48 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning The Bystander Effect Latane and Darley  Failure can occur at any stage in helping decision process  As number of bystanders increases, likelihood of intervention decreases Diffusion of responsibility  With more bystanders, more diffusion Pluralistic ignorance  Group failure to perceive problem

49 Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning When People Choose to Help People do choose to help total strangers Many forms and examples of altruism exist Failure to help not typically due to apathy or cruelty but to misunderstanding, confusion, or fear


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