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Chapter 7. Spring of 1866- Reached Smoky Mountain Reached Smoky Mountain Met hunting party of Cheyenne and Arapaho Met hunting party of Cheyenne and Arapaho.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7. Spring of 1866- Reached Smoky Mountain Reached Smoky Mountain Met hunting party of Cheyenne and Arapaho Met hunting party of Cheyenne and Arapaho."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7

2 Spring of Reached Smoky Mountain Reached Smoky Mountain Met hunting party of Cheyenne and Arapaho Met hunting party of Cheyenne and Arapaho Hunting in Kansas against Treaty Hunting in Kansas against Treaty Roman Nose and others ignored Roman Nose and others ignored Had not signed the Treaty giving away land Had not signed the Treaty giving away land

3 Spring of Many stayed at Smoky Hill Many stayed at Smoky Hill George Bent went to Black Kettle George Bent went to Black Kettle Found and made Magpie his wife Found and made Magpie his wife Spring of Edward Wynkoop had rejoined Cheyenne Edward Wynkoop had rejoined Cheyenne Appointed Agent for tribe Appointed Agent for tribe

4 THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN… Black Kettle Band Hunting Party

5 Spring of Wynkoop went to Smoky Hill Wynkoop went to Smoky Hill Tried to convince warriors/hunters to report to Agency Tried to convince warriors/hunters to report to Agency Chiefs refused Chiefs refused Sioux showing success in North Sioux showing success in North Encouraged Cheyenne to fight Encouraged Cheyenne to fight

6 Spring of Roman Nose and Dog Soldiers made plan Roman Nose and Dog Soldiers made plan Make way along Smoky Hill Road Make way along Smoky Hill Road Raid and destroy stage stations Raid and destroy stage stations Spring of Bent brothers split Bent brothers split George stayed with Black Kettle George stayed with Black Kettle Charlie with Roman Nose Charlie with Roman Nose Spoke for last time in October Spoke for last time in October

7 Autumn of Roman Nose went to Fort Wallace Roman Nose went to Fort Wallace Told U.S. to leave or fight Told U.S. to leave or fight Winter set in early Winter set in early Forced to set up winter camp Forced to set up winter camp Big Timbers on the Republican Big Timbers on the Republican

8 THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN… Fort Wallace Roman Nose Winter Camp

9 Spring Large number of soldiers reported coming to Ft Larned Large number of soldiers reported coming to Ft Larned Black Kettle ordered his camp south of the Canadian River in southern Oklahoma Black Kettle ordered his camp south of the Canadian River in southern Oklahoma Move Accidentally Caused Problems- Wynkoop could not find Black Kettle Wynkoop could not find Black Kettle Wanted Black Kettle to hold council at Ft Larned Wanted Black Kettle to hold council at Ft Larned

10 Spring of Wynkoop finds Roman Nose Wynkoop finds Roman Nose Convinces him to hold council at Ft Larned Convinces him to hold council at Ft Larned General Winfield Scott Hancock General Winfield Scott Hancock In command of U.S. forces In command of U.S. forces 1,400 soldiers at Fort 1,400 soldiers at Fort Including new command of 7 th Including new command of 7 th Hard Backsides Custer Hard Backsides Custer

11 Spring of Hancock frustrated with participants Hancock frustrated with participants Only 14 chiefs came to council Only 14 chiefs came to council Hancock threatened to go to camp to talk to chiefs Hancock threatened to go to camp to talk to chiefs Indians nervous Indians nervous Many women and children were there Many women and children were there

12 Spring Night Council was a bad omen Night Council was a bad omen Hancock told of railroad coming Hancock told of railroad coming Whites coming from all directions Whites coming from all directions Cheyenne agreed to hold back warriors Cheyenne agreed to hold back warriors U.S. needed to do the same U.S. needed to do the same Hancock Agitated- Roman Nose not present Roman Nose not present Not a chief and not invited Not a chief and not invited Hancock wanted to go to camp to find him Hancock wanted to go to camp to find him

13 Spring Cheyenne begged Wynkoop to step in Cheyenne begged Wynkoop to step in Hancock ignored plea Hancock ignored plea Began march to Cheyenne camp Began march to Cheyenne camp Wynkoop and Others- Rode ahead to warn camp Rode ahead to warn camp Pawnee Killer (Sioux) went to meet Hancock in peace Pawnee Killer (Sioux) went to meet Hancock in peace Others set fire to plain to make village hard to see Others set fire to plain to make village hard to see

