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Chapter 1 Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management 1-1.

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management 1-1

2 Lecture Outline What Operations and Supply Chain Managers Do Operations Function Evolution of Operations and Supply Chain Management Globalization and Competitiveness Operations Strategy and Organization of the Text Learning Objectives for This Course Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-2

3 What Operations and Supply Chain Managers Do What is Operations Management? design, operation, and improvement of productive systems What is Operations? a function or system that transforms inputs into outputs of greater value What is a Transformation Process? a series of activities along a value chain extending from supplier to customer activities that do not add value are superfluous and should be eliminated Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-3

4 Transformation Process Physical: as in manufacturing operations Locational: as in transportation or warehouse operations Exchange: as in retail operations Physiological: as in health care Psychological: as in entertainment Informational: as in communication Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-4

5 Operations as a Transformation Process Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-5 INPUT Material Machines Labor Management Capital TRANSFORMATION PROCESS OUTPUT Goods Services Feedback & Requirements

6 Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Operations Function Operations Marketing Finance and Accounting Human Resources Outside Suppliers 1-6

7 How is Operations Relevant to my Major? Accounting Information Technology Management “As an auditor you must understand the fundamentals of operations management.” “IT is a tool, and there’s no better place to apply it than in operations.” “We use so many things you learn in an operations class—scheduling, lean production, theory of constraints, and tons of quality tools.” Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-7

8 How is Operations Relevant to my Major? Economics Marketing Finance “It’s all about processes. I live by flowcharts and Pareto analysis.” “How can you do a good job marketing a product if you’re unsure of its quality or delivery status?” “Most of our capital budgeting requests are from operations, and most of our cost savings, too.” Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-8

9 Evolution of Operations and Supply Chain Management Craft production process of handcrafting products or services for individual customers Division of labor dividing a job into a series of small tasks each performed by a different worker Interchangeable parts standardization of parts initially as replacement parts; enabled mass production Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-9

10 Evolution of Operations and Supply Chain Management Scientific management systematic analysis of work methods Mass production high-volume production of a standardized product for a mass market Lean production adaptation of mass production that prizes quality and flexibility Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-10

11 Historical Events in Operations Management EraEvents/ConceptsDatesOriginator Industrial Revolution Steam engine1769 James Watt Division of labor1776 Adam Smith Interchangeable parts1790 Eli Whitney Scientific Management Principles of scientific management 1911 Frederick W. Taylor Time and motion studies1911 Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Activity scheduling chart1912 Henry Gantt Moving assembly line1913 Henry Ford Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-11

12 Historical Events in Operations Management EraEvents/ConceptsDatesOriginator Human Relations Hawthorne studies1930Elton Mayo Motivation theories 1940sAbraham Maslow 1950sFrederick Herzberg 1960sDouglas McGregor Operations Research Linear programming1947George Dantzig Digital computer1951Remington Rand Simulation, waiting line theory, decision theory, PERT/CPM 1950s Operations research groups MRP, EDI, EFT, CIM 1960s, 1970s Joseph Orlicky, IBM and others Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-12

13 Historical Events in Operations Management EraEvents/Concepts DatesOriginator Quality Revolution JIT (just-in-time)1970sTaiichi Ohno (Toyota) TQM (total quality management) 1980s W. Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran Strategy and operations 1980s Wickham Skinner, Robert Hayes Reengineering1990s Michael Hammer, James Champy Six Sigma1990sGE, Motorola Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-13

14 Historical Events in Operations Management EraEvents/ConceptsDatesOriginator Internet Revolution Internet, WWW, ERP, supply chain management 1990sARPANET, Tim Berners-Lee SAP, i2 Technologies, ORACLE, Dell E-commerce2000sAmazon, Yahoo, eBay, Google, and others GlobalizationWTO, European Union, Global supply chains, Outsourcing, Service Science 1990s 2000s China, India, emerging economies Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-14

15 Historical Events in Operations Management EraEvents/ConceptsDatesOriginator Green Revolution Global warming, An Inconvenient Truth, Kyoto TodayNumerous scientists, statesmen and governments Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-15

16 Evolution of Operations and Supply Chain Management Supply chain management –management of the flow of information, products, and services across a network of customers, enterprises, and supply chain partners 1-16 Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17 Globalization Why “go global”? –favorable cost –access to international markets –response to changes in demand –reliable sources of supply –latest trends and technologies Increased globalization –results from the Internet and falling trade barriers 1-17