14 Spring Pawnee Killer met Hancock Pawnee Killer met Hancock Both agreed to hold council next day Both agreed to hold council next day Roman Nose MUST be in attendance Roman Nose MUST be in attendance Spring Roman Nose suspected trap Roman Nose suspected trap Wanted to break camp Wanted to break camp Bull Bear met Hancock Bull Bear met Hancock

15 Bull Bear meets with Hancock- Hancock angry Roman Nose not there Hancock angry Roman Nose not there Bull Bear said he was buffalo hunting Bull Bear said he was buffalo hunting Hancock would march to Cheyenne camp and wait Hancock would march to Cheyenne camp and wait Following meeting- Bull Bear rushed to camp Bull Bear rushed to camp Women and children sent North on ponies Women and children sent North on ponies Chiefs name Roman Nose war leader Chiefs name Roman Nose war leader Bull Bear 2 nd to keep Roman Nose in check Bull Bear 2 nd to keep Roman Nose in check

16 Roman Nose Leaves Camp- Takes 300 armed warriors and a truce flag to meet Hancock Takes 300 armed warriors and a truce flag to meet Hancock Roman Nose told Bull Bear Roman Nose told Bull Bear “…Hancock is spoiling for a fight. I will kill him in front of his own men and give them something to fight about.” “…Hancock is spoiling for a fight. I will kill him in front of his own men and give them something to fight about.” Roman Nose Leaves Camp- 300 warriors met on plains by 1,400 U.S. soldiers 300 warriors met on plains by 1,400 U.S. soldiers Wynkoop talked Roman Nose into seeing Hancock Wynkoop talked Roman Nose into seeing Hancock

17 THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN… Agent Edward Wynkoop General Winfield Scott Hancock Cheyenne War Chief Roman Nose

18 Roman Nose Meeting with Hancock- Told Hancock poor horses prevented him from attending Ft Larned Council Told Hancock poor horses prevented him from attending Ft Larned Council Asked Hancock to not come closer to camp Asked Hancock to not come closer to camp Women and children had already fled Women and children had already fled Hancock demanded Roman Nose bring them back Hancock demanded Roman Nose bring them back Roman Nose Meeting with Hancock- Cheyenne said they would tell others to return Cheyenne said they would tell others to return Went back to camp, packed, and fled Went back to camp, packed, and fled

19 Following Meeting- Hancock waited for 2 days for Roman Nose to return Hancock waited for 2 days for Roman Nose to return Sent troops into abandoned camp Sent troops into abandoned camp Kept what they wanted Kept what they wanted Burned the rest Burned the rest Cheyenne and Sioux Response- Burned and looted stage stations Burned and looted stage stations Attacked railroads and camps Attacked railroads and camps Stopped all travel on Smoky Hill Road Stopped all travel on Smoky Hill Road

20 U.S. Disagrees on Next Move- Hancock’s expedition could not find Indians Hancock’s expedition could not find Indians Superintendent of Indian Affairs Murphy Superintendent of Indian Affairs Murphy Operations have been a failure Operations have been a failure To continue after so few Indians futile To continue after so few Indians futile Indian Agent Sanborn agreed Indian Agent Sanborn agreed U.S. Disagrees on Next Move- General Sheridan disagreed General Sheridan disagreed Needed to have peace or kill them Needed to have peace or kill them To leave them alone would lead to war To leave them alone would lead to war

21 U.S. Disagrees on Next Move- Agreed to try Peace Commission Agreed to try Peace Commission Led by same party as Ft Laramie Treaty later that year with Red Cloud Led by same party as Ft Laramie Treaty later that year with Red Cloud Proposed Plan- Plan included Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, and Prairie Apache Plan included Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, and Prairie Apache Would share reservation south of Arkansas River Would share reservation south of Arkansas River Government would provide Government would provide Cattle, crop seed, farm equipment Cattle, crop seed, farm equipment

22 Medicine Lodge Creek Council- 60 miles south of Ft Larned 60 miles south of Ft Larned To be held in early October To be held in early October William Bent sent to camps as emissary William Bent sent to camps as emissary Black Kettle, Little Raven, Ten Bears Black Kettle, Little Raven, Ten Bears All agree to come All agree to come Dog Soldiers and Roman Nose Dog Soldiers and Roman Nose Refused to attend if Sherman was present Refused to attend if Sherman was present

23 Bent Knew Roman Nose was Key- Cheyenne would not agree to peace without him Cheyenne would not agree to peace without him Bent sent in Edmond Guerrier Bent sent in Edmond Guerrier Married to Bent’s sister Married to Bent’s sister Roman Nose was married to Guerrier’s cousin Roman Nose was married to Guerrier’s cousin Guerrier had survived Sand Creek Guerrier had survived Sand Creek Roman Nose finally agreed…sort of Roman Nose finally agreed…sort of Would camp on Cimarron Would camp on Cimarron If things looked OK he would come to council If things looked OK he would come to council

24 THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN… Dog Soldier Camp Fort Larned Cimmaron Council Site

25 Medicine Lodge Creek Council- Began October 16 Began October 16 All chiefs present All chiefs present Roman Nose had runners to keep him informed Roman Nose had runners to keep him informed October 21 October 21 Kiowa and Comanche signed Kiowa and Comanche signed Black Kettle would not Black Kettle would not Wanted more Cheyenne chiefs there Wanted more Cheyenne chiefs there Arapaho would not sign until Cheyenne did Arapaho would not sign until Cheyenne did

26 Council at a Stand Still- Black Kettle and Little Robe went to bring in Dog Soldiers Black Kettle and Little Robe went to bring in Dog Soldiers Took almost a week for Roman Nose and Dog Soldiers to agree to come Took almost a week for Roman Nose and Dog Soldiers to agree to come Enter Council with a show Enter Council with a show Page 161 Page 161

27 Council at a Stand Still- Bull Bear and White Horse initially refused to sign Bull Bear and White Horse initially refused to sign Wanted to share region Wanted to share region Needed hunting grounds Needed hunting grounds Bent said it was not possible Bent said it was not possible Finally, treaty was signed Finally, treaty was signed Cheyenne and Arapaho agreed to country south of Arkansas River Cheyenne and Arapaho agreed to country south of Arkansas River Roman Nose did not sign Roman Nose did not sign Took 400 warriors north Took 400 warriors north

28 Winter of Cheyenne and Arapaho camped near Ft Larned Cheyenne and Arapaho camped near Ft Larned Hunting had provided food for winter Hunting had provided food for winter Food shortage began in Spring Food shortage began in Spring Winter of Provisions promised were not available Provisions promised were not available Treaty had not been ratified Treaty had not been ratified Wynkoop did not even have ammunition to give for hunting Wynkoop did not even have ammunition to give for hunting

29 Spring Small bands begin moving Small bands begin moving Head north to Smoky Mtn hunting grounds Head north to Smoky Mtn hunting grounds Tall Bull, White Horse, Bull Bear Tall Bull, White Horse, Bull Bear Gave into Dog Soldiers and moved north of Arkansas River Gave into Dog Soldiers and moved north of Arkansas River Spring Wynkoop asked Black Kettle to stop the others from leaving Wynkoop asked Black Kettle to stop the others from leaving Council held Council held Met with new CO Gen Philip Sheridan Met with new CO Gen Philip Sheridan

30 Spring Gen Sheridan offered ammo and guns Gen Sheridan offered ammo and guns Warned if used against U.S., Indians would be hunted and killed Warned if used against U.S., Indians would be hunted and killed Bands nervous Bands nervous Lots of new soldiers in area Lots of new soldiers in area Warriors were north hunting Warriors were north hunting August Cheyenne and Arapaho hunters Cheyenne and Arapaho hunters Camped along Arikaree River Camped along Arikaree River Fork of Republican Fork of Republican

31 August Roman Nose and others warned Roman Nose and others warned Gen Sheridan sent out scouting parties Gen Sheridan sent out scouting parties Instructed to hunt down Indian camps Instructed to hunt down Indian camps Warnings ignored Warnings ignored Too busy hunting for winter Too busy hunting for winter September Pawnee Killer reports scout party of 50 Pawnee Killer reports scout party of 50 Only 20 miles from Roman Nose’s camp Only 20 miles from Roman Nose’s camp Special scout party Special scout party Forsyth’s Scouts Forsyth’s Scouts