18 Hourly Compensation 1-18

19 GDP per Capita 1-19

20 Trade in Goods, % of GDP Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-20

21 Productivity and Competitiveness Competitiveness degree to which a nation can produce goods and services that meet the test of international markets Productivity ratio of output to input Output sales made, products produced, customers served, meals delivered, or calls answered Input labor hours, investment in equipment, material usage, or square footage Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-21

22 Measures of Productivity Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-22

23 Osborne Industries Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-23 C6*C8 C7*C9 C5/C6 C5/C7 C5/C13

24 Productivity Growth Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-24

25 Percent Change in Input and Output Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-25

26 Strategy and Operations How the mission of a company is accomplished Provides direction for achieving a mission Unites the organization Provides consistency in decisions Keeps organization moving in the right direction Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-26

27 Strategy Formulation 1.Defining a primary task What is the firm in the business of doing? 2.Assessing core competencies What does the firm do better than anyone else? 3.Determining order winners and order qualifiers What qualifies an item to be considered for purchase? What wins the order? 4.Positioning the firm How will the firm compete? 5.Deploying the strategy Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-27

28 Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Strategic Planning 1-28 Mission and Vision Corporate Strategy Operations Strategy Marketing Strategy Financial Strategy Voice of the Business Voice of the Customer

29 Order Winners and Order Qualifiers Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-29 Source: Adapted from Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, Robert Johnston, and Alan Betts, Operations and Process Management, Prentice Hall, 2006, p. 47

30 Positioning the Firm Cost Speed Quality Flexibility 1-30

31 Positioning the Firm: Cost Waste elimination relentlessly pursuing the removal of all waste Examination of cost structure looking at the entire cost structure for reduction potential Lean production providing low costs through disciplined operations Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-31

32 Positioning the Firm: Speed Fast moves, Fast adaptations, Tight linkages Internet Customers expect immediate responses Service organizations always competed on speed (McDonald’s, LensCrafters, and Federal Express) Manufacturers time-based competition: build-to-order production and efficient supply chains Fashion industry two-week design-to-rack lead time of Spanish retailer, Zara Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-32

33 Positioning the Firm: Quality Minimizing defect rates or conforming to design specifications Ritz-Carlton - one customer at a time Service system designed to “move heaven and earth” to satisfy customer Employees empowered to satisfy a guest’s wish Teams set objectives and devise quality action plans Each hotel has a quality leader Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-33

34 Positioning the Firm: Flexibility Ability to adjust to changes in product mix, production volume, or design Mass customization: the mass production of customized parts National Bicycle Industrial Company offers 11,231,862 variations delivers within two weeks at costs only 10% above standard models Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-34

35 Policy Deployment Policy deployment translates corporate strategy into measurable objectives Hoshins action plans generated from the policy deployment process Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-35

36 Policy Deployment Derivation of an Action Plan Using Policy Deployment 1-36 Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

37 Balanced Scorecard Balanced scorecard measuring more than financial performance 1.finances 2.customers 3.processes 4.learning and growing Key performance indicators set of measures to help managers evaluate performance in critical areas Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-37

38 Balanced Scorecard Worksheet Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-38

39 Balanced Scorecard 1-39 Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Radar Chart Dashboard

40 Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Operations Strategy Products 1-40 ServicesProcessandTechnology Capacity HumanResources Quality Facilities SourcingOperatingSystems

41 Organization of This Text: Part I – Operations Management 1.Intro. to Operations and Supply Chain Management 2.Quality Management 3.Statistical Quality Control 4.Product Design 5.Service Design 6.Processes and Technology 7.Capacity and Facilities Design 8.Human Resources 9.Project Management Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-41

42 Organization of This Text: Part II – Supply Chain Management 10.Supply Chain Strategy and Design 11.Global Supply Chain Procurement and Distribution 12.Forecasting 13.Inventory Management 14.Sales and Operations Planning 15.Resource Planning 16.Lean Systems 17.Scheduling Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-42

43 Learning Objectives of this Course Gain an appreciation of strategic importance of operations and supply chain management in a global business environment Understand how operations relates to other business functions Develop a working knowledge of concepts and methods related to designing and managing operations and supply chains Develop a skill set for continuous improvement Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-43

44 Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1-44 Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein.


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