32 THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN… Arikaree River Fort Larned

33 September War party organized to attack scouts War party organized to attack scouts Roman Nose did not take part Roman Nose did not take part In midst of purification ceremony In midst of purification ceremony September Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho warriors go on Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho warriors go on Instructed to attack as one body Instructed to attack as one body Six young warriors ignored order Six young warriors ignored order Wanted to scatter horse herd Wanted to scatter horse herd

34 September Only captured a few ponies Only captured a few ponies Allowed soldiers to escape Allowed soldiers to escape Dug in on island in Arikaree Dug in on island in Arikaree September Warriors unable to make charge on island Warriors unable to make charge on island Spent day circling island Spent day circling island Killing soldier ponies Killing soldier ponies Soldiers used the dead horses for protection Soldiers used the dead horses for protection

35 September Roman Nose joined warriors that afternoon Roman Nose joined warriors that afternoon Knew he would die that day Knew he would die that day Prepared himself for battle and death Prepared himself for battle and death September Led charge on Scouts Led charge on Scouts Indian front line shot down Indian front line shot down Roman Nose caught in crossfire Roman Nose caught in crossfire Shot through hip and severs spine Shot through hip and severs spine

36 September Roman Nose laid in brush until dark Roman Nose laid in brush until dark Crawled to party searching for him Crawled to party searching for him Taken to camp Taken to camp Women there tending to wounded Women there tending to wounded Roman Nose died that night Roman Nose died that night September Roman Nose’s death deflated warriors Roman Nose’s death deflated warriors Held scouts under siege for 8 days Held scouts under siege for 8 days Saved by relief column of soldiers Saved by relief column of soldiers

37 September Among whites became known as Among whites became known as Battle of Beecher’s Island Battle of Beecher’s Island Among Cheyenne Among Cheyenne Fight When Roman Nose Was Killed Fight When Roman Nose Was Killed Fall Remaining Cheyenne returned south Remaining Cheyenne returned south Joined Black Kettle below Arkansas River Joined Black Kettle below Arkansas River

38 Fall/Winter Gen Sheridan makes plans Gen Sheridan makes plans Will lead a winter campaign Will lead a winter campaign Hunt and kill all “savage” Indians Hunt and kill all “savage” Indians Savage was any that resisted when fired upon Savage was any that resisted when fired upon Winter Black Kettle set up camp Black Kettle set up camp Washita River Washita River Scolded returning people, but welcomed them back Scolded returning people, but welcomed them back

39 Winter Reports of soldiers reached Black Kettle Reports of soldiers reached Black Kettle Went to new agency at Ft Cobb Went to new agency at Ft Cobb Asked Gen William Hazen for permission to move camp to Ft Cobb Asked Gen William Hazen for permission to move camp to Ft Cobb Wanted protection Wanted protection Request denied Request denied Gen Hazen instructed Black Kettle back to camp Gen Hazen instructed Black Kettle back to camp Assured Black Kettle all would be OK Assured Black Kettle all would be OK Gen Hazen knew of Sheridan’s plan Gen Hazen knew of Sheridan’s plan

40 THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN… Black Kettle’s Camp on the Washita River Fort Cobb

41 Winter Black Kettle returned to village dejected Black Kettle returned to village dejected Called for council Called for council Would not let Cheyenne experience another Sand Creek Would not let Cheyenne experience another Sand Creek Planned to take delegation to meet soldiers Planned to take delegation to meet soldiers

42 Winter Blizzard forces Black Kettle to wait until next day to leave Blizzard forces Black Kettle to wait until next day to leave Awoke next morning Awoke next morning Screams of “Soldiers!” through camp Screams of “Soldiers!” through camp Washita Massacre- Black Kettle ran back into lodge and grabbed rifle Black Kettle ran back into lodge and grabbed rifle Shot into air to awaken camp and give orders Shot into air to awaken camp and give orders He WOULD NOT let Sand Creek happen again He WOULD NOT let Sand Creek happen again

43 Washita Massacre- Soldiers surprised camp Soldiers surprised camp Led by Custer Led by Custer Snow muffled horse hooves Snow muffled horse hooves Fog concealed soldiers Fog concealed soldiers Washita Massacre- Black Kettle still wanted to talk to soldiers Black Kettle still wanted to talk to soldiers Custer’s men came from all four directions Custer’s men came from all four directions Black Kettle knew he would not be able to talk peace Black Kettle knew he would not be able to talk peace

44 Washita Massacre- Grabbed wife and mounted pony Grabbed wife and mounted pony Gave sign of peace to charging soldiers Gave sign of peace to charging soldiers Black Kettle shot in stomach and back Black Kettle shot in stomach and back Died in the snow Died in the snow Wife also shot and killed Wife also shot and killed

45 Washita Massacre- Custer was under commands from Sheridan Custer was under commands from Sheridan Find village Find village Destroy village and ponies Destroy village and ponies Kill or hang all warriors Kill or hang all warriors Take women and children as prisoners Take women and children as prisoners

46 Washita Massacre- Entire raid took minutes Entire raid took minutes Custer’s men then corralled ponies Custer’s men then corralled ponies Killed hundreds Killed hundreds To separate old men from warriors was too tedious for Custer and his men To separate old men from warriors was too tedious for Custer and his men Began killing men indiscriminately Began killing men indiscriminately Washita Massacre- 103 Cheyenne killed 103 Cheyenne killed Only 11 were warriors Only 11 were warriors 53 women and children taken prisoner 53 women and children taken prisoner

47 Washita Massacre- News of fight spread downriver News of fight spread downriver Arapaho helped Cheyenne rearguard Arapaho helped Cheyenne rearguard Surrounded pursuit platoon led by Mjr Joel Elliott Surrounded pursuit platoon led by Mjr Joel Elliott Warriors killed all 19 soldiers Warriors killed all 19 soldiers Washita Massacre- By noon, Kiowa and Comanche had joined By noon, Kiowa and Comanche had joined Custer retreated to base at Camp Supply Custer retreated to base at Camp Supply On Canadian River On Canadian River Forced his men and prisoners to march through weather Forced his men and prisoners to march through weather

48 Washita Massacre- Gen Sheridan welcomed Custer to camp Gen Sheridan welcomed Custer to camp Custer entered waving scalps of dead “savages” Custer entered waving scalps of dead “savages” Black Kettle’s among the trophies Black Kettle’s among the trophies Custer publicly commended Custer publicly commended Washita Massacre- Gen Sheridan boasts on pg 169 Gen Sheridan boasts on pg 169

49 Washita Massacre- Wynkoop had resigned in protest Wynkoop had resigned in protest Living in Philadelphia Living in Philadelphia Publicly criticized Sherman’s policy Publicly criticized Sherman’s policy Other joined Wynkoop Other joined Wynkoop Washita Massacre- Gen Sherman supported Sheridan Gen Sherman supported Sheridan Gave order to continue killing hostiles and ponies Gave order to continue killing hostiles and ponies Other tribes ordered to surrender or perish Other tribes ordered to surrender or perish Report to Custer at Ft Cobb Report to Custer at Ft Cobb

50 Washita Massacre- Little Robe became Cheyenne leader Little Robe became Cheyenne leader Survivors walked to Ft Cobb Survivors walked to Ft Cobb In December In December Starving to point of eating their dogs Starving to point of eating their dogs Surrendered unconditionally Surrendered unconditionally Washita Massacre- Others followed Others followed Yellow Bear and Arapaho Yellow Bear and Arapaho Tosawi and Comanche Tosawi and Comanche

51 Split Again- Spring 1869 tribes assigned to agencies Spring 1869 tribes assigned to agencies Comanche and Kiowa Comanche and Kiowa Sent to Ft Sill Sent to Ft Sill Cheyenne and Arapaho Cheyenne and Arapaho Send to Camp Supply Send to Camp Supply Split Again- Little Robe and Tall Bull fight Little Robe and Tall Bull fight Blame each other for events Blame each other for events Tall Bull and Dog Soldiers go north Tall Bull and Dog Soldiers go north Join Sioux and Northern Cheyenne Join Sioux and Northern Cheyenne

52 Split Again- Tall Bull pursued by U.S. Tall Bull pursued by U.S. Managed to evade U.S. until summer Managed to evade U.S. until summer Camp found by Pawnee mercenaries Camp found by Pawnee mercenaries All but Tall Bull’s wife and child killed All but Tall Bull’s wife and child killed Split Again- At the end of hostilities At the end of hostilities Black Kettle, Roman Nose, Tall Bull dead Black Kettle, Roman Nose, Tall Bull dead Cheyenne lost home in Colorado and exiled to Oklahoma Cheyenne lost home in Colorado and exiled to Oklahoma

53 THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN…


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